Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 17 de 17
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 771464, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899795

RESUMO

Changes in the chemical environment at the maturation stage in Pinus spp. somatic embryogenesis will be a determinant factor in the conversion of somatic embryos to plantlets. Furthermore, the study of biochemical and morphological aspects of the somatic embryos could enable the improvement of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus spp. In the present work, the influence of different amino acid combinations, carbohydrate sources, and concentrations at the maturation stage of Pinus radiata D. Don and Pinus halepensis Mill. was analyzed. In P. radiata, the maturation medium supplemented with 175 mM of sucrose and an increase in the amino acid mixture (1,100 mgL-1 of L-glutamine, 1,050 mgL-1 of L-asparagine, 350 mgL-1 of L-arginine, and 35 mgL-1 of L-proline) promoted bigger embryos, with a larger stem diameter and an increase in the number of roots in the germinated somatic embryos, improving the acclimatization success of this species. In P. halepensis, the maturation medium supplemented with 175 mM of maltose improved the germination of somatic embryos. The increase in the amount of amino acids in the maturation medium increased the levels of putrescine in the germinated somatic embryos of P. halepensis. We detected significant differences in the amounts of polyamines between somatic plantlets of P. radiata and P. halepensis; putrescine was less abundant in both species. For the first time, in P. radiata and P. halepensis somatic embryogenesis, we detected the presence of cadaverine, and its concentration changed according to the species.

2.
Physiol Plant ; 169(2): 258-275, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065665

RESUMO

Seed physiology of wild species has not been studied as deeply as that of domesticated crop species. Trichocline catharinensis (Asteraceae) is an endemic wildflower species from the high-altitude fields of southern Brazil. This species is of interest as a source of genes to improve cultivated Asteraceae because of its ornamental features, disease resistance and ability to tolerate drought and poor soil conditions. We studied the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3 ) and their inhibitors, fluridone (FLU) and paclobutrazol (PAC), on seed germination. We individually assessed ultrastructural changes and differential protein accumulation. The principal component analysis explained 69.66% of differential accumulation for 32 proteins at phase II of seed germination in response to hormone and inhibitor treatment. GA3 -imbibed seed germination (98.75%) resulted in increased protein accumulation to meet energy demand, redox regulation, and reserve metabolism activation. FLU-imbibed seeds showed a higher germination speed index as a consequence of metabolism activation. ABA-imbibed seeds (58.75%) showed osmotolerance and flattened cells in the hypocotyl-radicular axis, suggesting that ABA inhibits cell expansion. PAC-imbibed seeds remained at phase II for 300 h, and germination was suppressed (7.5%) because of the increased signaling proteins and halted reserve mobilization. Therefore, our findings provide insight into the behavior of Asteraceae non-dormant seed germination, which broadens our knowledge of seed germination in a wild and endemic plant species from a threatened ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Asteraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia
3.
Protoplasma ; 257(3): 931-948, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950285

RESUMO

This study addresses gaps in our understanding of pre-fertilization and archegonia development and reinterprets embryonic ontogenesis from Burlingame (Bot Gaz 59:1-39, 1915) to the present based on timescale and structural features allowing us to determine functionally and developmentally accurate terminology for all these stages in A. angustifolia. Different from previous reports, only after pollination, pre-fertilization tissue development occurs (0-13 months after pollination (MAP)) and gives rise to a mature megagametophyte. During all this period, pollen is in a dormant state at the microphyla, and pollen tube germination in nucellus tissue is only observed at the stage of archegonia formation (13 MAP) and not at the free nuclei stage as reported before. For the first time, 14 months after pollination, a fertilization window was indicated, and at 15 MAP, the polyzygotic polyembryony from different archegonia was also seen. After that, subordinated proembryo regression occurs and at least three embryonic developmental stages of dominant embryo were characterized: proembryogenic, early embryogenic, and late embryogenic (15-23 MAP). Along these stages, histochemical and ultrastructural analyses suggest the occurrence of cell death in suspensor and in cap cells of dominant embryo that was not previously reported. The differentiation of meristems, procambium, pith, and cortex tissues in late embryogenic stage was detailed. The morphohistological characterization of pre-fertilization and embryonic stages, together with the timescale of megastrobili development, warranted a referential map of female reproductive structure in this species.


Assuntos
Araucaria/química , Pólen/embriologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
4.
Protoplasma ; 256(6): 1495-1506, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144034

RESUMO

This is the first study to describe in a timescale morphohistological and ultrastructural characteristics of fruit (cypsela) and seed development in Trichocline catharinensis, which was completed 21 days after anthesis (DAA). At anthesis, we identified an ovary with three differentiated regions, including the inner epidermis, inner part, and outer epidermis. The mature ovule showed an integument with the outer epidermis, integumentary parenchyma, and endothelium. Cells around the endothelium form the periendothelial zone with thick cell walls that showed Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive reaction. The periendothelial zone and endothelium showed degradation of the cells during embryogenesis. The main stages of embryo development from fecundation through mature seed were identified. The ripe cypsela showed the pericarp (exocarp), seed coat (exotesta), and remaining endosperm surrounding the embryo. Mature embryos were straight with shoot apical meristem (SAM), and root apical meristem (RAM) was separated by the hypocotyl. Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses indicate cells with characteristics of meristem cells, as well as proteins and lipid bodies and mitochondria with few cristae in cotyledon cells. Our findings provide insight into taxonomic and physiological studies by detailing cypsela and seed ontogenesis from an endemic and vulnerable Asteraceae from southern Brazil. This study is also a starting point for establishing the biological criteria for seed harvesting and future studies of seed physiology and conservation of plant genetic resource.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Brasil
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 2004, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705684

RESUMO

Climate change will inevitably lead to environmental variations, thus plant drought tolerance will be a determinant factor in the success of plantations and natural forestry recovery. Some metabolites, such as soluble carbohydrates and amino acids, have been described as being the key to both embryogenesis efficiency and abiotic stress response, contributing to phenotypic plasticity and the adaptive capacity of plants. For this reason, our main objectives were to evaluate if the temperature during embryonal mass initiation in radiata pine was critical to the success of somatic embryogenesis, to alter the morphological and ultrastructural organization of embryonal masses at cellular level and to modify the carbohydrate, protein, or amino acid contents. The first SE initiation experiments were carried out at moderate and high temperatures for periods of different durations prior to transfer to the control temperature of 23°C. Cultures initiated at moderate temperatures (30°C, 4 weeks and 40°C, 4 days) showed significantly lower initiation and proliferation rates than those at the control temperature or pulse treatment at high temperatures (50°C, 5 min). No significant differences were observed either for the percentage of embryogenic cell lines that produced somatic embryos, or for the number of somatic embryos per gram of embryonal mass. Based on the results from the first experiments, initiation was carried out at 40°C 4 h; 50°C, 30 min; and a pulse treatment of 60°C, 5 min. No significant differences were found for the initiation or number of established lines or for the maturation of somatic embryos. However, large morphological differences were observed in the mature somatic embryos. At the same time, changes observed at cellular level suggested that strong heat shock treatments may trigger the programmed cell death of embryogenic cells, leading to an early loss of embryogenic potential, and the formation of supernumerary suspensor cells. Finally, among all the differences observed in the metabolic profile, it is worth highlighting the accumulation of tyrosine and isoleucine, both amino acids involved in the synthesis of abiotic stress response-related secondary metabolites.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1359: 439-50, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26619879

RESUMO

This chapter deals with the features of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Araucaria angustifolia, an endangered and native conifer from south Brazil. In this species SE includes the induction and proliferation of embryogenic cultures composed of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs), which precede somatic embryos development. A. angustifolia SE model encompasses induction, proliferation, pre-maturation, and maturation steps. Double-staining with acetocarmine and Evan's blue is useful to evaluate the embryonic somatic structures. In this chapter we describe A. angustifolia SE protocols and analyzes morphological features in the different SE developmental stages.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Traqueófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traqueófitas/genética
8.
Protoplasma ; 253(2): 487-501, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968333

