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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834813

RESUMO

Palmer amaranth is a problematic common weed species, especially in cotton. With the wide use of chemical herbicide and herbicide-tolerant transgenic cotton lines, Palmer amaranth populations have developed tolerance to commonly used herbicides. It is imperative to develop alternative weed control methods to slow the evolution of herbicide-resistant weed populations and provide new strategies for weed management. Eleven chromosome substitution (CS) cotton lines (CS-B26lo, CS-T17, CS-B16-15, CS-B17-11, CS-B12, CS-T05sh, CS-T26lo, CS-T11sh, CS-M11sh, CS-B22sh, and CS-B22lo) were screened for weed-suppressing abilities in this study. The cotton lines were tested using the established stair-step assay. Height (cm) and chlorophyll concentration (cci) were measured for each plant in the system. The most significant variation in Palmer amaranth height reduction among the CS lines was observed 21 days after establishment. CS-B22sh (76.82%) and T26lo (68.32%) were most effective in reducing Palmer amaranth height. The cluster analysis revealed that CS-B22sh, and CS-T26lo were clustered in one group, suggesting similar genetic potential with reference to Palmer amaranth growth and development. CS-B22sh showed novel genetic potential to control the growth and development of Palmer amaranth, a problematic weed in cotton fields. Future experimentation should implement more parameters and chemical testing to explore allelopathic interactions among CS lines and Palmer amaranth.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200224

RESUMO

Nutrients, including macronutrients such as Ca, P, K, and Mg, are essential for crop production and seed quality, and for human and animal nutrition and health. Macronutrient deficiencies in soil lead to poor crop nutritional qualities and a low level of macronutrients in cottonseed meal-based products, leading to malnutrition. Therefore, the discovery of novel germplasm with a high level of macronutrients or significant variability in the macronutrient content of crop seeds is critical. To our knowledge, there is no information available on the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution on cottonseed macronutrient content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution on the variability and content of the cottonseed macronutrients Ca, K, Mg, N, P, and S in chromosome substitution lines (CS). Nine chromosome substitution lines were grown in two-field experiments at two locations in 2013 in South Carolina, USA, and in 2014 in Mississippi, USA. The controls used were TM-1, the recurrent parent of the CS line, and the cultivar AM UA48. The results showed major variability in macronutrients among CS lines and between CS lines and controls. For example, in South Carolina, the mean values showed that five CS lines (CS-T02, CS-T04, CS-T08sh, CS-B02, and CS-B04) had higher Ca level in seed than controls. Ca levels in these CS lines varied from 1.88 to 2.63 g kg-1 compared with 1.81 and 1.72 g kg-1 for TM-1 and AMUA48, respectively, with CS-T04 having the highest Ca concentration. CS-M08sh exhibited the highest K concentration (14.50 g kg-1), an increase of 29% and 49% over TM-1 and AM UA48, respectively. Other CS lines had higher Mg, P, and S than the controls. A similar trend was found at the MS location. This research demonstrated that chromosome substitution resulted in higher seed macronutrients in some CS lines, and these CS lines with a higher content of macronutrients can be used as a genetic tool towards the identification of desired seed nutrition traits. Also, the CS lines with higher desired macronutrients can be used as parents to breed for improved nutritional quality in Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., through improvement by the interspecific introgression of desired seed nutrient traits such as Ca, K, P, S, and N. The positive and significant (p ≤ 0.0001) correlation of P with Ca, P with Mg, S with P, and S with N will aid in understanding the relationships between nutrients to improve the fertilizer management program and maintain higher cottonseed nutrient content.

