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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047296, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic, lifestyle-related diseases is increasing among adults and children from low-income and middle-income countries. Despite the effectiveness of community-based interventions to address this situation, the benefits thereof may disappear in the long term, due to a lack of maintenance, especially among disadvantaged and high-risk populations. The KaziBantu randomised controlled trial conducted in 2019 consisted of two school-based health interventions, KaziKidz and KaziHealth. This study will evaluate the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions in promoting positive lifestyle changes among children and educators in disadvantaged schools in Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has an observational, longitudinal, mixed-methods design. It will follow up educators and children from the KaziBantu study. All 160 educators enrolled in KaziHealth will be invited to participate, while the study will focus on 361 KaziKidz children (aged 10-16 years) identified as having an increased risk for non-communicable diseases. Data collection will take place 1.5 and 2 years postintervention and includes quantitative and qualitative methods, such as anthropometric measurements, clinical assessments, questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses will encompass: prevalence of health parameters; descriptive frequencies of self-reported health behaviours and quality of life; the longitudinal association of these; extent of implementation; personal experiences with the programmes and an impact analysis based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance framework. DISCUSSION: In settings where resources are scarce, sustainable and effective prevention programmes are needed. The purpose of this protocol is to outline the design of a study to evaluate KaziKidz and KaziHealth under real-world conditions in terms of effectiveness, being long-lasting and becoming institutionalised. We hypothesise that a mixed-methods approach will increase understanding of the interventions' capacity to lead to sustainable favourable health outcomes amid challenging environments, thereby generating evidence for policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15648510.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Acta Trop ; 224: 106138, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562427

RESUMO

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with single-dose rifampicin (SDR) reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients. Most evidence for the feasibility of the intervention is from highly endemic settings while low-endemic areas present unique challenges including reduced awareness of the disease among the population and in the health system, and the only sporadic occurrence of cases which together make defining any type of routine process challenging. We complemented the retrospective active case finding (RACF) approach with SDR administration to eligible contacts, and piloted the intervention across 31 operational districts in Cambodia. The aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of improving early case detection and administering SDR in a low endemic setting. The intervention focused on leprosy patients diagnosed since 2011 and was implemented between October 2016 - September 2019. The "drives" approach was employed to trace contacts: a trained team systematically contacted all eligible cases in a district, traced and screened contacts, and administered SDR. A total of 555 index patients were traced by the drive team, and 10,410 contacts in their household and 5 immediate neighbor houses listed. Among these contacts, 72.0% could be screened while most others were absent on the screening day. A total of 33 new leprosy cases were diagnosed and 6189 contacts received SDR (82.6% of the screened contacts). Sixty-one contacts refused SDR administration. We conclude that integrating PEP with SDR in RACF campaigns is feasible, and that this approach is appropriate in low resource and low endemic settings. Over time, evidence on whether or not the approach reduced leprosy transmission in Cambodia, may become clear.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490179

RESUMO

Background: Physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independent cardiovascular risk factors among children, but have rarely been investigated concurrently in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) and CRF of primary schoolchildren living in Côte d'Ivoire (CI), South Africa (ZA), and Tanzania (TZ), to test sex- and age-related differences, and to examine whether PA and CRF are associated with each other. Methods: Baseline data from an ongoing cluster-randomized controlled trial were used, including 499 children from CI (Taabo, 49% girls, M = 8.0 ± 1.6 years), 1,074 children from ZA (Gqeberha, 49% girls, M = 8.3 ± 1.4 years), and 593 children from TZ (Ifakara, 51% girls, M = 9.4 ± 1.7 years). PA was assessed by accelerometry and CRF by a 20 m shuttle-run test. The data were analyzed using multi-/univariate analyses of variance and mixed linear models. Results: Most children met recommendations put forward by the World Health Organization for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and achieved high CRF scores. In CI, 89.6% of the children met MVPA recommendations (boys: 91.7%, girls: 87.4%), whereas this rate was 76.9% in ZA (boys: 91.0%, girls: 62.4%), and 93.8% in TZ (boys: 95.5%, girls: 92.0%). Children from TZ had the highest CRF and MVPA levels, followed by children from CI and ZA. Boys had higher MVPA levels than girls, whereas girls engaged in more sedentary behavior. Sex differences were strongest in ZA. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were higher among older schoolchildren compared to their younger peers. Higher MVPA, but not sedentary behavior, was associated with better CRF. Conclusions: In all three settings, higher levels of MVPA were associated with higher CRF scores. Nevertheless, children living in the most urbanized setting (such as observed in ZA) were physically less active and had lower CRF than peers living in more rural areas (such as observed in CI and TZ). Particularly for girls, urbanization might increase the risk for insufficient MVPA, which may have negative effects on their CRF, thus negatively influencing health and well-being at later age.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Criança , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 916, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a treatable disease; however, the release from treatment after completion of multidrug therapy (MDT) often does not equal absence of health problems. Consequently, sequelae interfere with the patient's perception of cure. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the perception of not being healed among people treated for leprosy in a highly endemic area in Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of perceived cure of leprosy in the post-release from treatment period was conducted in Cáceres in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study included a total of 390 leprosy patients treated with MDT and released after completion of treatment from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2017. The dependent variable was self-reported cure of leprosy; the independent variables included clinical, operational and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: Out of the 390 former leprosy patients, 304 (77.9%) perceived themselves as cured and 86 (22.1%) considered themselves unhealed. Among the latter, 49 (57.0%) reported muscle weakness and joint pains. Individuals with complaints related to leprosy post-release from treatment had a 4.6 times higher chance to self-report as unhealed (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.5-8.5). Patients with physical disabilities (PD) grade 1 and 2 at the time of the study had a 3.1 (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.3-7.4) and 8.8 (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.5-21.9) times higher likelihood to self-identify as unhealed, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among successfully treated leprosy patients, a quarter self-report as unhealed of the disease. The factors associated with the perception of being unhealed are PD and complaints related to leprosy in the post-release from treatment phase.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Percepção
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
6.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334121

