Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Fam Cancer ; 19(2): 161-167, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002723

RESUMO

Routine diagnostics for colorectal cancer patients suspected of having Lynch-Syndrome (LS) currently uses Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) of targeted regions within the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This analysis can reliably detect nucleotide alterations and copy-number variations (CNVs); however, CNV-neutral rearrangements comprising gene inversions or large intronic insertions remain undetected because their breakpoints are usually not covered. As several founder mutations exist for LS, we established PCR-based screening methods for five known rearrangements in MLH1, MSH2, or PMS2, and investigated their prevalence in 98 German patients with suspicion of LS without a causative germline variant or CNV detectable in the four MMR genes. We found no recurrence of CNV-neutral structural rearrangements previously described: Neither for two inversions in MLH1 (exon 1 and exon 16-19) within 33 MLH1-deficient patients, nor for two inversions in MSH2 (exon 1-7 and exon 2-6) within 48 MSH2-deficient patients. The PMS2 insertion in intron 7 was detected in one of 17 PMS2-deficient patients. None of the four genomic inversions constitutes a founder event within the German population, but we advise to test the rare cases with unsolved PMS2-deficiency upon the known insertion. As a next diagnostic step, tumour tissue of the unsolved patients should be sequenced for somatic variants, and germline analysis of additional genes with an overlapping clinical phenotype should be considered. Alternatively, full-length cDNA analyses may detect concealed MMR-defects in cases with family history.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1326-1333, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome is caused by variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In patients with Lynch syndrome, CRCs can develop via different pathways. We studied associations between Lynch syndrome-associated variants in MMR genes and risks of adenoma and CRC and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in tumors in an international cohort of patients. METHODS: We combined clinical and molecular data from 3 studies. We obtained clinical data from 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome associated with variants in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 from Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland who received at least 2 surveillance colonoscopies and were followed for a median time of 7.8 years for development of adenomas or CRC. We performed DNA sequence analyses of 48 colorectal tumors (from 16 patients with mutations in MLH1, 29 patients with mutations in MSH2, and 3 with mutations in MSH6) for somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1. RESULTS: Risk of advanced adenoma in 10 years was 17.8% in patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 7.7% in MLH1 (P < .001). Higher proportions of patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 or MSH2 developed CRC in 10 years (11.3% and 11.4%) than patients with pathogenic variants in MSH6 (4.7%) (P = .001 and P = .003 for MLH1 and MSH2 vs MSH6, respectively). Somatic mutations in APC were found in 75% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 11% in MLH1 (P = .015). Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 were found in 50% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 vs 7% in MSH2 (P = .002). None of the 3 tumors with pathogenic variants in MSH6 had a mutation in CTNNB1, but all had mutations in APC. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of clinical and DNA sequence data from patients with Lynch syndrome from 3 countries, we associated pathogenic variants in MMR genes with risk of adenoma and CRC, and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in colorectal tumors. If these findings are confirmed, surveillance guidelines might be adjusted based on MMR gene variants.

3.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

4.
Z Gastroenterol ; 57(11): 1309-1320, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome and accounts for ~3 % of all CRCs. This autosomal dominant disorder is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM). One in 300 individuals of the general population are considered to be mutation carriers (300 000 individuals/Germany). Mutation carriers are at a high CRC risk of 15-46 % till the age of 75 years. LS also includes a variety of extracolonic malignancies such as endometrial, small bowel, gastric, urothelial, and other cancers. METHODS: The German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer consists of 14 university centers in Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and evaluate surveillance programs and to further translate the results in clinical care. We have revisited and updated the clinical management guidelines for LS patients in Germany. RESULTS: A surveillance colonoscopy should be performed every 12-24 months starting at the age of 25 years. At diagnosis of first colorectal cancer, an oncological resection is advised, an extended resection (colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis) has to be discussed with the patient. The lifetime risk for gastric cancer is 0.2-13 %. Gastric cancers detected during surveillance have a lower tumor stage compared to symptom-driven detection. The lifetime risk for small bowel cancer is 4-8 %. About half of small bowel cancer is located in the duodenum and occurs before the age of 35 years in 10 % of all cases. Accordingly, patients are advised to undergo an esophagogastroduodenoscopy every 12-36 months starting by the age of 25 years. CONCLUSION: LS colonic and extracolonic clinical management, surveillance and therapy are complex and several aspects remain unclear. In the future, surveillance and clinical management need to be more tailored to gene and gender. Future prospective trials are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636762

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that in pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variant carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was not reduced when colonoscopy was undertaken more frequently than once every 3 years, and that CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated. Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) that records outcomes of surveillance was examined to determine survival after colon cancer in relation to the time since previous colonoscopy and pathological stage. Only path_MMR variants scored by the InSiGHT variant database as class 4 or 5 (clinically actionable) were included in the analysis. Results: Ninety-nine path_MMR carriers had no cancer prior to or at first colonoscopy, but subsequently developed colon cancer. Among these, 96 were 65 years of age or younger at diagnosis, and included 77 path_MLH1, 17 path_MSH2, and 2 path_MSH6 carriers. The number of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years after previous colonoscopy were 9, 43, 31 and 13, respectively. Of these, 2, 8, 4 and 3 were stage III, respectively, and only one stage IV (interval 2.5-3.5 years) disease. Ten-year crude survival after colon cancer were 93, 94 and 82% for stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten-year crude survival when the last colonoscopy had been < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 or > 3.5 years before diagnosis, was 89, 90, 90 and 92%, respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions: In path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers, more advanced colon cancer stage was associated with poorer survival, whereas time since previous colonoscopy was not. Although the numbers are limited, together with our previously reported findings, these results may be in conflict with the view that follow-up of path_MMR variant carriers with colonoscopy intervals of less than 3 years provides significant benefit.

6.
Visc Med ; 35(4): 226-230, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602383

RESUMO

Cancer per se is a genetic disease, either originating in germline mutations in cancer genes or in somatic mutations only present in the cancer cells. Therefore, personalized risk prediction, prevention, and treatment for cancer can be based on the results of genetic testing either in the germline or in the tumor. Surveillance regimens need to be based on appropriate risk assessment, which includes germline monogenic genetic testing - where appropriate - and in the future polygenic risk - possibly - for the general population. Treatment regimens should also include germline testing at least for cases suspicious of hereditary tumor diseases, followed by the analysis of somatic mutations within the tumor cell genome, raising a possible target for personalized therapy. Appropriate risk assessment is the key for suitable and, most importantly, individualized surveillance strategies especially in hereditary tumor syndromes. This concerns not only the patient but also the family members at risk. An overview about the different fields and aspects of genetic testing in colorectal cancer and its impact on personalized prevention will be given below.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(12): 1808-1820, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332305

RESUMO

In pathogenicity assessment, RNA-based analyses are important for the correct classification of variants, and require gene-specific cut-offs for allelic representation and alternative/aberrant splicing. Beside this, the diagnostic yield of RNA-based techniques capable to detect aberrant splicing or allelic loss due to intronic/regulatory variants has to be elaborated. We established a cDNA analysis for full-length transcripts (FLT) of the four DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes to investigate the splicing pattern and transcript integrity with active/inhibited nonsense-mediated mRNA-decay (NMD). Validation was based on results from normal controls, samples with premature termination codons (PTC), samples with splice-site defects (SSD), and samples with pathogenic putative missense variants. The method was applied to patients with variants of uncertain significance (VUS) or unexplained immunohistochemical MMR deficiency. We categorized the allelic representation into biallelic (50 ± 10%) or allelic loss (≤10%), and >10% and <40% as unclear. We defined isoforms up to 10% and exon-specific exceptions as alternative splicing, set the cut-off for SSD in cDNA + P to 30-50%, and regard >10% and <30% as unclear. FLT cDNA analyses designated 16% of all putative missense variants and 12% of VUS as SSD, detected MMR-defects in 19% of the unsolved patients, and re-classified >30% of VUS. Our method allows a standardized, systematic cDNA analysis of the MMR FLTs to assess the pathogenicity mechanism of VUS on RNA level, which will gain relevance for precision medicine and gene therapy. Diagnostic accuracy will be enhanced by detecting MMR defects in hitherto unsolved patients. The data generated will help to calibrate a high-throughput NGS-based mRNA-analysis and optimize prediction programs.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1010-1014, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome is characterized by a relatively low colorectal cancer penetrance compared with other Lynch syndromes. However, age at colorectal cancer diagnosis varies widely, and a strong genetic anticipation effect has been suggested for PMS2 families. In this study, we examined proposed genetic anticipation in a sample of 152 European PMS2 families. METHODS: The 152 families (637 family members) that were eligible for analysis were mainly clinically ascertained via clinical genetics centers. We used weighted Cox-type random effects model, adjusted by birth cohort and sex, to estimate the generational effect on the age of onset of colorectal cancer. Probands and young birth cohorts were excluded from the analyses. Weights represented mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients, thus avoiding testing bias. RESULTS: Family data across three generations, including 123 colorectal cancers, were analyzed. When compared with the first generation, the crude HR for anticipation was 2.242 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.162-4.328] for the second generation and 2.644 (95% CI, 1.082-6.464) for the third generation. However, after correction for birth cohort and sex, the effect vanished [HR = 1.302 (95% CI, 0.648-2.619) and HR = 1.074 (95% CI, 0.406-2.842) for second and third generations, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not confirm previous reports of genetic anticipation in PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Birth-cohort effect seems the most likely explanation for observed younger colorectal cancer diagnosis in subsequent generations, particularly because there is currently no commonly accepted biological mechanism that could explain genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome. IMPACT: This new model for studying genetic anticipation provides a standard for rigorous analysis of families with dominantly inherited cancer predisposition.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMO

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

10.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 78(11): 1089-1109, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581199

RESUMO

Summary The first German interdisciplinary S3-guideline on the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer was published in April 2018. Funded by German Cancer Aid as part of an Oncology Guidelines Program, the lead coordinators of the guideline were the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) and the Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG). Purpose Using evidence-based, risk-adapted therapy to treat low-risk women with endometrial cancer avoids unnecessarily radical surgery and non-useful adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This can significantly reduce therapy-induced morbidity and improve the patient's quality of life as well as avoiding unnecessary costs. For women with endometrial cancer and a high risk of recurrence, the guideline defines the optimal extent of surgical radicality together with the appropriate chemotherapy and/or adjuvant radiotherapy if required. An evidence-based optimal use of different therapeutic modalities should improve the survival rates and quality of life of these patients. This S3-guideline on endometrial cancer is intended as a basis for certified gynecological cancer centers. The aim is that the quality indicators established in this guideline will be incorporated in the certification processes of these centers. Methods The guideline was compiled in accordance with the requirements for S3-level guidelines. This includes, in the first instance, the adaptation of source guidelines selected using the DELBI instrument for appraising guidelines. Other consulted sources included reviews of evidence, which were compiled from literature selected during systematic searches of literature databases using the PICO scheme. In addition, an external biostatistics institute was commissioned to carry out a systematic search and assessment of the literature for one part of the guideline. Identified materials were used by the interdisciplinary working groups to develop suggestions for Recommendations and Statements, which were then subsequently modified during structured consensus conferences and/or additionally amended online using the DELPHI method, with consent between members achieved online. The guideline report is freely available online. Recommendations Part 2 of this short version of the guideline presents recommendations for the therapy of endometrial cancer including precancers and early endometrial cancer as well as recommendations on palliative medicine, psycho-oncology, rehabilitation, patient information and healthcare facilities to treat endometrial cancer. The management of precancers of early endometrial precancerous conditions including fertility-preserving strategies is presented. The concept used for surgical primary therapy of endometrial cancer is described. Radiotherapy and adjuvant medical therapy to treat endometrial cancer and uterine carcinosarcomas are described. Recommendations are given for the follow-up care of endometrial cancer, recurrence and metastasis. Palliative medicine, psycho-oncology including psychosocial care, and patient information and rehabilitation are presented. Finally, the care algorithm and quality assurance steps for the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer are outlined.

11.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 78(10): 949-971, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364388

RESUMO

Summary The first German interdisciplinary S3-guideline on the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer was published in April 2018. Funded by German Cancer Aid as part of an Oncology Guidelines Program, the lead coordinators of the guideline were the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) and the Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG). Purpose The use of evidence-based, risk-adapted therapy to treat low-risk women with endometrial cancer avoids unnecessarily radical surgery and non-useful adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This can significantly reduce therapy-induced morbidity and improve the patient's quality of life as well as avoiding unnecessary costs. For women with endometrial cancer and a high risk of recurrence, the guideline defines the optimal surgical radicality together with the appropriate chemotherapy and/or adjuvant radiotherapy where required. The evidence-based optimal use of different therapeutic modalities should improve survival rates and the quality of life of these patients. The S3-guideline on endometrial cancer is intended as a basis for certified gynecological cancer centers. The aim is that the quality indicators established in this guideline will be incorporated in the certification processes of these centers. Methods The guideline was compiled in accordance with the requirements for S3-level guidelines. This includes, in the first instance, the adaptation of source guidelines selected using the DELBI instrument for appraising guidelines. Other consulted sources include reviews of evidence which were compiled from literature selected during systematic searches of literature databases using the PICO scheme. In addition, an external biostatistics institute was commissioned to carry out a systematic search and assessment of the literature for one area of the guideline. The identified materials were used by the interdisciplinary working groups to develop suggestions for Recommendations and Statements, which were then modified during structured consensus conferences and/or additionally amended online using the DELPHI method with consent being reached online. The guideline report is freely available online. Recommendations Part 1 of this short version of the guideline presents recommendations on epidemiology, screening, diagnosis and hereditary factors, The epidemiology of endometrial cancer and the risk factors for developing endomentrial cancer are presented. The options for screening and the methods used to diagnose endometrial cancer including the pathology of the cancer are outlined. Recommendations are given for the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of hereditary forms of endometrial cancer.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
13.
Gastroenterology ; 155(5): 1400-1409.e2, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Lynch syndrome are at high risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopic surveillance is recommended, but there is no international consensus on the appropriate interval. We investigated whether shorter intervals are associated with lower CRC incidence and detection at earlier stages by comparing the surveillance policies in Germany, which evaluates patients by colonoscopy annually, in the Netherlands (patients evaluated at 1-2-year intervals), and Finland (patients evaluated at 2-3-year intervals). METHODS: We collected data from 16,327 colonoscopic examinations (conducted from 1984 through 2015) of 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome (pathogenic variants in the MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 genes) from the German HNPCC Consortium, the Dutch Lynch Syndrome Registry, and the Finnish Lynch Syndrome Registry. Our analysis included 23,309 person-years of cumulative observation time. Time from the index colonoscopy to incident CRC or adenoma was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method; groups were compared using the log-rank test. We performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to identify factors associated with CRC risk (diagnosis of CRC before the index colonoscopy, sex, mutation, age, and presence of adenoma at the index colonoscopy). RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative CRC incidence ranged from 4.1% to 18.4% in patients with low- and high-risk profiles, respectively, and varied with age, sex, mutation, and prior detection of CRC or adenoma. Observed colonoscopy intervals were largely in accordance with the country-specific recommendations. We found no significant differences in cumulative CRC incidence or CRC stage at detection among countries. There was no significant association between CRC stage and time since last colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant reduction in CRC incidence or stage of detection in Germany (annual colonoscopic surveillance) than in countries with longer surveillance intervals (the Netherlands, with 1-2-year intervals, and Finland, with 2-3-year intervals). Overall, we did not find a significant association of the interval with CRC risk, although age, sex, mutation, and prior neoplasia were used to individually modify colonoscopy intervals. Studies are needed to develop and validate risk-adapted surveillance strategies and to identify patients who benefit from shorter surveillance intervals.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Int J Cancer ; 143(11): 2800-2813, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987844

RESUMO

In many families with suspected Lynch syndrome (LS), no germline mutation in the causative mismatch repair (MMR) genes is detected during routine diagnostics. To identify novel causative genes for LS, the present study investigated 77 unrelated, mutation-negative patients with clinically suspected LS and a loss of MSH2 in tumor tissue. An analysis for genomic copy number variants (CNV) was performed, with subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of selected candidate genes in a subgroup of the cohort. Genomic DNA was genotyped using Illumina's HumanOmniExpress Bead Array. After quality control and filtering, 25 deletions and 16 duplications encompassing 73 genes were identified in 28 patients. No recurrent CNV was detected, and none of the CNVs affected the regulatory regions of MSH2. A total of 49 candidate genes from genomic regions implicated by the present CNV analysis and 30 known or assumed risk genes for colorectal cancer (CRC) were then sequenced in a subset of 38 patients using a customized NGS gene panel and Sanger sequencing. Single nucleotide variants were identified in 14 candidate genes from the CNV analysis. The most promising of these candidate genes were: (i) PRKCA, PRKDC, and MCM4, as a functional relation to MSH2 is predicted by network analysis, and (ii) CSMD1, as this is commonly mutated in CRC. Furthermore, six patients harbored POLE variants outside the exonuclease domain, suggesting that these might be implicated in hereditary CRC. Analyses in larger cohorts of suspected LS patients recruited via international collaborations are warranted to verify the present findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA