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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Austrália , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
3.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 23(4): e12538, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiac electrical biomarker (CEB) is a novel electrocardiographic (ECG) marker quantifying the dipolar activity of the heart with higher levels indicating myocardial injury. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 1097 patients presenting with suspected non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) to the emergency department (ED). Digital 12-lead ECGs were recorded at presentation and the CEB values were calculated in a blinded fashion. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: NSTEMI was the final diagnosis in 14% of patients. CEB levels were higher in patients with NSTEMI compared to other causes of chest pain (median 44 (IQR 21-98) vs. 30 (IQR 16-61), p < .001). A weak but significant correlation between levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) at admission to the ED and the CEB was found (r = .23, p < .001). The use of the CEB in addition to conventional ECG criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of NSTEMI as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve from 0.66 to 0.71 (p < .001) and the sensitivity improved from 43% to 79% (p < .001). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the CEB, an ECG marker of myocardial injury, significantly improves the accuracy and sensitivity of the ECG for the diagnosis of NSTEMI.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Clin Chem ; 63(7): 1227-1236, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28515106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared 2 high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn)-based 2-h strategies in patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the emergency department (ED): the 2-h accelerated diagnostic protocol (2h-ADP) combining hs-cTn, electrocardiogram, and a risk score, and the 2-h algorithm exclusively based on hs-cTn concentrations and their absolute changes. METHODS: Analyses were performed in 2 independent diagnostic cohorts [European Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndrome Evaluation (APACE) study, Australian-New Zealand 2-h Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess patients with chest Pain symptoms using contemporary Troponins as the only biomarker (ADAPT) study] employing hs-cTnT (Elecsys) and hs-cTnI (Architect). The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. RESULTS: AMI was the final diagnosis in 16.5% (95% CI, 14.6%-18.6%) of the 1372 patients in APACE, and 12.6% (95% CI, 10.7%-14.7%) of 1153 patients in ADAPT. The negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity for AMI were very high and comparable with both strategies using either hs-cTnT or hs-cTnI in both cohorts (all statistical comparisons nonsignificant). The percentage of patients triaged toward rule-out was significantly lower with the 2h-ADP (36%-43%) vs the 2-h algorithm (55%-68%) with both assays and in both cohorts (P < 0.001). The sensitivity of the 2h-ADP was higher for 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: Both algorithms provided very high and comparable safety as quantified by the NPV and sensitivity for AMI and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days in patients triaged toward rule-out, although sensitivity for MACE at 30 days was lower with both algorithms in cohort 2. Although the 2-h algorithm was more efficacious, not all patients ruled out for AMI by this algorithm were appropriate candidates for early discharge. The 2h-ADP seems superior in the selection of patients for early discharge from the ED. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: APACE: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00470587ADAPT: Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001069943.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/normas , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
5.
Am Heart J ; 181: 16-25, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27823689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important medical and economic challenge. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the performance of the new European Society of Cardiology rapid 0-hour/3-hour (0 h/3 h) rule out protocol for AMI. METHODS: We enrolled 2,727 consecutive patients presenting with suspected AMI without persistent ST-segment elevation to the emergency department in a prospective international multicenter study. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The performance of the 0 h/3 h rule out protocol was evaluated using 4 high-sensitivity (primary analysis) and 3 sensitive cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. RESULTS: Acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 473 patients (17.3%). Using the 4 high-sensitivity cTn assays, the 0-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.8% (95% [confidence interval] CI, 98.7%-100%), 99.6% (95% CI, 98.5%-99.9%), 100% (95% CI, 97.9%-100%), and 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100%) of late presenters (>6 h from chest pain onset). The 3-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.9% (95% CI, 99.1%-100%), 99.5% (95% CI, 98.3%-99.9%), 100% (95% CI, 98.1%-100%), and 100% (95% CI, 98.2%-100%) of early presenters (<6 h from chest pain onset). Using the 3 sensitive cTn assays, the 0-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.6% (95% CI, 98.6%-99.9%), 99.0% (95% CI, 96.9%-99.7%), and 99.1% (95% CI, 97.2%-99.8%) of late presenters; and the 3-hour rule out protocol correctly ruled out 99.4% (95% CI, 98.3%-99.8%), 99.2% (95% CI, 97.3%-99.8%), and 99.0% (95% CI, 97.2%-99.7%) of early presenters. Overall, the 0 h/3 h rule out protocol assigned 40% to 60% of patients to rule out. None of the patients assigned rule out died during 3-months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The 0 h/3 h rule out protocol seems to allow the accurate rule out of AMI using both high-sensitivity and sensitive cTn measurements in conjunction with clinical assessment. Additional studies are warranted for external validation.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor no Peito/sangue , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Am Heart J ; 171(1): 92-102.e1-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26699605

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: We aimed to prospectively derive and validate a novel 0-/1-hour algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) for the early "rule-out" and "rule-in" of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: In a prospective multicenter diagnostic study, we enrolled 1,500 patients presenting with suspected AMI to the emergency department. The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists blinded to hs-cTnI concentrations. The hs-cTnI (Siemens Vista) 0-/1-hour algorithm incorporated measurements performed at baseline and absolute changes within 1 hour, was derived in the first 750 patients (derivation cohort), and then validated in the second 750 (validation cohort). RESULTS: Overall, AMI was the final diagnosis in 16% of patients. Applying the hs-cTnI 0-/1-hour algorithm developed in the derivation cohort to the validation cohort, 57% of patients could be classified as "rule-out"; 10%, as "rule-in"; and 33%, as "observe." In the validation cohort, the sensitivity and the negative predictive value for AMI in the "rule-out" zone were 100% (95% CI 96%-100%) and 100% (95% CI 99%-100%), respectively. The specificity and the positive predictive value (PPV) for AMI in the "rule-in" zone were 96% (95% CI 94%-97%) and 70% (95% CI 60%-79%), respectively. Negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the 0-/1-hour algorithm were higher compared to the standard of care combining hs-cTnI with the electrocardiogram (both P < .001). CONCLUSION: The hs-cTnI 0-/1-hour algorithm performs very well for early rule-out as well as rule-in of AMI. The clinical implications are that used in conjunction with all other clinical information, the 0-/1-hour algorithm will be a safe and effective approach to substantially reduce time to diagnosis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 195: 163-70, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26043151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown, whether and to what extent sensitive cardiac troponin (s-cTn) allows shortening of the time required for safe rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: We aimed to develop and validate early rule-out and rule-in algorithms for AMI using a thoroughly-examined and commonly used s-cTnI assay in a prospective multicenter study including 2173 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. S-cTnI was measured in a blinded fashion at 0 h, 1 h, and 2 h. The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. In the derivation cohort (n = 1496), we developed 1h- and 2h-algorithms assigning patients to "rule-out", "rule-in", or "observe". The algorithms were then prospectively validated in the validation cohort (n = 677). RESULTS: AMI was the adjudicated diagnosis in 17% of patients. After applying the s-cTnI 1h-algorithm developed in the derivation cohort to the validation cohort, 65% of patients were classified as "rule-out", 12% as "rule-in", and 23% to "observe". The negative predictive value for AMI in the "rule-out" group was 98.6% (95% CI, 96.9-99.5), the positive predictive value for AMI in the "rule-in" group 76.3% (95% CI, 65.4-85.1). Overall, 30-day mortality was 0.2% in the "rule-out" group, 1.0% in the "observe" group, and 3.0% in the "rule-in" group. Similar results were obtained for the 2h-algorithm. CONCLUSION: When used in conjunction with other clinical information including the ECG, a simple algorithm incorporating s-cTnI values at presentation and after 1h (or 2h) will allow safe rule-out and accurate rule-in of AMI in the majority of patients.


Assuntos
Tempo para o Tratamento , Troponina I , Idoso , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
8.
Circulation ; 131(23): 2032-40, 2015 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may significantly harm patients and may result from inappropriate clinical decision values (CDVs) for cardiac troponin (cTn) owing to limitations in the current regulatory process. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an international, prospective, multicenter study, we quantified the incidence of inconsistencies in the diagnosis of AMI using fully characterized and clinically available high-sensitivity (hs) cTn assays (hs-cTnI, Abbott; hs-cTnT, Roche) among 2300 consecutive patients with suspected AMI. We hypothesized that the approved CDVs for the 2 assays are not biologically equivalent and might therefore contribute to inconsistencies in the diagnosis of AMI. Findings were validated by use of sex-specific CDVs and parallel measurements of other hs-cTnI assays. AMI was the adjudicated diagnosis in 473 patients (21%). Among these, 86 patients (18.2%) had inconsistent diagnoses when the approved uniform CDV was used. When sex-specific CDVs were used, 14.1% of female and 22.7% of male AMI patients had inconsistent diagnoses. Using biologically equivalent CDV reduced inconsistencies to 10% (P<0.001). These findings were confirmed with parallel measurements of other hs-cTn assays. The incidence of inconsistencies was only 7.0% for assays with CDVs that were nearly biologically equivalent. Patients with inconsistent AMI had long-term mortality comparable to that of patients with consistent diagnoses (P=NS) and a trend toward higher long-term mortality than patients diagnosed with unstable angina (P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Currently approved CDVs are not biologically equivalent and contribute to major inconsistencies in the diagnosis of AMI. One of 5 AMI patients will receive a diagnosis other than AMI if managed with the alternative hs-cTn assay. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Cooperação Internacional , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Circulation ; 131(23): 2041-50, 2015 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25948542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether more sensitive cardiac troponin (cTn) assays maintain their clinical utility in patients with renal dysfunction. Moreover, their optimal cutoff levels in this vulnerable patient population have not previously been defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicenter study, we examined the clinical utility of 7 more sensitive cTn assays (3 sensitive and 4 high-sensitivity cTn assays) in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction. Among 2813 unselected patients, 447 (16%) had renal dysfunction (defined as Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2)). The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including coronary angiography and serial levels of high-sensitivity cTnT. Acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 36% of all patients with renal dysfunction. Among patients with renal dysfunction and elevated baseline cTn levels (≥99th percentile), acute myocardial infarction was the most common diagnosis for all assays (range, 45%-80%). In patients with renal dysfunction, diagnostic accuracy at presentation, quantified by the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve, was 0.87 to 0.89 with no significant differences between the 7 more sensitive cTn assays and further increased to 0.91 to 0.95 at 3 hours. Overall, the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve in patients with renal dysfunction was only slightly lower than in patients with normal renal function. The optimal receiver-operator characteristic curve-derived cTn cutoff levels in patients with renal dysfunction were significantly higher compared with those in patients with normal renal function (factor, 1.9-3.4). CONCLUSIONS: More sensitive cTn assays maintain high diagnostic accuracy in patients with renal dysfunction. To ensure the best possible clinical use, assay-specific optimal cutoff levels, which are higher in patients with renal dysfunction, should be considered. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Rim/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
CMAJ ; 187(8): E243-E252, 2015 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25869867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to prospectively validate a novel 1-hour algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurement for early rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: In a multicentre study, we enrolled 1320 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute MI. The high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T 1-hour algorithm, incorporating baseline values as well as absolute changes within the first hour, was validated against the final diagnosis. The final diagnosis was then adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including coronary angiography, echocardiography, follow-up data and serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels. RESULTS: Acute MI was the final diagnosis in 17.3% of patients. With application of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T 1-hour algorithm, 786 (59.5%) patients were classified as "rule-out," 216 (16.4%) were classified as "rule-in" and 318 (24.1%) were classified to the "observational zone." The sensitivity and the negative predictive value for acute MI in the rule-out zone were 99.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 97.6%-99.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.3%-100%), respectively. The specificity and the positive predictive value for acute MI in the rule-in zone were 95.7% (95% CI 94.3%-96.8%) and 78.2% (95% CI 72.1%-83.6%), respectively. The 1-hour algorithm provided higher negative and positive predictive values than the standard interpretation of highsensitivity cardiac troponin T using a single cut-off level (both p < 0.05). Cumulative 30-day mortality was 0.0%, 1.6% and 1.9% in patients classified in the rule-out, observational and rule-in groups, respectively (p = 0.001). INTERPRETATION: This rapid strategy incorporating high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T baseline values and absolute changes within the first hour substantially accelerated the management of suspected acute MI by allowing safe rule-out as well as accurate rule-in of acute MI in 3 out of 4 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Eur Heart J ; 35(34): 2303-11, 2014 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24842285

