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Ultrasound Med Biol ; 45(12): 3269-3278, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563480


Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with a high risk of stroke, and affected individuals often have focal brain lesions termed silent cerebral infarcts. The mechanisms leading to these types of injuries are at present poorly understood. Our group has recently demonstrated a non-invasive measurement of cerebrovascular impedance and wave reflection in mice using high-frequency ultrasound in the common carotid artery. To better understand the pathophysiology in SCD, we used this approach in combination with micro-computed tomography to investigate changes in cerebrovascular morphology in the Townes mouse model of SCD. Relative to controls, the SCD mice demonstrated the following: (i) increased carotid artery diameter, blood flow and vessel wall thickness; (ii) elevated pulse wave velocity; (iii) increased reflection coefficient; and (iv) an increase in the total number of vessel segments in the brain. This study highlights the potential for wave reflection to aid the non-invasive clinical assessment of vascular pathology in SCD.

Neuroimage ; 202: 116101, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425794


The 3D organization of cerebral blood vessels determines the overall capacity of the cerebral circulation to meet the metabolic requirements of the brain. Imaging methodologies which combine 3D microvascular structural imaging with blood flow quantification can shed light on the relationship between vascular structure and function, in health and disease. This study applies Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI with a hypercapnic challenge and ex vivo Serial Two-Photon Tomography (STPT) to examine the relationship between blood flow and vascular architecture following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a mouse. Mice were exposed to a controlled cortical impact TBI and allowed to recover for either 1 day or 4 weeks. At each time point, ASL MRI was performed to quantify cerebral perfusion and the brain vasculature was imaged in 3D with STPT. Registration of ASL to STPT enabled flow changes to be related to the underlying microvascular structure in each ASL voxel. Hypoperfusion under rest and hypercapnia was observed both 1 day and 4 weeks post-TBI. Vessel density and vascular volume were reduced 1 day post-TBI, recovering by 4 weeks; however, the reorganized vasculature at the latter time point possessed an abnormal radial pattern. Our findings demonstrate functionally significant long-term changes in the vascular architecture following injury and illustrate why metrics beyond traditional measures of vessel density are required to understand the impact of vascular structure on function.

Theranostics ; 8(17): 4824-4836, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279740


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has focused on moderate to severe injuries as their outcomes are significantly worse than those of a mild TBI (mTBI). However, recent epidemiological evidence has indicated that a series of even mild TBIs greatly increases the risk of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Neuropathological studies of repeated TBI have identified changes in neuronal ionic concentrations, axonal injury, and cytoskeletal damage as important determinants of later life neurological and mood compromise; yet, there is a paucity of data on the contribution of neurogliovascular dysfunction to the progression of repeated TBI and alterations of brain function in the intervening period. Methods: Here, we established a mouse model of repeated TBI induced via three electromagnetically actuated impacts delivered to the intact skull at three-day intervals and determined the long-term deficits in neurogliovascular functioning in Thy1-ChR2 mice. Two weeks post the third impact, cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were measured with arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging. Neuronal function was investigated through bilateral intracranial electrophysiological responses to optogenetic photostimulation. Vascular density of the site of impacts was measured with in vivo two photon fluorescence microscopy. Pathological analysis of neuronal survival and astrogliosis was performed via NeuN and GFAP immunofluorescence. Results: Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were decreased by 50±16% and 70±20%, respectively, in the TBI cohort relative to sham-treated animals. Concomitantly, electrophysiological recordings revealed a 97±1% attenuation in peri-contusional neuronal reactivity relative to sham. Peri-contusional vascular volume was increased by 33±2% relative to sham-treated mice. Pathological analysis of the peri-contusional cortex demonstrated astrogliosis, but no changes in neuronal survival. Conclusion: This work provides the first in-situ characterization of the long-term deficits of the neurogliovascular unit following repeated TBI. The findings will help guide the development of diagnostic markers as well as therapeutics targeting neurogliovascular dysfunction.

Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Optogenética , Recidiva
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186676, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053753


Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total) were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared. The brain regions imaged in vivo were imaged ex vivo. Vessels were segmented in both images using an automated tracing algorithm that accounts for the spatially varying PSF in the ex vivo images. This spatial variance is induced by spherical aberrations caused by imaging fructose-cleared tissue with a water-immersion objective. Alignment of the ex vivo image to the in vivo image through a non-linear warping algorithm enabled comparison of apparent vessel diameter, as well as differences in signal. Shrinkage varied as a function of diameter, with capillaries rendered smaller ex vivo by 13%, while penetrating vessels shrunk by 34%. The pial vasculature attenuated in vivo microvascular signal by 40% 300 µm below the tissue surface, but this effect was absent ex vivo. On the whole, ex vivo imaging was found to be valuable for studying deep cortical vasculature.

Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Algoritmos , Animais , Imagem Tridimensional , Camundongos
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 37(3): 1046-1059, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683451


Aerobic activity has been shown highly beneficial to brain health, yet much uncertainty still surrounds the effects of exercise on the functioning of cerebral microvasculature. This study used two-photon fluorescence microscopy to examine cerebral hemodynamic alterations as well as accompanying geometric changes in the cortical microvascular network following five weeks of voluntary exercise in transgenic mice endogenously expressing tdTomato in vascular endothelial cells to allow visualization of microvessels irrespective of their perfusion levels. We found a diminished microvascular response to a hypercapnic challenge (10% FiCO2) in running mice when compared to that in nonrunning controls despite commensurate increases in transcutaneous CO2 tension. The flow increase to hypercapnia in runners was 70% lower than that in nonrunners (p = 0.0070) and the runners' arteriolar red blood cell speed changed by only half the amount seen in nonrunners (p = 0.0085). No changes were seen in resting hemodynamics or in the systemic physiological parameters measured. Although a few unperfused new vessels were observed on visual inspection, running did not produce significant morphological differences in the microvascular morphometric parameters, quantified following semiautomated tracking of the microvascular networks. We propose that voluntary running led to increased cortical microvascular efficiency and desensitization to CO2 elevation.

Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Hemodinâmica , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia