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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1135-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282336

RESUMO

Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Int Urogynecol J ; 32(7): 1847-1855, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938963

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: To study the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction and related bother in primiparous women 6-10 weeks postpartum, comparing vaginal and cesarean delivery. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 721 mothers with singleton births in Reykjavik, Iceland, 2015 to 2017, using an electronic questionnaire. Information on urinary and anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and sexual dysfunction with related bother (trouble, nuisance, worry, annoyance) was collected. Main outcome measures were prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction and related bother. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of urinary and anal incontinence was 48% and 60%, respectively. Bother regarding urinary symptoms was experienced by 27% and for anal symptoms by 56%. Pelvic organ prolapse was noted by 29%, with less than half finding this bothersome. Fifty-five percent were sexually active, of whom 66% reported coital pain. Of all the women, 48% considered sexual issues bothersome. Urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse were more prevalent in women who delivered vaginally compared to cesarean section, but no differences were observed for anal incontinence and coital pain. Compared to women with BMI < 25, obesity was a predictor for urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.20-3.14). Birthweight > 50th percentile was predictive for urgency incontinence after vaginal delivery (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.05-2.21). Episiotomy predicted more anal incontinence (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.30-3.67). No associations between maternal and delivery characteristics were found for pelvic floor dysfunction after cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: Bothersome pelvic floor dysfunction symptoms are prevalent among first-time mothers in the immediate postpartum period.


Assuntos
Incontinência Fecal , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Diafragma da Pelve , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/etiologia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
3.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 27-34, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414551

RESUMO

Despite the important role that monozygotic twins have played in genetics research, little is known about their genomic differences. Here we show that monozygotic twins differ on average by 5.2 early developmental mutations and that approximately 15% of monozygotic twins have a substantial number of these early developmental mutations specific to one of them. Using the parents and offspring of twins, we identified pre-twinning mutations. We observed instances where a twin was formed from a single cell lineage in the pre-twinning cell mass and instances where a twin was formed from several cell lineages. CpG>TpG mutations increased in frequency with embryonic development, coinciding with an increase in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that allocations of cells during development shapes genomic differences between monozygotic twins.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Mutação/genética , Zigoto/metabolismo
4.
Laeknabladid ; 106(12): 581-589, 2020.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system which affects young people, especially women. The aim of the study was to examine the disease profile of MS during pregnancy and postpartum as well as pregnancy outcomes in women with MS compared to a control group. Such a study has not been conducted in Iceland before. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital based retrospective study with data from the Icelandic Medical Birth Register and medical records from Landspitali University Hospital including women with MS diagnosis during 2009-2018 and their deliveries through 1999-2018, a total of 91 women and 137 births. RESULTS: Relapse frequency decreased during pregnancy compared to the preceding year. Over half of the women received disease modifying drugs before pregnancy, all stopped treatment before or shortly after conception. Women in the study group underwent cesarean sections before labor more frequently than the control group. The gestational length was comparable between the groups when labor was spontaneous. The numbers of heavy- and lightweight newborns as well as Apgar scores were alike in both groups. CONCLUSION: We believe that our study reflects actual pregnancy outcome among Icelandic women with MS and our results show that their pregnancies and deliveries do not differ in any major aspect from the general population. Our findings agree with previous studies in that pregnancy protects against MS relapses although in our study this is confined to the first and second trimester.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2618-2628, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702746

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore whether variability in dietary cholesterol and phytosterol absorption impacts the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) using as instruments sequence variants in the ABCG5/8 genes, key regulators of intestinal absorption of dietary sterols. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of ABCG5/8 variants on non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (N up to 610 532) and phytosterol levels (N = 3039) and the risk of CAD in Iceland, Denmark, and the UK Biobank (105 490 cases and 844 025 controls). We used genetic scores for non-HDL cholesterol to determine whether ABCG5/8 variants confer greater risk of CAD than predicted by their effect on non-HDL cholesterol. We identified nine rare ABCG5/8 coding variants with substantial impact on non-HDL cholesterol. Carriers have elevated phytosterol levels and are at increased risk of CAD. Consistent with impact on ABCG5/8 transporter function in hepatocytes, eight rare ABCG5/8 variants associate with gallstones. A genetic score of ABCG5/8 variants predicting 1 mmol/L increase in non-HDL cholesterol associates with two-fold increase in CAD risk [odds ratio (OR) = 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-2.31, P = 9.8 × 10-23] compared with a 54% increase in CAD risk (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.49-1.59, P = 1.1 × 10-154) associated with a score of other non-HDL cholesterol variants predicting the same increase in non-HDL cholesterol (P for difference in effects = 2.4 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in cholesterol absorption affects levels of circulating non-HDL cholesterol and risk of CAD. Our results indicate that both dietary cholesterol and phytosterols contribute directly to atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Fitosteróis , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Humanos , Islândia , Esteróis
6.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 34(1): 167-180, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although perinatal distress is acknowledged as a burdening condition for pregnant women, its effects on pregnancy are not well known. This study was conducted to increase knowledge regarding the effects of distress on pregnancy-related problems. The study also assessed women's need for sick leave and increased prenatal care due to distress, and the effects of weak social support and dissatisfaction with their partner relationships. METHODS: In total, 2523 women were screened for perinatal distress three times during pregnancy in this quantitative cohort study. Structured psychiatric interviews were conducted following the screening, with 562 of the participants. Data from participants' pregnancy records were also analysed. The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres in Iceland after receiving approval from the Icelandic National Bioethical Committee. The main outcome measures were pregnancy problems, sick leave issued and prenatal service needs. RESULTS: Data from 503 women were analysed. The perinatal distress group (PDG) was significantly more likely than was the nondistressed group (NDG) to experience fatigue, vomiting and pelvic pain after controlling for background variables. Distressed women who reported weak family support experienced symptoms of nausea and heartburn. The PDG needed more frequent prenatal care than did the NDG and was issued sick leave for up to 42 days longer. Dissatisfaction in the partner relationship and with the division of household tasks and childcare was strongly associated with distress, the development of complications and the need for sick leave. DISCUSSION: Identification of perinatal distress by midwives and other healthcare professionals is important, since distress may be linked to women's complaints of fatigue, vomiting, pelvic pain and need for prolonged sick leave, and additional prenatal care services will be needed. Perceived dissatisfaction in the partner relationship and with the division of household tasks should also form part of clinical practice and assistance provided.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , Complicações na Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais , Licença Médica , Apoio Social , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Gravidez
7.
Birth ; 47(1): 105-114, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of preterm births has been increasing globally, mainly due to a rise in iatrogenic late preterm births. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of preterm births in Iceland during 1997-2016 by type of preterm birth. METHODS: This study included all live births in Iceland during 1997-2016 identified from the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry. Risk of preterm birth by time period was assessed with Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic variables and indications for iatrogenic births. RESULTS: The study population included 87 076 infants, of which 4986 (5.7%) were preterm. The preterm birth rate increased from 5.3% to 6.1% (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = 1.16, confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.26) between 1997-2001 and 2012-2016 overall. The increase was only evident in multiples (ARR 1.41, 95% CI 1.21-1.65), not singletons (1.07, 0.97-1.19). The rate of late preterm births (34-36 weeks) increased significantly (1.24, 1.14-1.40), and the rate of iatrogenic preterm births more than doubled during this period even after adjustment for identified medical indications (2.40, 2.00-2.88). The rate of spontaneous preterm births decreased during the study period (0.63, 0.55-0.73), and the rate of PPROM increased (1.31, 1.09-1.57). The most common contributing indications for iatrogenic births were fetal distress (26.2%), hypertensive disorders (18.2%), and severe preeclampsia (16.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Preterm birth rates increased in multiples in Iceland between 1997 and 2016, and late and iatrogenic preterm births increased overall. The increase in iatrogenic preterm births remained significant after adjusting for medical indications, suggesting that other factors might be affecting the rise.