3.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(3): 719-729, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779828

RESUMO

Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm), is a destructive disease to cotton production in many countries. In the U.S., Xcm race 18 is the most virulent and widespread race and can cause serious yield losses. Planting BB-resistant cotton cultivars is the most effective method of controlling this disease. In this study, 335 U.S. Upland cotton accessions were evaluated for resistance to race 18 using artificial inoculations by scratching cotyledons on an individual plant basis in a greenhouse. The analysis of variance detected significant genotypic variation in disease incidence, and 50 accessions were resistant including 38 lines with no symptoms on either cotyledons or true leaves. Many of the resistant lines were developed in the MAR (multi-adversity resistance) breeding program at Texas A&M University, whereas others were developed before race 18 was first reported in the U.S. in 1973, suggesting a broad base of resistance to race 18. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on 26,301 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers detected 11 quantitative trait loci (QTL) anchored by 79 SNPs, including three QTL on each of the three chromosomes A01, A05 and D02, and one QTL on each of D08 and D10. This study has identified a set of obsolete Upland germplasm with resistance to race 18 and specific chromosomal regions delineated by SNPs for resistance. The results will assist in breeding cotton for BB resistance and facilitate further genomic studies in fine mapping resistance genes to enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of BB resistance in cotton.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão/microbiologia , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/microbiologia , Xanthomonas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
4.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321878

RESUMO

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and development during the pre-and post-flowering stages are susceptible to high temperature and drought. We report the field-based characterization of multiple morpho-physiological and reproductive stress resilience traits in 11 interspecific chromosome substitution (CS) lines isogenic to each other and the inbred G. hirsutum line TM-1. Significant genetic variability was detected (p < 0.001) in multiple traits in CS lines carrying chromosomes and chromosome segments from CS-B (G. barbadense) and CS-T (G. tomentosum). Line CS-T15sh had a positive effect on photosynthesis (13%), stomatal conductance (33%), and transpiration (24%), and a canopy 6.8 °C cooler than TM-1. The average pollen germination was approximately 8% greater among the CS-B than CS-T lines. Based on the stress response index, three CS lines are identified as heat- and drought-tolerant (CS-T07, CS-B15sh, and CS-B18). The three lines demonstrated enhanced photosynthesis (14%), stomatal conductance (29%), transpiration (13%), and pollen germination (23.6%) compared to TM-1 under field conditions, i.e., traits that would expectedly enhance performance in stressful environments. The generated phenotypic data and stress-tolerance indices on novel CS lines, along with phenotypic methods, would help in developing new cultivars with improved resilience to the effects of global warming.

5.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842514

RESUMO

Micronutrients are essential for plant growth and development, and important for human health nutrition and livestock feed. Therefore, the discovery of novel germplasm with significant variability or higher micronutrients content in crop seeds is critical. Currently, there is no information available on the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution in cotton on cottonseed micronutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution on the variability and levels of micronutrients B, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni in cottonseed from chromosome substitution (CS) cotton lines. Our hypothesis was that interspecific chromosome substitution in cotton can affect cottonseed micronutrients content, resulting in significant differences and variabilities of these nutrients among CS lines and between CS lines and the controls. Nine CS lines were grown in two-field experiments at two locations (in 2013 in South Carolina, USA; and in 2014 in Mississippi, USA). TM-1 (the recurrent parent of the CS line) and AM UA48 (cultivar) were used as control. The results showed significant variability among CS lines compared to the controls AM UA48 and TM-1. For example, in South Carolina (SC), B concentration in cottonseed ranged from 10.35 mg kg-1 in CS-M02 to 13.67 mg kg-1 in CS-T04. The concentration of Cu ranged from 4.81 mg kg-1 in CS-B08sh to 7.65 mg kg-1 in CS-T02, and CS-T02 was higher than both controls. The concentration of Fe ranged from 36.09 mg kg-1 to 56.69 mg kg-1 (an increase up to 57%), and six CS lines (CS-B02, CS-B08sh, CS-M02, CS-M04, CS-T02, and CS-T04) had higher concentration than both controls in 2013. In 2014 at the Mississippi location (MS), similar observation was found with CS lines for micronutrients content. The CS lines with higher concentrations of these micronutrients can be used as a genetic tool toward QTL identification for desired seed traits because these lines are genetically similar with TM-1, except the substituted chromosome or chromosome segment pairs from the alien species. Chromosome substitution provides an effective means for upland cotton improvement by targeted interspecific introgression, yielding CS lines that facilitate trait discovery, such as seed micronutritional qualities, due to increased isogenicity and markedly reduced complexity from epistatic interactions with non-target alien chromosomes. The positive correlation between B, Cu, and Fe at both locations, between Ni and Mn, between Zn and Cu, and between Zn and Ni at both locations signify the importance of a good agricultural and fertilizer management of these nutrients to maintain higher cottonseed nutrient content.