RESUMO

AIM: It is unknown whether cardiac troponin (cTn) I or cTnT is the preferred biomarker in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation (NSTEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective multicentre study, we measured cTnI and cTnT using clinically available high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTnI Abbott and hs-cTnT Roche) and compared their diagnostic and prognostic accuracies in consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all information pertaining to the individual patient. The mean follow-up was 24 months. Among 2226 consecutive patients, 18% had an adjudicated final diagnosis of NSTEMI. Diagnostic accuracy at presentation as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating-characteristics curve (AUC) for NSTEMI was very high and similar for hs-cTnI [AUC: 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.94] and hs-cTnT (0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) P = 0.62. In early presenters (<3 h since chest pain onset) hs-cTnI showed a higher diagnostic accuracy (AUC: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94) when compared with hs-cTnT AUC (0.89, 95% CI: 0.86-0.91) (P = 0.019), while hs-cTnT was superior in late presenters [AUC hs-cTnT 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.96)  vs. hs-cTnI 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93-0.95); P = 0.007]. The prognostic accuracy for all-cause mortality, quantified by AUC, was significantly higher for hs-cTnT (AUC: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.78-0.82) when compared with hs-cTnI (AUC: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.73-0.77; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT provided high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. The direct comparison revealed small but potentially important differences that might help to further improve the clinical use of hs-cTn.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/metabolismo , Troponina T/metabolismo , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Can J Cardiol ; 30(2): 195-203, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24461921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction plays a major role in cardiovascular diseases, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, its quantification has not been available as a clinical tool. METHODS: In a prospective international multicentre study, we analyzed the diagnostic and prognostic utility of endothelial dysfunction as quantified by C-terminal proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) in 658 consecutive patients presenting with suspected AMI. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Patients were followed long-term for mortality. RESULTS: The adjudicated final diagnosis was AMI in 145 patients (22%). The diagnostic performance of CT-proET-1 for AMI was moderate; its area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve amounted to 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.72; P < 0.001). There was no significant increase in the AUC when CT-proET-1 was added to either cardiac troponin T (cTnT) or high-sensitivity cTnT (hs-cTnT). Seventy four percent of patients who died during the first 24 months (n = 50) were in the fourth quartile of the CT-proET-1 presentation value (>82 pmol/L). The prognostic accuracy of CT-proET-1 regarding mortality was tantamount to that of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and outperformed cTnT and hs-cTnT both in patients with AMI and in patients without acute coronary syndrome. CT-proET-1 at presentation yielded high prognostic accuracy that was similar to that of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk scores. The TIMI risk score could be significantly improved by adding CT-proET-1 (integrated discriminatory improvement [IDI] of 0.074 P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Use of CT-proET-1 improves risk stratification of unselected patients with suspected AMI. CT-proET-1 did not provide additional diagnostic value.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Endotelina-1/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia
13.
Eur Heart J ; 35(6): 365-75, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23821402

RESUMO

AIMS: Several high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have recently been developed. It is unknown which hs-cTn provides the most accurate prognostic information and to what extent early changes in hs-cTn predict mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective, international multicentre study, cTn was simultaneously measured with three novel [high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT), Roche Diagnostics; hs-cTnI, Beckman-Coulter; hs-cTnI, Siemens] and a conventional assay (cTnT, Roche Diagnostics) in a blinded fashion in 1117 unselected patients with acute chest pain. Patients were followed up 2 years regarding mortality. Eighty-two (7.3%) patients died during the follow-up. The 2-year prognostic accuracy of hs-cTn was most accurate for hs-cTnT [area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.78 (95% CI: 0.73-0.83) and outperformed both hs-cTnI (Beckman-Coulter, 0.71 (95% CI: 0.65-0.77; P = 0.001 for comparison), hs-cTnI (Siemens) 0.70 (95% CI: 0.64-0.76; P < 0.001 for comparison)] and cTnT 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61-0.74; P < 0.001 for comparison). Absolute changes of hs-cTnT were more accurate than relative changes in predicting mortality, but inferior to presentation values of hs-cTnT. Combining changes of hs-cTnT within the first 6 h with their presentation values did not further improve prognostic accuracy. Similar results were obtained for both hs-cTnI assays regarding the incremental value of changes. Hs-cTn concentrations remained predictors of death in clinically challenging subgroups such as patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease, impaired renal function, and patients older than 75 years. CONCLUSION: High-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T is more accurate than hs-cTnI in the prediction of long-term mortality. Changes of hs-cTn do not seem to further improve risk stratification beyond initial presentation values.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Angina Instável/mortalidade , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dor no Peito/mortalidade , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Mioglobina/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Heart ; 99(21): 1567-72, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23604180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) below their respective 99th percentile can be used as a single parameter to rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at presentation. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured hs-cTn using four different methods (hs-cTnT Roche, hs-cTnI Siemens, hs-cTnI Beckman Coulter and hs-cTnI Abbott) in consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis. Patients were followed for death or AMI during a mean period of 24 months. RESULTS: Among 2072 consecutive patients with hs-cTnT measurements available, 21.4% had an adjudicated diagnosis of AMI (sensitivity 89.6%, 95% CI 86.4% to 92.3%, negative predictive value (NPV): 96.5%, 95% CI 95.4% to 97.4%). Among 1180 consecutive patients with hs-cTnI Siemens measurements available, 20.0% had AMI (sensitivity 94.1%, 95% CI 90.3% to 96.7%, NPV: 98.0%, 95% CI: 96.6% to 98.9%). Among 1151 consecutive patients with hs-cTnI Beckman Coulter measurements available, 19.7% had AMI (sensitivity 92.1%, 95% CI 87.8% to 95.2%, NPV: 97.5%, 95% CI 96.0% to 98.5%). Among 1567 consecutive patients with hs-cTnI Abbott measurements available, 20.0% had AMI (sensitivity 77.2%, 95% CI 72.1% to 81.7%, NPV: 94.3%, 95% CI 92.8% to 95.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Normal hs-cTn levels at presentation should not be used as a single parameter to rule out AMI as 6%-23% of adjudicated AMI cases had normal levels of hs-cTn levels at presentation. Our data highlight the lack of standardisation among hs-cTnI assays resulting in substantial differences in sensitivity and NPV at the 99th percentile.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 167(4): 1164-9, 2013 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22507551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute chest pain having serial undetectable cardiac troponin (cTn) levels, as measured with conventional assays, are considered at very low risk. The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the accuracy of multiple biomarkers in these patients. METHODS: We enrolled 1247 consecutive patients with suspected AMI. Of these, 325 had undetectable levels of cTnT (Roche, 4th generation assay) at presentation and at 6h. Fourteen novel markers quantifying cardiomyocyte damage, inflammation and/or plaque rupture, and neurohormonal activation were measured at presentation. The occurrence of death or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (primary end point) and unplanned coronary revascularization (secondary endpoint) were recorded during long-term follow-up. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 668 ± 241 days, death/AMI occurred in 23 patients (7%), unplanned revascularization in 46 (14%). Among all biomarkers, high-sensitive cTnT (hs-cTnT), Midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) were independently associated with future death/AMI; hs-cTnT was 0.013 (0.008-0.017) µg/l versus 0.006 (0.003-0.010) µg/l, MR-proADM was 0.78 (0.66-1.09) nmol/l versus 0.60 (0.18-0.80) nmol/l and GDF-15 was 1800 (1600-2200) ng/l versus 1100 (800-1700) ng/l in patients with versus without death/AMI during follow-up (p<0.001 each). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve to predict death/AMI was 0.73 (95%CI 0.63-0.83) for hs-cTnT, 0.71 (95% CI 0.62-0.81) for MR-proADM and 0.78 (95%CI 0.71-0.86) for GDF-15. CONCLUSION: Patients with serial undetectable levels of cTnT using the contemporary 4th generation assay are at low but not negligible risk of future cardiac events. Hs-cTnT, MR-proADM and/or GDF-15 might help to further improve risk-stratification in this group.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/sangue , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Am J Med ; 125(12): 1205-1213.e1, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23164485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to compare the incidence and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction when using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays instead of a standard cardiac troponin assay for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: In a prospective international multicenter study, we enrolled 1124 consecutive patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Final diagnoses were adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists 2 times using all available clinical information: first using standard cardiac troponin levels and second using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels for adjudication. Patients were followed up for a mean of 19±9 months. RESULTS: The use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T instead of standard cardiac troponin resulted in an increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction from 18% to 22% (242 vs 198 patients), a relative increase of 22%. Of the 44 additional acute myocardial infarctions, 35 were type 1 acute myocardial infarctions and 9 were type 2 acute myocardial infarctions. This was accompanied by a reciprocal decrease in the incidence of unstable angina (unstable angina, 11% vs 13%). The most pronounced increase was observed in patients adjudicated with cardiac symptoms of origin other than coronary artery disease with cardiomyocyte damage (83 vs 31 patients, relative increase of 268%). Cumulative 30-month mortality rates were 4.8% in patients without acute myocardial infarction, 16.4% in patients with a small acute myocardial infarction detected only by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T but not standard cardiac troponin, and 23.9% in patients with a moderate/large acute myocardial infarction according to standard cardiac troponin assays and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays leads to only a modest increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. The novel sensitive assays identify an additional high-risk group of patients with increased mortality, therefore appropriately classified with acute myocardial infarction (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation; NCT00470587).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/classificação , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Troponina/sangue
18.