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica/epidemiologia , Islândia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(3): 247.e1-247.e8, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pelvic floor dysfunction, including urinary and anal incontinence, is a common postpartum complaint and likely to reduce quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of individualized physical therapist-guided pelvic floor muscle training in the early postpartum period on urinary and anal incontinence and related bother, as well as pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an assessor-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial evaluating effects of pelvic floor muscle training by a physical therapist on the rate of urinary and/or anal leakage (primary outcomes); related bother and muscle strength and endurance in the pelvic floor were secondary outcomes. Between 2016 and 2017, primiparous women giving birth at Landspitali University Hospital in Reykjavik, Iceland, were screened for eligibilty 6-10 weeks after childbirth. Of those identified as urinary incontinent, 95 were invited to participate, of whom 84 agreed. The intervention, starting at ∼9 weeks postpartum consisted of 12 weekly sessions with a physical therapist, after which the main outcomes were assessed (endpoint, ∼6 months postpartum). Additional follow-up was conducted at ∼12 months postpartum. The control group received no instructions after the initial assessment. The Fisher exact test was used to test differences in the proportion of women with urinary and anal incontinence between the intervention and control groups, and independent-sample t tests were used for mean differences in muscle strength and endurance. Significance levels were set as α = 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 41 and 43 women were randomized to the intervention and control groups, respectively. Three participants and 1 participant withdrew from these respective groups. Measurement variables and main delivery outcomes were not different at recruitment. At the endpoint, urinary incontinence was less frequent in the intervention group, with 21 participants (57%) still symptomatic, compared to 31 controls (82%) (P = .03), as was bladder-related bother with 10 participants (27%) in the intervention vs 23 (60%) in the control group (P = .005). Anal incontinence was not influenced by pelvic floor muscle training (P = .33), nor was bowel-related bother (P = .82). The mean differences between groups in measured pelvic floor muscle strength changes at endpoint was 5 hPa (95% confidence interval, 2-8; P = .003), and for pelvic floor muscle endurance changes, 50 hPa/s (95% confidence interval, 23-77; P = .001), both in favor of the intervention group. The mean between-group differences for anal sphincter strength changes was 10 hPa (95% confidence interval, 2-18; P = .01) and for anal sphincter endurance changes 95 hPa/s (95% confidence interval, 16-173; P = .02), both in favor of the intervention. At the follow-up visit 12 months postpartum, no differences were observed between the groups regarding rates of urinary and anal incontinence and related bother. Pelvic floor- and anal muscle strength and endurance favoring the intervention group were maintained. CONCLUSION: Postpartum pelvic floor mucle training decreased the rate of urinary incontinence and related bother 6 months postpartum and increased muscle strength and endurance.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Incontinência Fecal/prevenção & controle , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Incontinência Urinária/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Incontinência Fecal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Gravidez , Método Simples-Cego , Incontinência Urinária/fisiopatologia
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226074, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To date, little is known about differences in the knowledge, diagnosis making and treatment strategies of health care providers regarding polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) across different disciplines in countries with similar health care systems. To inform guideline translation, we aimed to study physician reported awareness, diagnosis and management of PCOS and to explore differences between medical disciplines in the Nordic countries and Estonia. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 382 endocrinologists and obstetrician-gynaecologists in the Nordic countries and Estonia in 2015-2016. Of the participating physicians, 43% resided in Finland, 18% in Denmark, 16% in Norway, 13% in Estonia, and 10% in Sweden or Iceland, and 75% were obstetrician-gynaecologists. Multivariable logistic regression models were run to identify health care provider characteristics for awareness, diagnosis and treatment of PCOS. RESULTS: Clinical features, lifestyle management and comorbidity were commonly recognized in women with PCOS, while impairment in psychosocial wellbeing was not well acknowledged. Over two-thirds of the physicians used the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. Medical endocrinologists more often recommended lifestyle management (OR = 3.6, CI 1.6-8.1) or metformin (OR = 5.0, CI 2.5-10.2), but less frequently OCP (OR = 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9) for non-fertility concerns than general obstetrician-gynaecologists. The physicians aged <35 years were 2.2 times (95% CI 1.1-4.3) more likely than older physicians to recommend lifestyle management for patients with PCOS for fertility concerns. Physicians aged 46-55 years were less likely to recommend oral contraceptive pills (OCP) for patients with PCOS than physicians aged >56 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). CONCLUSION: Despite well-organized healthcare, awareness, diagnosis and management of PCOS is suboptimal, especially in relation to psychosocial comorbidities, among physicians in the Nordic countries and Estonia. Physicians need more education on PCOS and evidence-based information on Rotterdam diagnostic criteria, psychosocial features and treatment of PCOS, with the recently published international PCOS guideline well needed and welcomed.


Assuntos
Endocrinologistas/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Comorbidade , Anticoncepcionais Orais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Psicoterapia , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Laeknabladid ; 105(6): 267-275, 2019 06.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192789

RESUMO

ntroduction: To collect nationwide data in Iceland on pregnancy and its outcomes among female patients with active inflammatory arthritides we linked two registers, the ICEBIO register and the Icelandic Medical Birth Register. METHODS: We used multivariate analysis to evaluate the risk of preterm birth, Caesarean section, low Apgar score at 5-minutes and low birth weight among females with inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS)) in comparison with healthy controls matched on age and parity. We also investigated pregnancies before and after the diagnosis of respective rheumatic disease and especially in respect to treatment with TNFα inhibitors (TNFi). RESULTS: In the end of 2016, 723 female patients were registered in ICEBIO as they had received treatment with TNFi due to inflammatory arthritis. Of those, 412 women had given birth to 801 children, whereof 597 were delivered before confirmed diagnosis of the mother and 53 were delivered after the start of the TNFi treatment. Relative risk of Caesarean section among these female with various arthritis conditions were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.19-1.82; p < 0,001) compared to controls and was highest in the group with PsA or 2.06 (1.41-3.02; p<0,001). We did not find increased risk of preterm delivery or low Apgar score. Patients with inflammatory arthritis had lower risk of children with low birth weight or 0.37 compared to healthy controls (95% CI: 0.36-0.37; p < 0.05). Due to low numbers of deliveries after the initiation of TNFi therapy (n=53) we were not able to perform any analysis for that group. CONCLUSION: Icelandic female patients with inflammatory arthritis are at an increased risk of Caesarean section in comparison to healthy controls. However, their newborns are in good condition and healthy at birth. Analysis of the impact of treatment with TNFi on pregnancy is not yet possible due to limited data.


Assuntos
Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Cesárea , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Índice de Apgar , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/efeitos adversos
11.
Birth ; 46(2): 270-278, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rising cesarean rates call for studies on which subgroups of women contribute to the rising rates, both in countries with high and low rates. This study investigated the cesarean rates and contributing groups in Iceland using the Robson 10-group classification system. METHODS: This study included all births in Iceland from 1997 to 2015, identified from the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (81 839). The Robson distribution, cesarean rate, and contribution of each Robson group were analyzed for each year, and the distribution of other outcomes was calculated for each Robson group. RESULTS: The overall cesarean rate in the population was 16.4%. Robson groups 1 (28.7%) and 3 (38.0%) (spontaneous term births) were the largest groups, and groups 2b (0.4%) and 4b (0.7%) (prelabor cesareans) were small. The cesarean rate in group 5 (prior cesarean) was 55.5%. Group 5 was the largest contributing group to the overall cesarean rate (31.2%), followed by groups 1 (17.1%) and 2a (11.0%). The size of groups 2a (RR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.08]) and 4a (RR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.07]) (induced labors) increased over time, whereas their cesarean rates were stable (group 2a: P = 0.08) or decreased (group 4a: RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.91-0.98]). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with countries with high cesarean rates, the prelabor cesarean groups (singleton term pregnancies) in Iceland were small, and in women with a previous cesarean, the cesarean rate was low. The size of the labor induction group increased, yet the cesarean rate in this group did not increase.


Assuntos
Cesárea/tendências , Idade Gestacional , Início do Trabalho de Parto , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/tendências , Paridade , Adulto , Declaração de Nascimento , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez
12.
Midwifery ; 69: 1-9, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible associations between distress in pregnant women and their use of pain management and medical interventions. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of reported dissatisfaction in relationship with their partner, or weak social support. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Women were invited to participate while attending prenatal care at participating Icelandic health care centres. Birth outcome data were obtained from the hospitals where these women gave birth. PARTICIPANTS: Women in this study participated in a research project where 2523 women were screened three times during pregnancy for anxiety and depression. Women who had positive results at screening were invited to a semi-structured interview during pregnancy as well as every fourth woman who had negative results. Five hundred and sixty-two women participated in the interviews and the final sample was 442 women. MEASUREMENTS: Distress was defined as symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) were used for screening purposes. During the interview, the women answered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Adverse Experienced Interview (AEI). The main outcome variables that were obtained from the women's childbirth records were: (1) use of pain management, categorized as: epidural analgesia, non-pharmacological pain management, nitrous oxide, pharmacological medication, or no pain management; (2) medical interventions categorized as: induction, stimulation, and episiotomy; and (3) mode of childbirth. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for significant covariates, was conducted. FINDINGS: A significant association was found between perinatal distress at 16 weeks gestation and use of epidural as single pain management. Overall, distressed women were 2.6 times more likely than non-distressed women to use epidural as a single pain management. They were also less likely to go through childbirth without use of any pain management method. Women who were dissatisfied in their relationship were significantly more likely to undergo induction of childbirth, an episiotomy and/or a vacuum extraction than those who were satisfied in their relationship, regardless if they were distressed or not. No association was found between social support and the outcome variables. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Women with perinatal distress were more likely to use an epidural than non-distressed women. The use of an epidural might help them manage pain and uncertainties related to childbirth. Women who were dissatisfied in their partner relationship may be more likely to undergo induction of childbirth, episiotomy and/or vacuum extraction. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: Midwives need to acknowledge the possible association of distress and use of an epidural during childbirth and screen for distress early in pregnancy. It is important to offer counselling and help during pregnancy for expectant parents who are distressed or dissatisfied in their relationship.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/normas , Relações Interpessoais , Manejo da Dor/normas , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgesia Epidural/psicologia , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Br J Sports Med ; 53(6): 354-358, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that female athletes might be at higher risk of experiencing complications such as caesarean sections and perineal tears during labour than non-athletes. Our aim was to study delivery outcomes, including emergency caesarean section rates, length of the first and second stages of labour and severe perineal tears, in first-time pregnant elite athletes compared with non-athletes. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study comparing birth outcomes of primiparous female elite athletes engaging in high-impact and low-impact sports compared with non-athletic controls. The athletes had prior to birth competed at a national team level or equivalent. Participant characteristics and frequency of training for at least 3 years before a first pregnancy were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Information on delivery outcome was retrieved from the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry. RESULTS: In total, 248 participated, 118 controls, 41 low-impact and 89 high-impact elite athletes. No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to incidence of emergency caesarean section or length of the first and second stages of labour. The incidence of third-degree to fourth-degree perineal tears was significantly higher (23.7%) among low-impact athletes than in the high-impact group (5.1%, p=0.01), but no significant differences were seen when the athletes were compared with the controls (12%; p=0.09 for low-impact and p=0.12 for high-impact athletes). CONCLUSION: Participation in competitive sports at the elite level was not related to adverse delivery outcome, including length of labour, the need for caesarean section during delivery and severe perineal tears.


Assuntos
Atletas , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Paridade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 22(1): 75-83, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056536

RESUMO

Risk factors for antenatal common mental problems include a history of depression, lack of social support and a history of both childhood and adulthood sexual and physical abuse. However, it is less clear whether pregnancy is a time of particular susceptibility to mental disorders due to prior childhood experiences. The aim of the paper was to investigate the potential pathways to antenatal mental health problems. A total of 521 women attending prenatal care attended a clinical interview and answered psychological questionnaires. Univariate analysis, sequential binary logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used to analyse the relationships between variables. Having experienced parental maladjustment, maltreatment and serious physical illness in childhood and domestic violence, financial difficulties and serious spousal substance abuse in adulthood significantly predicted antenatal common mental health symptoms. SEM showed that history of depression and adverse experiences in adulthood had mediating effects on the relationship between adverse childhood events and symptoms of antenatal common mental disorders. Adverse childhood experiences are distal risk factors for antenatal common mental health problems, being significant indicators of history of depression and adverse experiences in adulthood. We therefore conclude that pregnancy is not a time of particular susceptibility to common mental health problems as a result of childhood abuse, but rather, these childhood experiences have increased the risk of adulthood trauma and prior mental disorders. Women at risk for antenatal common mental disorders include those with a history of depression, domestic violence, financial difficulties, spousal substance abuse and lack of social support.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5101, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504769

RESUMO

Gallstones are responsible for one of the most common diseases in the Western world and are commonly treated with cholecystectomy. We perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies of gallstone disease in Iceland and the UK, totaling 27,174 cases and 736,838 controls, uncovering 21 novel gallstone-associated variants at 20 loci. Two distinct low frequency missense variants in SLC10A2, encoding the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), associate with an increased risk of gallstone disease (Pro290Ser: OR = 1.36 [1.25-1.49], P = 2.1 × 10-12, MAF = 1%; Val98Ile: OR = 1.15 [1.10-1.20], P = 1.8 × 10-10, MAF = 4%). We demonstrate that lower bile acid transport by ASBT is accompanied by greater risk of gallstone disease and highlight the role of the intestinal compartment of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in gallstone disease susceptibility. Additionally, two low frequency missense variants in SERPINA1 and HNF4A and 17 common variants represent novel associations with gallstone disease.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Cálculos Biliares/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Simportadores/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
16.
Commun Biol ; 1: 14, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271901

RESUMO

Searching for novel sequence variants associated with cholesterol levels is of particular interest due to the causative role of non-HDL cholesterol levels in cardiovascular disease. Through whole-genome sequencing of 15,220 Icelanders and imputation of the variants identified, we discovered a rare missense variant in NR1H4 (R436H) associating with lower levels of total cholesterol (effect = -0.47 standard deviations or -0.55 mmol L-1, p = 4.21 × 10-10, N = 150,211). Importantly, NR1H4 R436H also associates with lower levels of non-HDL cholesterol and, consistent with this, protects against coronary artery disease. NR1H4 encodes FXR that regulates bile acid homeostasis, however, we do not detect a significant association between R436H and biological markers of liver function. Transcriptional profiling of hepatocytes carrying R436H shows that it is not a loss-of-function variant. Rather, we observe changes in gene expression compatible with effects on lipids. These findings highlight the role of FXR in regulation of cholesterol levels in humans.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obstetric interventions appear to increase with advancing maternal age, but limited supporting evidence exists, particularly for young women and specifically for prelabor and intrapartum cesarean birth. The aim of this study was to explore the association between obstetric interventions and maternal age in a low-risk population. METHODS: The study was restricted to all low-risk, nulliparous women with singleton, vertex, term births who gave birth in Iceland from 1997 to 2015, identified in the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs for the risks of labor induction, instrumental birth, and cesarean birth (prelabor and intrapartum), according to maternal age group. All models were adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and demographic factors, and the models for intrapartum cesarean birth were also adjusted for dystocia and fetal distress. RESULTS: For women aged more than 40 years, the aOR for induction of labor was 4.69 (95% CI, 3.2-6.8) compared with women aged between 25 and 29 years. In women aged more than 40 years, the increased risks for prelabor cesarean birth and intrapartum cesarean birth were 7.4 (95% CI, 3.0-18.0) and 3.6 (95% CI, 2.1-6.0), respectively. The risk of instrumental birth was slightly increased for women aged between 35 and 39 years (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0), compared with women aged between 25 and 29 years, but not for women aged at least 40 years (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.9). For women aged less than 20 years, the risk of induction of labor (aOR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9) and instrumental births (aOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.7) was reduced compared with women aged between 25 and 29 years. DISCUSSION: The risk of interventions generally increased with increasing maternal age, but the risk of instrumental births was not increased for women aged over 40 years. Also, young women were at a decreased risk of induction of labor and instrumental births.

19.
Eur J Public Health ; 27(5): 850-855, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957474

RESUMO

Background: Research on the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on scholastic achievement in the offspring has shown conflicting findings. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of MSDP on scholastic achievement in a birth cohort of children in 4th, 7th and 10th grades. Methods: We analysed data from the LIFECOURSE study, a cohort study of risk and protective factors in all children born in Reykjavik, Iceland, in the year 2000 (N = 1151, girls = 49.3%). Retrospective registry data for 2014-2015 were merged with prospective survey data that were collected in April 2016. Data on MSDP were assessed during regular antenatal visits at the end of the first trimester. Standardized academic achievement scores were obtained from official school transcripts. Data were analysed using OLS regressions that were entered in three hierarchical blocks. Results: Children of mothers who smoked tobacco during the first trimester consistently revealed between 5% and 7% lower scores on standardized academic achievement in 4th, 7th and 10th grade (∼6-8 points on a normally distributed 120 point scale) than those of mothers who had not smoked tobacco during this period (P < 0.05). These findings held after controlling for several factors associated with the time of birth (e.g. birth weight, maternal age at birth, birth order, parental cohabitation and household income), as well as the year of scholastic assessment (parental cohabitation, household income and parental education). Conclusions: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was negatively related to scholastic achievement in the offspring during 4th, 7th and 10th grade.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Women Birth ; 30(1): e46-e55, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is inferred that perinatal distress has adverse effects on the prospective mother and the health of the foetus/infant. More knowledge is needed to identify which symptoms of perinatal distress should be assessed during pregnancy and to shed light on the impact of women's satisfaction with their partner relationship on perinatal distress. AIM: The current study aimed to generate knowledge about the association of the partner relationship and social support when women are dealing with perinatal distress expressed by symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted with 562 Icelandic women who were screened three times during pregnancy with the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Of these, 360 had symptoms of distress and 202 belonged to a non-distress group. The women answered the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The study had a multicentre prospective design allowing for exploration of association with perinatal distress. FINDINGS: Women who were dissatisfied in their partner relationship were four times more likely to experience perinatal distress. Women with perinatal distress scored highest on the DASS Stress Subscale and the second highest scores were found on the Anxiety Subscale. CONCLUSION: Satisfaction in partner relationship is related to perinatal distress and needs to be assessed when health care professionals take care of distressed pregnant women, her partner and her family. Assessment of stress and anxiety should be included in the evaluation of perinatal distress, along with symptoms of depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Gestantes/psicologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/psicologia , Apoio Social , Cônjuges , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
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