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1.
J Hum Evol ; 167: 103185, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489251

RESUMO

Several large-bodied hominin and nonhuman primates have coexisted in the Cradle of Humankind in South Africa during the Early Pleistocene. Previous paleoenvironmental studies regarding the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa have focused heavily on mammal assemblages. Here, we conducted a comprehensive taxonomic analysis of the fossil bird remains from Cooper's D, the most fossiliferous locality of the hominin-bearing Cooper's Cave complex in South Africa. Our taxonomic evaluation of 505 remains reveals the presence of 23 bird taxa, two of which are extinct and already reported from the nearby fossil locality of Kromdraai. The taxonomically diverse bird assemblage is dominated by Francolinus sp. and other species associated with open grassland habitats, followed by rock-dwelling species, including Tyto cf. alba and the extinct Corvus bragai, and by woodland species such as Agapornis sp., Accipiter melanoleucos, and the extinct Glaucidium ireneae. The occurrence of these taxa and their respective proportions in the assemblage, in terms of both numbers of bones and individuals, point to the presence of extensive open grassland and/or savannah with rocky outcrops and woodland. These findings corroborate previous analyses of mammals from Cooper's D, with the exception of aquatic species, which are rare in the bird assemblage. Comparison with older deposits from Kromdraai confirms the definitive establishment of open habitats in the Cradle of Humankind during the Early Pleistocene following a transition from woodier habitats during the Late Pliocene. This study constitutes a further step in investigating the fossil bird diversity in the Cradle of Humankind during the Plio-Pleistocene. Our results add to the larger body of work using avian fossils for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in Africa and support the utility of birds as paleoenvironmental proxies. Similar future studies will refine our understanding of the paleoenvironments and landscape transformation during the Plio-Pleistocene, a critical timeframe for hominin evolution in southern Africa.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Aves , Mamíferos , África do Sul
2.
J Hum Evol ; 162: 103116, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915399

RESUMO

Evidence of the consumption of meat through hunting or scavenging by Early Pleistocene hominins is scarce, particularly in South Africa. Moreover, the interpretations of taphonomic evidence are subject to an important discussion commonly called the 'hunting-vs-scavenging debate.' Until today, only the Swartkrans Members 1-3 site has yielded a butchered bone assemblage large enough to permit reconstruction of carcass acquisition strategies by Early Pleistocene hominins in South Africa. This leaves an information gap between 1.4 and 1.0 Ma. Here, we provide the first evidence of meat consumption by hominins during this gap, based on the zooarchaeological study of the large mammal bone assemblage recovered from the Cooper's D site, South Africa. Based on skeletal part representation, our results show density-mediated attrition of bovid bones due to predepositional and postdepositional destruction. We argue that this attrition is the result of both abiotic (i.e., decalcification) and biotic (i.e., carnivore ravaging) processes. Bovid mortality profiles point out the involvement of ambush predators such as large felids. Bone surface modifications also indicate that the assemblage has been accumulated mostly by carnivores but with some hominin involvement as well. We observe all the stages of animal carcass processing (skinning, disarticulation, defleshing, marrow extraction) as well as the exploitation of a diversity of prey size classes at both Swartkrans Members 1-3 and Cooper's D. Thus, our study shows the importance of the Cooper's D bone assemblage for understanding Early Pleistocene hominin subsistence behaviors. Moreover, this article highlights the need for including long bone flake specimens in the analysis of large bone assemblages from South African caves to better understand the Early Pleistocene hominin bone damage record.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Carne , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Fósseis , África do Sul
3.
PeerJ ; 7: e6909, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143541

RESUMO

Cooper's D is a fossil locality in the Bloubank Valley close to other important sites such as Sterkfontein and Kromdraai in Gauteng, South Africa. The fossil deposits of Cooper's D date to 1.38 ± 0.11 Ma. Hominins like Paranthropus robustus and early Homo have been recovered from Cooper's Cave. We report here on the Equidae remains. Our sample contains specimens from the extinct Equus capensis, and a specimen which represents an extinct hipparion Eurygnathohippus cf. cornelianus. This particular specimen was previously identified as plains zebra (Equus quagga). The contribution of Equidae to the total fossil assemblage of Cooper's D is relatively low, and these remains were likely accumulated by various predators such as spotted and brown hyenas and leopards. The Equidae, as well as the other fauna from Cooper's D supports the existence of grassland, wooded and water components in the vicinity of the site.

4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 159(4): 737-45, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26661468

RESUMO

The Plio-Pleistocene karstic sedimentary deposits of Sterkfontein Cave, South Africa, yielded numerous fossil primate specimens embedded in blocks of indurated breccia, including the partial cercopithecoid cranium labelled STS 1039. Because the surrounding matrix masks most of its morphology, the specimen remains taxonomically undetermined. While the use of X-ray microtomography did not allow extracting any structural information about the specimen, we experimented a new investigative technique based on neutron microtomography. Using this innovative approach, we successfully virtually extracted, reconstructed in 3D and quantitatively assessed the preserved dentognathic structural morphology of STS 1039, including details of its postcanine maxillary dentition. Following comparative analyses with a number of Plio-Pleistocene and extant cercopithecoid taxa, we tentatively propose a taxonomic attribution to the taxon Cercopithecoides williamsi. Our experience highlights the remarkable potential of this novel imaging method to extract diagnostic information and to identify the fossil remains embedded in hard breccia from the South African hominin-bearing cave sites.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Cavernas , África do Sul , Tomografia
5.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0133361, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287673

RESUMO

A new partial cranium (UW 88-886) of the Plio-Pleistocene baboon Papio angusticeps from Malapa is identified, described and discussed. UW 88-886 represents the only non-hominin primate yet recovered from Malapa and is important both in the context of baboon evolution as well as South African hominin site biochronology. The new specimen may represent the first appearance of modern baboon anatomy and coincides almost perfectly with molecular divergence date estimates for the origin of the modern P. hamadryas radiation. The fact that the Malapa specimen is dated between ~2.026-2.36 million years ago (Ma) also has implications for the biochronology of other South African Plio-Pleistocene sites where P. angusticeps is found.


Assuntos
Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Papio hamadryas/anatomia & histologia , Papio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20408273

RESUMO

This article presents an overview on how to structure, carry out and evaluate observed family interaction with video. The emphasis lays on tasks used to stimulate family interaction. The examples cited illustrate different approaches to evaluation. Results of our latest research are presented which refer to (1) the clinical differentiation possibilities of macroanalytic observational scales, (2) the situational specificity of interactive behaviour in a comparison between a structured game situation and a minimally-structured planning discussion, and (3) the relation between various levels of family organisation (individuals, dyads of parent, parent-child-relationship, and family system). Families of 31 children with internalizing disorders and 30 children with externalizing disorders (age: 4-15 years) were included in the study and compared to a healthy control group (21 Children). Family interactions showing the family either as a group playing or planning something together were videotaped and rated independently in each case by two trained and "blind" observers using the Munich Interactional Scales and the Beavers Interactional Scales approaches. Characteristics of the interaction could be identified which were consistent/stable for all children in both situations, or which changed depending on the situation. Individual patterns of behaviour of children with emotional or behavioural problems depend on the level of structure and demands in the situation. Different levels of family organisation (individuals, dyads of parent, parent-child-relationship and family system) are related. The advantages of using videotapes of family interactions in family assessment could be demonstrated. These findings should be taken into account in child treatment, family counselling and therapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Determinação da Personalidade , Meio Social
7.
Science ; 328(5975): 205-8, 2010 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20378812

RESUMO

We describe the geological, geochronological, geomorphological, and faunal context of the Malapa site and the fossils of Australopithecus sediba. The hominins occur with a macrofauna assemblage that existed in Africa between 2.36 and 1.50 million years ago (Ma). The fossils are encased in water-laid, clastic sediments that were deposited along the lower parts of what is now a deeply eroded cave system, immediately above a flowstone layer with a U-Pb date of 2.026 +/- 0.021 Ma. The flowstone has a reversed paleomagnetic signature and the overlying hominin-bearing sediments are of normal polarity, indicating deposition during the 1.95- to 1.78-Ma Olduvai Subchron. The two hominin specimens were buried together in a single debris flow that lithified soon after deposition in a phreatic environment inaccessible to scavengers.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hominidae , Animais , Fenômenos Geológicos , Datação Radiométrica , África do Sul
8.
J Hum Evol ; 56(5): 497-513, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19443017

RESUMO

Australopithecus robustus is one of the best represented hominin taxa in Africa, with hundreds of specimens recovered from six fossil localities in the Bloubank Valley area of Gauteng Province, South Africa. However, precise geochronological ages are presently lacking for these fossil cave infills. In this paper, we provide a detailed geological background to a series of hominin fossils retrieved from the newly investigated deposit of Cooper's D (located partway between Sterkfontein and Kromdraai in the Bloubank Valley), including uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for speleothem material associated with A. robustus. U-Pb dating of a basal speleothem underlying the entire deposit results in a maximum age of 1.526 (+/-0.088) Ma for Cooper's D. A second U-Pb date of ca. 1.4 Ma is produced from a flowstone layer above this basal speleothem; since this upper flowstone is not a capping flowstone, and fossiliferous sediments are preserved above this layer, some of the hominins might be slightly younger than the calculated age. As a result, we can broadly constrain the age of the hominins from Cooper's D to between 1.5 and approximately 1.4 Ma. Extinct fauna recorded in this comparatively young deposit raise the possibility that the Bloubank Valley region of South Africa represented a more stable environmental refugium for taxa relative to tectonically more active East Africa. The sediments of the deposit likely infilled rapidly during periods when arid conditions prevailed in the paleoenvironment, although it is unclear whether sediment deposition and bone deposition were necessarily contemporaneous occurrences. We reconstruct the paleoenvironment of Cooper's D as predominantly grassland, with nearby woodlands and a permanent water source. The hominin teeth recovered from Cooper's D are all from juveniles and can be confidently assigned to A. robustus. In addition, two juvenile mandibular fragments and an adult thoracic vertebra are tentatively attributed to A. robustus.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae/genética , Datação Radiométrica , Animais , Geologia , África do Sul
9.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 37(2): 129-34, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19401999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A course in child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy is optional for medical students within the Medical Curriculum Munich (MeCuMLMU). Aims of the course are to give insight into the specialty of child and adolescent psychiatry and to help students acquire basic skills. The focus is on psychopathology and on communication skills. METHOD: A course comprising 23 teaching units and limited to twelve students is taught over four days within one week twice per semester. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is introduced by means of case presentations of children in different age groups, each with externalizing, and internalizing disorders and with developmental delay, and by a clinical round in the teaching hospital affiliated to the University. Case examples of children are presented by video. In group discussions guided by a teacher students learn to formulate a psychopathological status. Role-plays derived from the clinical examples and video-based feed-back provides students with the opportunity to improve their communication skills. RESULTS: The course is evaluated by means of a written examination, in which a psychopathological status must be written down independently. Students and teachers evaluate the seminar in a structured way. Videotapes of the role-plays are analyzed by the teachers after the course. In a sub-sample, a follow-up evaluation was carried out six months later. CONCLUSIONS: The seminar offers an excellent opportunity to introduce medical students to child and adolescent psychiatry and to recruit and inspire a future generation of child and adolescent psychiatrists.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/educação , Psiquiatria Infantil/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Psicoterapia/educação , Adolescente , Criança , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Relações Médico-Paciente , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Psicopatologia/educação
10.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 130(4): 435-44, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16425189

RESUMO

SKW 18, a partial hominin cranium recovered from the site of Swartkrans, South Africa, in 1968 is described. It is derived from ex situ breccia of the Hanging Remnant of Member 1, dated to approximately 1.5-1.8 Mya. Although partially encased in breccia, it was refit to the facial fragment SK 52 (Clarke 1977 The Cranium of the Swartkrans Hominid SK 847 and Its Relevance to Human Origins, Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg), producing the composite cranium SKW 18/SK 52. Subsequent preparation revealed the most complete cranial base attributable to the species Australopithecus robustus. SKW 18 suffered weathering and slight postdepositional distortion, but retains considerable anatomical detail. The composite cranium most likely represents a large, subadult male, based on the incomplete fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis; unerupted third molar; pronounced development of muscular insertions; and large teeth. Cranial base measures of SKW 18 expand the range of values previously recorded for A. robustus. SKW 18 provides information on anatomical features not previously visible in this taxon, and expands our knowledge of morphological variability recognizable in the cranial base. Morphological heterogeneity in the development of the prevertebral and nuchal muscular insertions is likely the result of sexual dimorphism in A. robustus, while differences in cranial base angles and the development of the occipital/marginal sinus drainage system cannot be attributed to size dimorphism.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Base do Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes , Animais , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto , África do Sul
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