Arch Intern Med ; 172(16): 1211-8, 2012 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22892889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays seem to improve the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it is unknown how to best use them in clinical practice. Our objective was to develop and validate an algorithm for rapid rule-out and rule-in of AMI. METHODS: A prospective multicenter study enrolling 872 unselected patients with acute chest pain presenting to the emergency department. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) was measured in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 hour. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. An hs-cTnT algorithm incorporating baseline values as well as absolute changes within the first hour was derived from 436 randomly selected patients and validated in the remaining 436 patients. The primary prognostic end point was death during 30 days of follow-up. RESULTS: Acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 17% of patients. After applying the hs-cTnT algorithm developed in the derivation cohort to the validation cohort, 259 patients (60%) could be classified as "rule-out," 76 patients (17%) as "rule-in," and 101 patients (23%) as in the "observational zone" within 1 hour. Overall, this resulted in a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% for rule-out, a specificity and positive predictive value of 97% and 84%, respectively, for rule-in, and a prevalence of AMI of 8% in the observational zone group. Cumulative 30-day survival was 99.8%, 98.6%, and 95.3% (P < .001) in patients classified as rule-out, observational zone, and rule-in, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using a simple algorithm incorporating hs-cTnT baseline values and absolute changes within the first hour allowed a safe rule-out as well as an accurate rule-in of AMI within 1 hour in 77% of unselected patients with acute chest pain. This novel strategy may obviate the need for prolonged monitoring and serial blood sampling in 3 of 4 patients.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor no Peito/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Circulation ; 126(1): 31-40, 2012 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22623715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) and its early change are useful in distinguishing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from acute cardiac noncoronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective, international multicenter study, hs-cTn was measured with 3 assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics; hs-cTnI, Beckman-Coulter; hs-cTnI Siemens) in a blinded fashion at presentation and serially thereafter in 887 unselected patients with acute chest pain. Accuracy of the combination of presentation values with serial changes was compared against a final diagnosis adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. AMI was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 127 patients (15%); cardiac noncoronary artery disease, in 124 (14%). Patients with AMI had higher median presentation values of hs-cTnT (0.113 µg/L [interquartile range, 0.049-0.246 µg/L] versus 0.012 µg/L [interquartile range, 0.006-0.034 µg/L]; P<0.001) and higher absolute changes in hs-cTnT in the first hour (0.019 µg/L [interquartile range, 0.007-0.067 µg/L] versus 0.001 µg/L [interquartile range, 0-0.003 µg/L]; P<0.001) than patients with cardiac noncoronary artery disease. Similar findings were obtained with the hs-cTnI assays. Adding changes of hs-cTn in the first hour to its presentation value yielded a diagnostic accuracy for AMI as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.94 for hs-cTnT (0.92 for both hs-cTnI assays). Algorithms using ST-elevation, presentation values, and changes in hs-cTn in the first hour accurately separated patients with AMI and those with cardiac noncoronary artery disease. These findings were confirmed when the final diagnosis was readjudicated with the use of hs-cTnT values and validated in an independent validation cohort. CONCLUSION: The combined use of hs-cTn at presentation and its early absolute change excellently discriminates between patients with AMI and those with cardiac noncoronary artery disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
20.
Am J Med ; 125(5): 491-498.e1, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22482847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent noncardiac causes, including renal dysfunction, may contribute to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels. METHODS: In an observational international multicenter study, we enrolled consecutive patients presenting with acute chest pain to the emergency department. Of 1181 patients enrolled, 572 were adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists to have a noncardiac cause of chest pain. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the important predictors of log-transformed high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to assess the prognostic significance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T>0.014 µg/L (99th percentile). RESULTS: A total of 88 patients (15%) had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T>0.014 µg/L. Less than 50% of cardiac troponins could be explained by known cardiac or noncardiac diseases. In decreasing order of importance, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, and chronic kidney disease (adjusted r(2) 0.44) emerged as significant factors in linear regression analysis to predict high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T was best explained by a linear curve with age as ≤0.014 µg/L. Patients with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels>0.014 µg/L were at increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-10.6; P=.02) during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Among the known covariates, age and not renal dysfunction is the most important determinant of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. Because known cardiac and noncardiac factors, including renal dysfunction, explain less than 50% of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels among patients with a noncardiac cause of chest pain, unknown or underestimated cardiac involvement during the acute presenting condition seems to be the major cause of elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/etiologia , Troponina T/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Dor no Peito/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
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