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis is a morphogenetic route useful for the study of embryonic development, as well as the large-scale propagation of endangered species, such as the Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia). In the present study, we investigated the morphological and ultrastructural organization of A. angustifolia somatic embryo development by means of optical and electron microscopy. The proembryogenic stage was characterized by the proliferation of proembryogenic masses (PEMs), which are cellular aggregates composed of embryogenic cells (ECs) attached to suspensor-like cells (SCs). PEMs proliferate through three developmental stages, PEM I, II, and III, by changes in the number of ECs and SCs. PEM III-to-early somatic embryo (SE) transition was characterized by compact clusters of ECs growing out of PEM III, albeit still connected to it by SCs. Early SEs showed a dense globular embryonic mass (EM) and suspensor region (SR) connected by embryonic tube cells (TCs). By comparison, early somatic and zygotic embryos showed similar morphology. ECs are round with a large nucleus, nucleoli, and many cytoplasmic organelles. In contrast, TCs and SCs are elongated and vacuolated with cellular dismantling which is associated with programmed cell death of SCs. Abundant starch grains were observed in the TCs and SCs, while proteins were more abundant in the ECs. Based on the results of this study, a fate map of SE development in A. angustifolia is, for the first time, proposed. Additionally, this study shows the cell biology of SE development of this primitive gymnosperm which may be useful in evolutionary studies in this area.


Assuntos
Sementes/ultraestrutura , Árvores/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Cultura , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Photochem Photobiol ; 91(2): 359-70, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25443444

RESUMO

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and copper (Cu) on apical segments of Pterocladiella capillacea was examined under two different conditions of radiation, PAR (control) and PAR+UVA+UVB (PAR+UVAB), and three copper concentrations, ranging from 0 (control) to 0.62, 1.25 and 2.50 µm. Algae were exposed in vitro to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 70 µmol photons m(-2)  s(-1) , PAR + UVB at 0.35 W m(-2) and PAR +UVA at 0.70 W m(-2) during a 12-h photocycle for 3 h each day for 7 days. The effects of radiation and copper on growth rates, content of photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic performance were analyzed. In addition, samples were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased after exposure to radiation and Cu. Compared with PAR radiation and copper treatments modified the kinetics patterns of the photosynthesis/irradiance curve. The treatments also caused changes in the ultrastructure of cortical and subcortical cells, including increased cell wall thickness and accumulation of plastoglobuli, as well as changes in the organization of chloroplasts. The results indicate that the synergistic interaction between UV radiation and Cu in P. capillacea, led to the failure of protective mechanisms and causing more drastic changes and cellular imbalances.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Cobre/toxicidade , Fótons , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Rodófitas/efeitos da radiação , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Clorofila/biossíntese , Clorofila A , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fotoperíodo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Ficobiliproteínas/biossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Rodófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rodófitas/fisiologia , Rodófitas/ultraestrutura , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Microsc Microanal ; 20(5): 1411-24, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24983815

RESUMO

The in vitro effect of cadmium (Cd) on apical segments of Pterocladiella capillacea was examined. Over a period of 7 days, the segments were cultivated with the combination of different salinities (25, 35, and 45 practical salinity units) and Cd concentrations, ranging from 0.17 to 0.70 ppm. The effects of Cd on growth rates and content of photosynthetic pigments were analyzed. In addition, metabolic profiling was performed, and samples were processed for microscopy. Serious damage to physiological performance and ultrastructure was observed under different combinations of Cd concentrations and salinity values. Elementary infrared spectroscopy revealed toxic effects registered on growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast, and mitochondria organization, as well as changes in lipids and carbohydrates. These alterations in physiology and ultrastructure were, however, coupled to activation of such defense mechanisms as cell wall thickness, reduction of photosynthetic harvesting complex, and flavonoid. In conclusion, P. capillacea is especially sensitive to Cd stress when intermediate concentrations of this pollutant are associated with low salinity values. Such conditions resulted in metabolic compromise, reduction of primary productivity, i.e., photosynthesis, and carbohydrate accumulation in the form of starch granules. Taken together, these findings improve our understanding of the potential impact of this metal in the natural environment.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Rodófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rodófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metaboloma , Microscopia , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Rodófitas/química , Rodófitas/citologia , Salinidade , Análise Espectral
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 86(4): 2057-64, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25590740