6.
Nat Genet ; 52(5): 525-533, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313247

RESUMO

Polyploidy is an evolutionary innovation for many animals and all flowering plants, but its impact on selection and domestication remains elusive. Here we analyze genome evolution and diversification for all five allopolyploid cotton species, including economically important Upland and Pima cottons. Although these polyploid genomes are conserved in gene content and synteny, they have diversified by subgenomic transposon exchanges that equilibrate genome size, evolutionary rate heterogeneities and positive selection between homoeologs within and among lineages. These differential evolutionary trajectories are accompanied by gene-family diversification and homoeolog expression divergence among polyploid lineages. Selection and domestication drive parallel gene expression similarities in fibers of two cultivated cottons, involving coexpression networks and N6-methyladenosine RNA modifications. Furthermore, polyploidy induces recombination suppression, which correlates with altered epigenetic landscapes and can be overcome by wild introgression. These genomic insights will empower efforts to manipulate genetic recombination and modify epigenetic landscapes and target genes for crop improvement.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Gossypium/genética , Fibra de Algodão , Domesticação , Epigenômica/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Poliploidia
7.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(5): 1457-1467, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122962

RESUMO

Cotton is an important crop that has made significant gains in production over the last century. Emerging pests such as the reniform nematode have threatened cotton production. The rare African diploid species Gossypium longicalyx is a wild species that has been used as an important source of reniform nematode immunity. While mapping and breeding efforts have made some strides in transferring this immunity to the cultivated polyploid species, the complexities of interploidal transfer combined with substantial linkage drag have inhibited progress in this area. Moreover, this species shares its most recent common ancestor with the cultivated A-genome diploid cottons, thereby providing insight into the evolution of long, spinnable fiber. Here we report a newly generated de novo genome assembly of G. longicalyx This high-quality genome leveraged a combination of PacBio long-read technology, Hi-C chromatin conformation capture, and BioNano optical mapping to achieve a chromosome level assembly. The utility of the G. longicalyx genome for understanding reniform immunity and fiber evolution is discussed.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Gossypium , Ligação Genética , Gossypium/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Poliploidia
8.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 155-176, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620883

RESUMO

To provision the world sustainably, modern society must increase overall crop production, while conserving and preserving natural resources. Producing more with diminishing water resources is an especially daunting endeavor. Toward the goal of genetically improving drought resilience of cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), this study addresses the genetics of differential yield components referred to as productivity and fiber quality traits under regular-water versus low-water (LW) field conditions. We used ten traits to assess water stress deficit, which included six productivity and four fiber quality traits on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations from reciprocally crossed cultivars, Phytogen 72 and Stoneville 474. To facilitate genetic inferences, we genotyped RILs with the CottonSNP63K array, assembled high-density linkage maps of over 7000 SNPs and then analyzed quantitative trait variations. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for all traits (p < 0.05) in these RIL populations. Although the LW irrigation regime significantly reduced all traits, except lint percent, the RILs exhibited a broad phenotypic spectrum of heritable differences across the water regimes. Transgressive segregation occurred among the RILs, suggesting the possibility of genetic gain through phenotypic selection for drought resilience and perhaps through marker-based selection. Analyses revealed more than 150 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with productivity and fiber quality traits (p < 0.005) on different genomic regions of the cotton genome. The multiple-QTL models analysis with LOD > 3.0 detected 21 QTLs associated with productivity and 22 QTLs associated with fiber quality. For fiber traits, strong clustering and QTL associations occurred in c08 and its homolog c24 as well as c10, c14, and c21. Using contemporary genome sequence assemblies and bioinformatically related information, the identification of genomic regions associated with responses to plant stress/drought elevates the possibility of using marker-assisted and omics-based selection to enhance breeding for drought resilient cultivars and identifying candidate genes and networks. RILs with different responses to drought indicated that it is possible to maintain high fiber quality under LW conditions or reduce the of LW impact on quality. The heritable variation among elite bi-parental RILs for productivity and quality under field drought conditions, and their association of QTLs, and thus specific genomic regions, indicate opportunities for breeding-based gains in water resource conservation, i.e., enhancing cotton's agricultural sustainability.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Gossypium/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Fibra de Algodão , Secas , Ligação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
9.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 57: 165-188, 2019 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150590