RESUMO

Childhood hypertension drives hypertension in later life; hence, assessing blood pressure in children is an important measure to determine current and future cardiovascular health. There is, however, a paucity of childhood blood pressure data, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa. This study explores blood pressure and associations with age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. In the 'Disease, Activity and Schoolchildren's Health' (DASH) study, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Assessments included blood pressure, accelerometer-measured physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. The study consisted of 785 children (383 boys, 402 girls, M = 12.4±0.9 years). Overall, 18% of the children were classified as hypertensive, while 20% were either overweight/obese, and almost four out of ten children did not meet global daily physical activity recommendations. Hypertensive children were more likely to be overweight/obese, χ2 (2,785) = 14.42, p < 0.01, but only if they did not meet physical activity recommendations, χ2 (2,295) = 11.93, p < 0.01. Considering the moderating effect which sufficient activity has on the relationship between hypertension and body weight, more emphasis should be placed on early primary health intervention and education strategies.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1108, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 15 million annual premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 85% occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Affecting individuals in the prime of their lives, NCDs impose severe economic damage to economies and businesses, owing to the high mortality and morbidity within the workforce. The Novartis Foundation urban health initiative, Better Hearts Better Cities, was designed to improve cardiovascular health in Dakar, Senegal through a combination of interventions including a workplace health program. In this study, we describe the labor policy environment in Senegal and the outcomes of a Novartis Foundation-supported multisector workplace health coalition bringing together volunteering private companies. METHODS: A mixed method design was applied between April 2018 and February 2020 to evaluate the workplace health program as a case study. Qualitative methods included a desk review of documents relevant to the Senegalese employment context and work environment and in-depth interviews with eight key informants including human resource representatives and physicians working in the participating companies. Quantitative methods involved an analysis of workplace health program indicators, including data on diagnosis, treatment and control of hypertension in employees, provided by the coalition companies, and a cost estimate of NCD-related ill-health as compared to the investment needed for hypertension screening and awareness raising events. RESULTS: Senegal has a legal and regulatory system that ensures employee protection, supports social security benefits, and promotes health and hygiene in companies. The Dakar Workplace Health Coalition comprised 18 companies, with a range of staff between 300 and 4'220, covering 36'268 employees in total. Interviews suggested that the main enablers for workplace program success were strong leadership support within the company and a central coordination mechanism for the program. The main barrier to monitor progress and outcomes was the reluctance of companies to share data. Four companies provided aggregated anonymized cohort data, documenting a total of 21'392 hypertension screenings and an increasing trend in blood pressure control (from 34% in Q4 2018 to 39% in Q2 2019) in employees who received antihypertensive treatment. CONCLUSION: Evidence on workplace health and wellness programs in Africa is scarce. This study highlights how private sector companies can play a significant role in improving cardiovascular population health in LMICs.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Emprego , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Senegal , Local de Trabalho
8.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known whether physical activity (PA)-promoting environments are equally accessible to children with divergent socioeconomic status (SES) in low-/middle-income countries. The authors, therefore, examined whether South African children from poorer versus wealthier families living in marginalized communities differed in moderate to vigorous PA and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also tested associations between family car ownership and PA/cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: Parents/guardians of 908 children (49% girls, mean age = 8.3 [1.4] y) completed a survey on household SES. PA was assessed via 7-day accelerometry, parental and child self-reports, and cardiorespiratory fitness with the 20-m shuttle run test. RESULTS: Based on accelerometry, most children met current moderate to vigorous PA recommendations (≥60 min/d). About 73% of the children did not engage in structured physical education lessons. Whereas children of the lowest SES quintile accumulated higher levels of device-based moderate to vigorous PA, peers from the highest SES quintile engaged in more sedentary behaviors, but self-reported higher engagement in sports, dance, and moving games after school. Families' car ownership was associated with higher parent/self-reported leisure-time PA. CONCLUSIONS: A deeper understanding is needed about why wealthier children are more sedentary, but simultaneously engage in more leisure-time PA. The fact that access to structural physical education is denied to most children is critical and needs to be addressed.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 852, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular fitness has been associated with both executive function and academic achievement in multiple cohort studies including children and adolescents. However, research is scarce among children from low- and middle-income countries. Hence, this paper focuses on South African primary schoolchildren living in marginalized areas and examines if academic achievement and inhibitory control can be explained by children's age, socioeconomic status, soil-transmitted helminth infections, food insecurity, stunting, grip strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 1277 children (48% girls, mean age: 8.3 years). Data were assessed via questionnaires, stool samples, anthropometric measurements, 20 m shuttle run test, grip strength test, Flanker task, and school grades. Data were analysed with mixed linear regression models with random intercepts for school classes, separately for boys and girls. RESULTS: Higher socioeconomic status was most closely associated with academic achievement among boys (p < 0.05), whereas higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and not being stunted explained most variance in academic achievement in girls (p < 0.05). Higher age turned out to be associated with better performance in the Flanker task (p < 0.01). Additionally, in boys, higher grip strength was associated with better information processing and inhibitory control of attention (p < 0.01), whereas in girls, higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels were positively associated with these cognitive abilities (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Academic performance has been shown to be compromised in schoolchildren living in marginalised areas, compared to schoolchildren in less disadvantaged parts of South Africa. The present study suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness and grip strength are two potentially modifiable factors that are associated with children's academic achievement and cognitive performance, and that should be targeted in future school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Helmintos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Solo , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669905

RESUMO

The coexistence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors has been reported in school-aged children from the age of nine years, but most evidence stems from high-income countries. This cross-sectional study aimed at describing the cardiovascular health risk, physical activity (PA) behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels of South African primary schoolchildren, and at examining the associations between PA/CRF and a composite measure of cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional data from 832 primary schoolchildren (grade 1-4) were analyzed. Total cholesterol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body fat, and glycated hemoglobin were assessed as cardiovascular risk markers. Data were analyzed via mixed linear regressions and analyses of covariance. Overall, 24.2% of the participants did not meet current PA standards. Higher CRF/PA were associated with lower body fat and lower clustered cardiovascular risk (p < 0.05). When categorizing children into CRF/PA quartiles, a lower clustered cardiovascular risk gradient was found in children with higher CRF (p < 0.05) or PA (p < 0.05). Our data shows that higher CRF/PA is associated with lower clustered cardiovascular risk already from a young age. Given that clustered cardiovascular risk present during childhood can track into adulthood, we advocate for PA participation and a healthy weight from a young age onwards.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009279, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (LPEP) program explored the feasibility and impact of contact tracing and the provision of single dose rifampicin (SDR) to eligible contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. As the impact of the programme is difficult to establish in the short term, we apply mathematical modelling to predict its long-term impact on the leprosy incidence. METHODOLOGY: The individual-based model SIMCOLEP was calibrated and validated to the historic leprosy incidence data in the study areas. For each area, we assessed two scenarios: 1) continuation of existing routine activities as in 2014; and 2) routine activities combined with LPEP starting in 2015. The number of contacts per index patient screened varied from 1 to 36 between areas. Projections were made until 2040. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all areas, the LPEP program increased the number of detected cases in the first year(s) of the programme as compared to the routine programme, followed by a faster reduction afterwards with increasing benefit over time. LPEP could accelerate the reduction of the leprosy incidence by up to six years as compared to the routine programme. The impact of LPEP varied by area due to differences in the number of contacts per index patient included and differences in leprosy epidemiology and routine control programme. CONCLUSIONS: The LPEP program contributes significantly to the reduction of the leprosy incidence and could potentially accelerate the interruption of transmission. It would be advisable to include contact tracing/screening and SDR in routine leprosy programmes.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Brasil , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The damage inflicted by the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic upon humanity is and will continue to be considerable. Unprecedented progress made in global health over the past 20 years has reverted and economic growth has already evaporated, giving rise to a global recession, the likes of which we may not have experienced since the Second World War. Our aim is to draw the attention of the neglected tropical disease (NTD) community towards some of the major emerging economic opportunities which are quickly appearing on the horizon as a result of COVID-19. MAIN TEXT: This scoping review relied on a literature search comprised of a sample of articles, statements, and press releases on initiatives aimed at mitigating the impact of COVID-19, while supporting economic recovery. Of note, the donor scenario and economic development agendas are highly dynamic and expected to change rapidly as the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds, as are donor and lender priorities. CONCLUSIONS: The NTD community, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), will need to work quickly, diligently, and in close collaboration with decision-makers and key stakeholders, across sectors at national and international level to secure its position. Doing so might enhance the odds of grasping potential opportunities to access some of the massive resources that are now available in the form of contributions from corporate foundations, trust funds, loans, debt relieve schemes, and other financial mechanisms, as part of the ongoing and future economic development agendas and public health priorities driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper should serve as a starting point for the NTD community to seek much needed financial support in order to sustain and revitalize control and elimination efforts pertaining to NTDs in LMICs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Status Econômico , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Pobreza , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Clima Tropical , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(1): e81-e90, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative approaches are required for leprosy control to reduce cases and curb transmission of Mycobacterium leprae. Early case detection, contact screening, and chemoprophylaxis are the most promising tools. We aimed to generate evidence on the feasibility of integrating contact tracing and administration of single-dose rifampicin (SDR) into routine leprosy control activities. METHODS: The leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis (LPEP) programme was an international, multicentre feasibility study implemented within the leprosy control programmes of Brazil, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. LPEP explored the feasibility of combining three key interventions: systematically tracing contacts of individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy; screening the traced contacts for leprosy; and administering SDR to eligible contacts. Outcomes were assessed in terms of number of contacts traced, screened, and SDR administration rates. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2015, and Aug 1, 2019, LPEP enrolled 9170 index patients and listed 179 769 contacts, of whom 174 782 (97·2%) were successfully traced and screened. Of those screened, 22 854 (13·1%) were excluded from SDR mainly because of health reasons and age. Among those excluded, 810 were confirmed as new patients (46 per 10 000 contacts screened). Among the eligible screened contacts, 1182 (0·7%) refused prophylactic treatment with SDR. Overall, SDR was administered to 151 928 (86·9%) screened contacts. No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Post-exposure prophylaxis with SDR is safe; can be integrated into different leprosy control programmes with minimal additional efforts once contact tracing has been established; and is generally well accepted by index patients, their contacts, and health-care workers. The programme has also invigorated local leprosy control through the availability of a prophylactic intervention; therefore, we recommend rolling out SDR in all settings where contact tracing and screening have been established. FUNDING: Novartis Foundation.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
17.
Vaccine ; 39(3): 580-587, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342636

RESUMO

Heterologous vaccine regimens deliver antigens through different vaccine components or vector types at sequential time points. Clinical development shows promising results and several candidates may be progressing to licensure in the coming years. This study aimed at exploring future acceptance and uptake of such regimens (also called heterologous prime-boost) and to identify implementation-associated benefits and challenges. Survey tools were developed based on findings from a previous literature search shared with the study team, and exploratory interviews with global stakeholders. An online survey and key informant interviews in six countries were conducted with stakeholders at national and sub-national level, including policy-makers, regulators and implementers. The interview guide and the online survey covered: (a) awareness of, and knowledge about, heterologous vaccine regimens; (b) rating of regimen-associated perceived benefits and challenges; (c) anticipation of possible challenges in relation to four hypothetical introduction scenarios; (d) potential acceptance benefits and challenges at the policy, health facility and recipient level. Sixty-two interviews were conducted at national level. The online survey was completed by 50 participants. Across the four introduction scenarios, respondents considered the highest potential for the introduction of heterologous regimens for immunoprophylaxis was among adolescents/adults for diseases against which no vaccines are currently available. Most reservations were related to logistics, record keeping, and recipient compliance. Adding a new heterologous vaccine regimen to the routine immunization calendar for children was considered feasible if it could generate an increased and longer-term immune response. Introduction in preparation of or following a disease outbreak was considered less favourably, with respondents stressing the difficulty of logistics in emergency situations, and the potential lag in the onset of protection. The recent approval of the first heterologous vaccine regimen for the prevention of Ebola Virus Disease will soon bring new light to the topic.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Imunização , Vacinação
18.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105791, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy causes a range of symptoms, and most diagnoses are established based on the clinical picture. Therefore, false negative and positive diagnoses are relatively common. We analyzed the spatial pattern of leprosy misdiagnosis and associated factors in Brazil. METHOD: Exploratory analyses of Kernel density of the new case detection rate (NCDR) and proportion of misdiagnosis in Brazil, 2003-2017. Factors associated with misdiagnosis were identified by logistic regression at the 5% significance level. RESULT: A total of 574,181 new leprosy cases were recorded in Brazil within the study period, of which 7,477 (1.3%) were misdiagnoses. No spatial correlation was observed between the proportion of misdiagnoses and the NCDR. The likelihood of misdiagnosis was elevated for females [OR: 1.58 (1.51-1.66)], children [OR: 1.49 (1.36-1.64)]; paucibacillary [OR: 1.08 (1.02-1.13)], indeterminate clinical forms [OR: 2.37 (2.15-2.62)], for cases diagnosed in the frame of mass screenings [OR: 3.36 (3.09- 3.73)] and contact examination [OR: 2.30 (2.13-2.49)] and for cases with affected nerves but no skin lesions [OR: 2.47 (2.19-2.77)] when compared with those presenting both skin lesion and affected nerves. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis of leprosy is not correlated with the endemicity level in Brazil but rather with personal, diagnosis-related and disease characteristics.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 156, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy control achieved dramatic success in the 1980s-1990s with the implementation of short course multidrug therapy, which reduced the global prevalence of leprosy to less than 1 in 10 000 population. However, a period of relative stagnation in leprosy control followed this achievement, and only limited further declines in the global number of new cases reported have been achieved over the past decade. MAIN TEXT: In 2016, major stakeholders called for the development of an innovative and comprehensive leprosy strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of leprosy, lowering the burden of disability and discrimination, and interrupting transmission. This led to the establishment of the Global Partnership for Zero Leprosy (GPZL) in 2018, with partners aligned around a shared Action Framework committed to achieving the WHO targets by 2030 through national leprosy program capacity-building, resource mobilisation and an enabling research agenda. GPZL convened over 140 experts from more than 20 countries to develop a research agenda to achieve zero leprosy. The result is a detailed research agenda focusing on diagnostics, mapping, digital technology and innovation, disability, epidemiological modelling and investment case, implementation research, stigma, post exposure prophylaxis and transmission, and vaccines. This research agenda is aligned with the research priorities identified by other stakeholders. CONCLUSIONS: Developing and achieving consensus on the research agenda for zero leprosy is a significant step forward for the leprosy community. In a next step, research programmes must be developed, with individual components of the research agenda requiring distinct expertise, varying in resource needs, and operating over different timescales. Moving toward zero leprosy now requires partner alignment and new investments at all stages of the research process, from discovery to implementation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Incidência , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 6(1): e000823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062303

RESUMO

Background/Aim: Physical inactivity (PIA) is a growing global health problem and evidence suggests that PIA is a key driver for cardiovascular and chronic diseases. Recent data from South Africa revealed that only about half of the children achieved recommended daily physical activity (PA) levels. Assessing the intensity of PA in children from low socioeconomic communities in low-income and middle-income countries is important to estimate the extent of cardiovascular risk and overall impact on health. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in eight quintile 3 primary schools in disadvantaged communities in the Port Elizabeth region, South Africa. Children aged 10-15 years were subjected to PA, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose and skinfold thickness assessments. Cardiovascular risk markers were converted into standardised z-scores and summed, to obtain a clustered cardiovascular risk score. Results: Overall, 650 children had complete data records. 40.8% of the children did not meet recommended PA levels (ie, logged <60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day). If quartiles were developed based on children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and MVPA levels, a significant difference was found in clustered cardiovascular risk among children in the highest versus lowest fitness (p<0.001) or MVPA (p<0.001) quartiles. Conclusions: CRF and objectively assessed PA are closely linked with children's clustered cardiovascular risk. Given that 4 out of 10 South African schoolchildren from marginalised communities do not meet international PA recommendations, efforts should be made to ensure that promoting a physically active lifestyle is recognised as an important educational goal in primary schools. Trial registration numbers: ISRCTN68411960 and H14-HEA-HMS-002.

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