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish a cryopreservation protocol for embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia, enabling the ex situ conservation of the species. Embryogenic cultures were established from immature seeds and treated with variations of the cryoprotectant solutions SuDG, SoD and PVS2 prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen. Cell viability was evaluated after 30, 60 and 90 days of re-growth. The highest re-growth without morphological alterations and with normal biochemical composition was obtained with the PVS2 solution with 40 min immersion in ethanol (-20 °C). This procedure opens new horizons for the ex situ conservation of the species genetic.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Traqueófitas/embriologia
12.
Physiol Plant ; 148(1): 121-32, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22998677

RESUMO

Polyamines (PAs) are abundant polycationic compounds involved in many physiological processes in plants, including somatic embryogenesis. This study investigates the role of PAs on cellular growth and structure of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs), endogenous PA and proton pump activities in embryogenic suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia. The embryogenic suspension cultures were incubated with putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and the inhibitor methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), respectively (1 mM). After 24 h and 21 days, the cellular growth and structure of PEMs, endogenous PA contents and proton pump activities were analyzed. The addition of Spm reduced the cellular growth and promoted the development of PEMs in embryogenic cultures, which could be associated with a reduction in the activities of proton pumps, such as H(+) -ATPase P- and V-types and H(+) -PPases, and alterations in the endogenous PA contents. Spm significantly affected the physiology of the A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis suspension, as it potentially affects cellular growth and structure of PEMs through the modulation of proton pump activities. This work demonstrates the involvement of exogenous PAs in the modulation of cellular growth and structure of PEMs, endogenous PA levels and proton pump activities during somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a relationship between PAs and proton pump activities in these processes. The results obtained in this study offer new perspectives for studies addressing the role of PAs and proton pump on somatic embryogenesis in this species.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Traqueófitas/embriologia , Traqueófitas/metabolismo , Traqueófitas/citologia
13.
Protoplasma ; 250(3): 731-9, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23014896

RESUMO

Araucaria angustifolia, the Brazilian pine, is an endangered native conifer with economic and ecological importance. The female cone develops seeds containing the zygotic embryo, which, at cotyledonary stage, shows well-developed meristems. Little is known about the structure of gymnosperm meristems. In the present work, the composition and morphological organization of Araucaria angustifolia shoot and root apical meristems were studied during embryo development, using histochemical and microscope analyses. Histochemical evaluation revealed the presence of cellulose within the cell wall, cells with the presence of total proteins that react with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, starch grains, and large nuclei with evident nucleoli in the cytoplasm. Scanning electron microscopy showed apical meristem surface morphology, and both scanning and transmission microscopy revealed a thin and irregular cell wall with plasmodesmata and within the cells, mitochondria, many vacuoles, lipid bodies, Golgi bodies, and many amyloplasts with endoplasmic reticulum surrounding them and large nuclei. Similar to angiosperm cells, A. angustifolia meristem cells exhibit pluripotent characteristics, such as apparatus for intercellular communication and differentiation.


Assuntos
Meristema/ultraestrutura , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Traqueófitas/ultraestrutura , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Meristema/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Sementes/citologia , Amido/metabolismo , Traqueófitas/citologia
14.
Protoplasma ; 250(4): 911-8, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23263687

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe the dehydrin content of mature Araucaria angustifolia embryos, a species of endangered and economically important conifers, native to southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and eastern Paraguay. The A. angustifolia seeds have been categorized as recalcitrant. Dehydrins were studied by western blot analysis and in situ immunolocalization microscopy using antibodies raised against the K segment, a highly conserved lysine-rich 15-amino acid sequence extensively used to recognize proteins immunologically related to the dehydrin family. Western blot analysis of the heat-stable protein fraction, as estimated by 15 % SDS-PAGE, revealed three main bands of approximately 20-, 26-, and 29-kDa; when 17.5 % SDS-PAGE was used, each band resolved into two other bands. Two thermosensitive dehydrin bands of around 16 and 35 kDa were common to the axis and cotyledons, and another thermosensitive band, with molecular mass of approximately 10 kDa, was present in the cotyledons only. Following alkaline phosphatase (AP) treatment, a gel mobility shift was detected for each one of the four main bands that can be due to phosphorylation. Dehydrins were detected in all axis and cotyledon tissues using in situ immunolocalization microscopy. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were immunolocalized in the nuclei, protein bodies, and microbodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were found to be associated with chromatin. We concluded that the gel mobility shift for the four main bands (probably due to phosphorylation), the presence of thermosensitive bands, and the specific localizations in nuclei and protein bodies provide key starting points to understand the function of dehydrins in the embryo cells of this species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Traqueófitas/química , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Traqueófitas/metabolismo
15.
Plant Sci ; 195: 80-7, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22921001

RESUMO

In this work, it was observed a straight relationship between the manipulation of the reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, nitric oxide emission and quality and number of early somatic embryos in Araucaria angustifolia, a Brazilian endangered native conifer. In low concentrations GSH (0.01 and 0.1mM) is a potential NO scavenger in the culture medium. Furthermore, it can increase the number of early SE formed in cell suspension culture media in a few days. However, the maintenance in this low redox state lead to a loss of early somatic embryos polarization. In gelled culture medium, high levels of GSH (5mM) allows the development of globular embryos presenting a high NO emission on embryo apex, stressing its importance in the differentiation and cell division. Taken together these results indicate that the modification of the embryogenic cultures redox state might be an effective strategy to develop more efficient embryogenic systems in A. angustifolia.


Assuntos
Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traqueófitas/embriologia , Brasil , Divisão Celular , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Oxirredução , Sementes/metabolismo , Traqueófitas/metabolismo
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 53(3): 497-504, May-June 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-548568

RESUMO

Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were established in a BM liquid medium supplemented with 2 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1 µM 6-benzylaminopurine and 1 µM kinetin (BM2) and in a BM medium free of growth regulators (BM0). During 42 days in culture, the cell growth pattern of both cultures was similar. The pH of the culture medium of both BM0 and BM2 underwent progressive reduction during culture time. For both the embryogenic cultures a preferential uptake of glucose in the late stages of cell growth kinetics was observed. The extracellular protein content was similar for both the embryogenic cultures. Acetocarmine and Evan's blue double stain showed major differences for early somatic embryo organisation, in which only the embryogenic culture grown in a liquid culture medium free of plant growth regulators showed the presence of bipolar somatic pro-embryos.


Culturas embriogênicas de Araucaria angustifolia foram estabelecidas em meio de cultura líquido BM suplementado com 2 µM Ácido 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético, 1 µM 6-Benzilaminopurina e 1 µM Cinetina (BM2) e em meio BM isento de reguladores de crescimento (BM0). Durante 42 dias de cultivo, o padrão de crescimento celular em ambas as culturas foi similar. O pH do meio de cultura BM0 e BM2 sofreu uma progressiva redução durante o período de cultivo. Em ambas as culturas embriogênicas foram observadas um consumo preferencial de glicose no período final da curva de crescimento celular. O nível de proteínas extracelulares foi similar para ambas as culturas embriogênicas. A dupla coloração com carmin acético e azul de Evans revelou diferenças na organização das linhagens celulares embriogênicas, sendo que a presença de proembriões somáticos bipolares foi apenas evidenciada nas culturas embriogênicas mantidas em meio de cultura líquido sem reguladores de crescimento.

17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 48(6): 895-903, Nov. 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-420439

RESUMO

No presente trabalho foram investigadas as condições para a indução, estabilização e proliferação de culturas embriogênicas de A. angustifolia. Foram também descritos os padrões de morfogênese e histodiferenciação de culturas embriogênicas e embriões somáticos desta espécie em resposta a diferentes fontes e concentrações de carboidratos. Embriões zigóticos no estágio pré-cotiledonar, inoculados em meio de cultura BM, suplementados com 5 µM de 2,4-D, 2 µM de BAP e Kin e 3% de maltose ou sacarose resultaram em uma taxa de indução de 66,7%. A fonte de carbono afetou a taxa de indução, a multiplicação e a morfologia das culturas. Culturas embriogênicas mantidas em meio de cultura BM suplementado com maltose apresentaram morfologia bipolar. Embriões somáticos globulares foram obtidos em meio de cultura BM suplementado com PEG e maltose. Os resultados obtidos permitirão avançar na direção de um protocolo regenerativo in vitro visando à conservação e o melhoramento genético desta espécie.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...