RESUMO

Genetically engineered crops have been grown for more than 20 years, resulting in widespread albeit variable benefits for farmers and consumers. We review current, likely, and potential genetic engineering (GE) applications for the development of disease-resistant crop cultivars. Gene editing, gene drives, and synthetic biology offer novel opportunities to control viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens, parasitic weeds, and insect vectors of plant pathogens. We conclude that there will be no shortage of GE applications totackle disease resistance and other farmer and consumer priorities for agricultural crops. Beyond reviewing scientific prospects for genetically engineered crops, we address the social institutional forces that are commonly overlooked by biological scientists. Intellectual property regimes, technology regulatory frameworks, the balance of funding between public- and private-sector research, and advocacy by concerned civil society groups interact to define who uses which GE technologies, on which crops, and for the benefit of whom. Ensuring equitable access to the benefits of genetically engineered crops requires affirmative policies, targeted investments, and excellent science.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Impulso Genético , Edição de Genes , Produtos Agrícolas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Biologia Sintética
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15274, 2017 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127298

RESUMO

Like those of many agricultural crops, the cultivated cotton is an allotetraploid and has a large genome (~2.5 gigabase pairs). The two sub genomes, A and D, are highly similar but unequally sized and repeat-rich, which pose significant challenges for accurate genome reconstruction using standard approaches. Here we report the development of BAC libraries, sub genome specific physical maps, and a new-generation sequencing approach that will lead to a reference-grade genome assembly for Upland cotton. Three BAC libraries were constructed, fingerprinted, and integrated with BAC-end sequences (BES) to produce a de novo whole-genome physical map. The BAC map was partitioned by sub genomes through alignment to the diploid progenitor D-genome reference sequence with densely spaced BES anchor points and computational filtering. The physical maps were validated with FISH and genetic mapping of SNP markers derived from BES. Two pairs of homeologous chromosomes, A11/D11 and A12/D12, were used to assess multiplex sequencing approaches for completeness and scalability. The results represent the first sub genome anchored physical maps of Upland cotton, and a new-generation approach to the whole-genome sequencing, which will lead to the reference-grade assembly of allopolyploid cotton and serve as a general strategy for sequencing other polyploid species.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/genética , Poliploidia , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Biblioteca Gênica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 99, 2017 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is a pervasive evolutionary feature of all flowering plants and some animals, leading to genetic and epigenetic changes that affect gene expression and morphology. DNA methylation changes can produce meiotically stable epialleles, which are transmissible through selection and breeding. However, the relationship between DNA methylation and polyploid plant domestication remains elusive. RESULTS: We report comprehensive epigenomic and functional analyses, including ~12 million differentially methylated cytosines in domesticated allotetraploid cottons and their tetraploid and diploid relatives. Methylated genes evolve faster than unmethylated genes; DNA methylation changes between homoeologous loci are associated with homoeolog-expression bias in the allotetraploids. Significantly, methylation changes induced in the interspecific hybrids are largely maintained in the allotetraploids. Among 519 differentially methylated genes identified between wild and cultivated cottons, some contribute to domestication traits, including flowering time and seed dormancy. CONSTANS (CO) and CO-LIKE (COL) genes regulate photoperiodicity in Arabidopsis. COL2 is an epiallele in allotetraploid cottons. COL2A is hypermethylated and silenced, while COL2D is repressed in wild cottons but highly expressed due to methylation loss in all domesticated cottons tested. Inhibiting DNA methylation activates COL2 expression, and repressing COL2 in cultivated cotton delays flowering. CONCLUSIONS: We uncover epigenomic signatures of domestication traits during cotton evolution. Demethylation of COL2 increases its expression, inducing photoperiodic flowering, which could have contributed to the suitability of cotton for cultivation worldwide. These resources should facilitate epigenetic engineering, breeding, and improvement of polyploid crops.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica , Evolução Molecular , Gossypium/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Fotoperíodo , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Tetraploidia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 17(1): 37, 2017 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28158969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cotton germplasm resources contain beneficial alleles that can be exploited to develop germplasm adapted to emerging environmental and climate conditions. Accessions and lines have traditionally been characterized based on phenotypes, but phenotypic profiles are limited by the cost, time, and space required to make visual observations and measurements. With advances in molecular genetic methods, genotypic profiles are increasingly able to identify differences among accessions due to the larger number of genetic markers that can be measured. A combination of both methods would greatly enhance our ability to characterize germplasm resources. Recent efforts have culminated in the identification of sufficient SNP markers to establish high-throughput genotyping systems, such as the CottonSNP63K array, which enables a researcher to efficiently analyze large numbers of SNP markers and obtain highly repeatable results. In the current investigation, we have utilized the SNP array for analyzing genetic diversity primarily among cotton cultivars, making comparisons to SSR-based phylogenetic analyses, and identifying loci associated with seed nutritional traits. RESULTS: The SNP markers distinctly separated G. hirsutum from other Gossypium species and distinguished the wild from cultivated types of G. hirsutum. The markers also efficiently discerned differences among cultivars, which was the primary goal when designing the CottonSNP63K array. Population structure within the genus compared favorably with previous results obtained using SSR markers, and an association study identified loci linked to factors that affect cottonseed protein content. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a large genome-wide variation data set for primarily cultivated cotton. Thousands of SNPs in representative cotton genotypes provide an opportunity to finely discriminate among cultivated cotton from around the world. The SNPs will be relevant as dense markers of genome variation for association mapping approaches aimed at correlating molecular polymorphisms with variation in phenotypic traits, as well as for molecular breeding approaches in cotton.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Gossypium/classificação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
14.
Genomics Insights ; 10: 1178631017735104, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29308012

RESUMO

High-density linkage maps are vital to supporting the correct placement of scaffolds and gene sequences on chromosomes and fundamental to contemporary organismal research and scientific approaches to genetic improvement, especially in paleopolyploids with exceptionally complex genomes, eg, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., "2n = 52"). Three independently developed intraspecific upland mapping populations were analyzed to generate 3 high-density genetic linkage single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps and a consensus map using the CottonSNP63K array. The populations consisted of a previously reported F2, a recombinant inbred line (RIL), and reciprocal RIL population, from "Phytogen 72" and "Stoneville 474" cultivars. The cluster file provided 7417 genotyped SNP markers, resulting in 26 linkage groups corresponding to the 26 chromosomes (c) of the allotetraploid upland cotton (AD)1 arisen from the merging of 2 genomes ("A" Old World and "D" New World). Patterns of chromosome-specific recombination were largely consistent across mapping populations. The high-density genetic consensus map included 7244 SNP markers that spanned 3538 cM and comprised 3824 SNP bins, of which 1783 and 2041 were in the At and Dt subgenomes with 1825 and 1713 cM map lengths, respectively. Subgenome average distances were nearly identical, indicating that subgenomic differences in bin number arose due to the high numbers of SNPs on the Dt subgenome. Examination of expected recombination frequency or crossovers (COs) on the chromosomes within each population of the 2 subgenomes revealed that COs were also not affected by the SNPs or SNP bin number in these subgenomes. Comparative alignment analyses identified historical ancestral At-subgenomic translocations of c02 and c03, as well as of c04 and c05. The consensus map SNP sequences aligned with high congruency to the NBI assembly of Gossypium hirsutum. However, the genomic comparisons revealed evidence of additional unconfirmed possible duplications, inversions and translocations, and unbalance SNP sequence homology or SNP sequence/loci genomic dominance, or homeolog loci bias of the upland tetraploid At and Dt subgenomes. The alignments indicated that 364 SNP-associated previously unintegrated scaffolds can be placed in pseudochromosomes of the NBI G hirsutum assembly. This is the first intraspecific SNP genetic linkage consensus map assembled in G hirsutum with a core of reproducible mendelian SNP markers assayed on different populations and it provides further knowledge of chromosome arrangement of genic and nongenic SNPs. Together, the consensus map and RIL populations provide a synergistically useful platform for localizing and identifying agronomically important loci for improvement of the cotton crop.

15.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 1860, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822436

RESUMO

'Jones Hybrid' hickory is an accession in the National Collection of Genetic Resources for Pecans and Hickories for which information about origin, identity and characteristics is very incomplete. Phenotypic and genetic profiles, when examined in the context of historic literature, provide evidence that the accession in question is 'Siers' a cultivar of Carya × laneyi (an interspecific hybrid between C. ovata and C. cordiformis). The accession has traits that make it interesting in the pecan breeding program, with potential for both rootstock and scion development. The tall, slender tree form of 'Jones Hybrid' is a trait that could be valuable in commercial pecan cultivars, allowing increased tree densities and reducing the need for expensive hedging operations. Tree size reduction is a goal to be pursued in scion selection and rootstock development, with each goal requiring assessment of reproductive potential of the accession.

16.
17.
PLoS Genet ; 12(5): e1006012, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27168520

RESUMO

Allotetraploid cotton species are a vital source of spinnable fiber for textiles. The polyploid nature of the cotton genome raises many evolutionary questions as to the relationships between duplicated genomes. We describe the evolution of the cotton genome (SNPs and structural variants) with the greatly improved resolution of 34 deeply re-sequenced genomes. We also explore the evolution of homoeologous regions in the AT- and DT-genomes and especially the phenomenon of conversion between genomes. We did not find any compelling evidence for homoeologous conversion between genomes. These findings are very different from other recent reports of frequent conversion events between genomes. We also identified several distinct regions of the genome that have been introgressed between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, which presumably resulted from breeding efforts targeting associated beneficial alleles. Finally, the genotypic data resulting from this study provides access to a wealth of diversity sorely needed in the narrow germplasm of cotton cultivars.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/genética , Tetraploidia , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Fibra de Algodão , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Poliploidia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(8): 1657-63, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26885566

RESUMO

In approximately 25% of the sugarcane-producing countries worldwide, conventional sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is exposed to damaging freezes. A study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 harvest seasons to compare late-season freeze tolerance among three groups: commercial Louisiana sugarcane genotypes, early generation genotypes selected for cold tolerance in the U.S. Department of Agriculture sugarcane breeding programs at Houma, LA, and Canal Point, FL, and potential energycane genotypes selected for high total biomass per acre. Mannitol concentrations in cane juice following freezing temperatures were determined to evaluate levels of cold tolerance. Genotypes selected for cold tolerance in Houma, LA, had significantly more late-season freeze tolerance than commercial sugarcane genotypes and genotypes selected in Canal Point, FL. Genotypes showing the most cold tolerance were Ho02-146 and Ho02-152, and those that were most highly susceptible were US87-1006 and US87-1003 (early-generation breeding genotypes) and L99-233 (commercial genotype). Broad-sense heritability for late-season cold tolerance in the two-year study was estimated at g(2) = 0.78. The enzymatic mannitol analysis successfully differentiated high-fiber energycane genotypes from those from other sources.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Manitol/química , Saccharum/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Temperatura Baixa , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Saccharum/genética , Estações do Ano
19.
Biotechniques ; 58(5): 234-43, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967902

RESUMO

Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Gossypium/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Gossypium/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Plântula/classificação , Plântula/genética , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0125046, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25927364

RESUMO

The number of cotton (Gossypium sp.) ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Óvulo Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transcriptoma
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