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Stem Cells Int ; 2020: 5962354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399045


Injectable regenerative therapies such as bone marrow concentrate (BMC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may represent a safe alternative in the treatment of rotator cuff tears. This is a midterm review of a randomized, crossover trial comparing autologous BMC and platelet product injections versus exercise therapy in the treatment of partial and full-thickness supraspinatus tears. Patients enrolled into the study were between 18 and 65 years of age presenting to an outpatient orthopedic clinic with partial to full thickness, nonretracted supraspinatus tendon tears. Enrolled patients were randomized to either ultrasound-guided autologous BMC with PRP and platelet lysate (PL) percutaneous injection treatment or exercise therapy. Patients could cross over to BMC treatment after at least 3 months of exercise therapy. Patients completed the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included the numeric pain scale (NPS), a modified Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and a blinded MRI review. At this midterm review, results from 25 enrolled patients who have reached at least 12-month follow-up are presented. No serious adverse events were reported. Significant differences were seen in patient reported outcomes for the BMC treatment compared to exercise therapy at 3 and 6 months for pain, and for function and reported improvement (SANE) at 3 months (p < .05). Patients reported a mean 89% improvement at 24 months, with sustained functional gains and pain reduction. MRI review showed a size decrease of most tears post-BMC treatment. These findings suggest that ultrasound-guided BMC and platelet product injections are a safe and useful alternative to conservative exercise therapy of torn, nonretracted supraspinatus tendons. This trial is registered with NCT01788683.

Pain Physician ; 23(2): E85-E131, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214287


BACKGROUND: The use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders has become increasingly popular over the last several years, as technology has improved along with the need for better solutions for these pathologies. The use of cellular tissue raises a number of issues regarding the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation in classifying these treatments as a drug versus just autologous tissue transplantation. In the case of BMC in musculoskeletal and spine care, this determination will likely hinge on whether BMC is homologous to the musculoskeletal system and spine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to describe the current regulatory guidelines set in place by the FDA, specifically the terminology around "minimal manipulation" and "homologous use" within Regulation 21 CFR Part 1271, and specifically how this applies to the use of BMC in interventional musculoskeletal medicine. METHODS: The methodology utilized here is similar to the methodology utilized in preparation of multiple guidelines employing the experience of a panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties from differing regions of the world. The collaborators who developed these position statements have submitted their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these position statements. The literature pertaining to BMC, its effectiveness, adverse consequences, FDA regulations, criteria for meeting the standards of minimal manipulation, and homologous use were comprehensively reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available and relevant literature. RESULTS/Summary of Evidence: In conjunction with evidence-based medicine principles, the following position statements were developed: Statement 1: Based on a review of the literature in discussing the preparation of BMC using accepted methodologies, there is strong evidence of minimal manipulation in its preparation, and moderate evidence for homologous utility for various musculoskeletal and spinal conditions qualifies for the same surgical exemption. Statement 2: Assessment of clinical effectiveness based on extensive literature shows emerging evidence for multiple musculoskeletal and spinal conditions. • The evidence is highest for knee osteoarthritis with level II evidence based on relevant systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies. There is level III evidence for knee cartilage conditions. • Based on the relevant systematic reviews, randomized trials, and nonrandomized studies, the evidence for disc injections is level III. • Based on the available literature without appropriate systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials, the evidence for all other conditions is level IV or limited for BMC injections. Statement 3: Based on an extensive review of the literature, there is strong evidence for the safety of BMC when performed by trained physicians with the appropriate precautions under image guidance utilizing a sterile technique. Statement 4: Musculoskeletal disorders and spinal disorders with related disability for economic and human toll, despite advancements with a wide array of treatment modalities. Statement 5: The 21st Century Cures Act was enacted in December 2016 with provisions to accelerate the development and translation of promising new therapies into clinical evaluation and use. Statement 6: Development of cell-based therapies is rapidly proliferating in a number of disease areas, including musculoskeletal disorders and spine. With mixed results, these therapies are greatly outpacing the evidence. The reckless publicity with unsubstantiated claims of beneficial outcomes having putative potential, and has led the FDA Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to issue multiple warnings. Thus the US FDA is considering the appropriateness of using various therapies, including BMC, for homologous use. Statement 7: Since the 1980's and the description of mesenchymal stem cells by Caplan et al, (now called medicinal signaling cells), the use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders has been increasing in the management of pain and promoting tissue healing. Statement 8: The Public Health Service Act (PHSA) of the FDA requires minimal manipulation under same surgical procedure exemption. Homologous use of BMC in musculoskeletal and spinal disorders is provided by preclinical and clinical evidence. Statement 9: If the FDA does not accept BMC as homologous, then it will require an Investigational New Drug (IND) classification with FDA (351) cellular drug approval for use. Statement 10: This literature review and these position statements establish compliance with the FDA's intent and corroborates its present description of BMC as homologous with same surgical exemption, and exempt from IND, for use of BMC for treatment of musculoskeletal tissues, such as cartilage, bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and spinal discs. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the review of all available and pertinent literature, multiple position statements have been developed showing that BMC in musculoskeletal disorders meets the criteria of minimal manipulation and homologous use. KEY WORDS: Cell-based therapies, bone marrow concentrate, mesenchymal stem cells, medicinal signaling cells, Food and Drug Administration, human cells, tissues, and cellular tissue-based products, Public Health Service Act (PHSA), minimal manipulation, homologous use, same surgical procedure exemption.

Transplante de Medula Óssea/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Manejo da Dor/normas , Médicos/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 355, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545387


BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapies have shown promise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The current study compared exercise therapy to autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) and platelet products for knee OA treatment. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic knee OA (N = 48) were randomized into either an exercise therapy control group or treatment group with injection of autologous BMC and platelet products. Patients in the control group could crossover to BMC treatment after 3 months. Clinical outcomes were documented at baseline and at 6-weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, including the Knee Society Score (KSS), Pain Visual Analogue Scale, Short Form-12 Scales (SF-12), and Lower Extremity Activity Scale (LEAS). RESULTS: All patients in the exercise group crossed over to receive BMC treatment after 3 months (N = 22 crossover). At 3 months, KSS-knee, SF-12 Physical, and LEAS improved significantly in the crossover group compared to exercise, similar to significant improvements on KSS-knee and LEAS for the treatment group (N = 26) compared to exercise group at 3 months. After BMC treatment, patients' clinical outcome scores (except SF-12 Mental Health), were significantly improved through the 2-year follow-up compared to baseline. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The use of image-guided percutaneous BMC with platelet products yielded better results than exercise therapy as an effective alternative therapy for patients with symptomatic moderate to moderate-severe osteoarthritis of the knee. Trial registration NCT02034032. . Registered 13 January 2014.

Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Terapia por Exercício , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 246, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176875


BACKGROUND: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) has shown promise in the treatment of several orthopedic conditions. This registry study investigated the use of autologous BMC and platelet products for percutaneous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) treatment. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients presenting to a single outpatient interventional musculoskeletal and pain practice with symptomatic grade 1, 2, or 3 ACL tears with less than 1 cm retraction were enrolled. Patients were treated with a percutaneous ACL injection of autologous BMC and platelet products using fluoroscopic guidance. Pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging analysis was completed for 23 patients using ImageJ software for an objective quantitative analysis of pixel density as a proxy for ACL integrity. Subjective clinical outcome measures collected pre-treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months post-treatment include the Numerical Pain Scale (NPS), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, and a modified version of the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven percent of patients treated with BMC injections into the ACL showed significant improvement (p < 0.01) in objective measures of ACL integrity at an average of 8.8 months (median 4.7 months). The mean of last patient-reported improvement was 72% (SD = 35) at an average of 23 (SD = 10) months post-treatment. Mean scores were found to be significantly different (p < 0.05) for the NPS at 6, 18, and 24 months, and LEFS and IKDC at all time points (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months) relative to baseline. CONCLUSION: In symptomatic patients with grade 1, 2, or even grade 3 tears with minimal retraction, ACL treatment with percutaneous injection of BMC and platelet products shows promise as a non-surgical alternative. However, a larger randomized controlled trial is warranted to confirm these findings. Trial registration NCT03011398. A Clinical Registry of Orthobiologics Procedures. . Registered 29 December 2016. Enrollment 1 December 2011-retrospectively registered.

Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/terapia , Plaquetas/citologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Transfusão de Plaquetas/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Medula Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
J Exp Orthop ; 4(1): 38, 2017 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177632


BACKGROUND: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are the most common pain management procedure performed in the US, however evidence of efficacy is limited. In addition, there is early evidence that the high dose of corticosteroids used can have systemic side effects. We describe the results of a case series evaluating the use of platelet lysate (PL) epidural injections for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain as an alternative to corticosteroids. METHODS: Registry data was obtained for patients (N = 470) treated with PL epidural injections presenting with symptoms of lumbar radicular pain and MRI findings that were consistent with symptoms. Collected outcomes included numeric pain score (NPS), functional rating index (FRI), and a modified single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE) rating. RESULTS: Patients treated with PL epidurals reported significantly lower (p < .0001) NPS and FRI change scores at all time points compared to baseline. Post-treatment FRI change score means exceeded the minimal clinically important difference beyond 1 month. Average modified SANE ratings showed 49.7% improvement at 24 months post-treatment. Twenty-nine (6.3%) patients reported mild adverse events related to treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with PL epidurals reported significant improvements in pain, exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for FRI, and reported subjective improvement through 2-year follow-up. PL may be a promising substitute for corticosteroid.

J Transl Med ; 15(1): 197, 2017 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938891


BACKGROUND: Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain with radicular symptoms and has a significant socioeconomic impact given the associated disability. Limited effective conservative therapeutic options result in many turning to surgical alternatives for management, which vary in the rate of success and also carry an increased risk of morbidity and mortality associated with the procedures. Several animal based studies and a few human pilot studies have demonstrated safety and suggest efficacy in the treatment of DDD with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The use of bone marrow-derived MSCs for the treatment of DDD is promising and in the present study we report on the safety and efficacy findings from a registry based proof of concept study using a percutaneous intradiscal injection of cultured MSCs for the management of DDD with associated radicular symptoms. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with lower back pain and disc degeneration with a posterior disc bulge diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) met the inclusion criteria and were treated with culture-expanded, autologous, bone marrow-derived MSCs. Prospective registry data was obtained at multiple time intervals up to 6 years post-treatment. Collected outcomes included numeric pain score (NPS), a modified single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE) rating, functional rating index (FRI), measurement of the intervertebral disc posterior dimension, and adverse events. RESULTS: Three patients reported pain related to procedure that resolved. There were no serious adverse events (i.e. death, infection, or tumor) associated with the procedure. NPS change scores relative to baseline were significant at 3, 36, 48, 60, and 72 months post-treatment. The average modified SANE ratings showed a mean improvement of 60% at 3 years post-treatment. FRI post-treatment change score averages exceeded the minimal clinically important difference at all time points except 12 months. Twenty of the patients treated underwent post-treatment MRI and 85% had a reduction in disc bulge size, with an average reduction size of 23% post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with autologous cultured MSCs for lower back pain with radicular symptoms in the setting of DDD reported minor adverse events and significant improvements in pain, function, and overall subjective improvement through 6 years of follow-up. NCT03011398. A Clinical Registry of Orthobiologics Procedures.

Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Dor/etiologia , Radiculopatia/etiologia , Radiculopatia/terapia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/patologia , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Radiculopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiculopatia/patologia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/diagnóstico por imagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento