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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28010, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544339

RESUMO

Autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may cause significant morbidity and mortality and are often challenging to treat. We present a case of a pediatric patient with primary myelofibrosis of infancy caused by VPS45 protein deficiency, who developed severe refractory hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia 3.5 months following HSCT. After the failure of several treatments, he received daratumumab, an anti-CD38 specific antibody, and demonstrated fast and sustained response. The only side effect was delayed recovery of humoral immunity. Daratumumab, by targeting antibody-producing plasma cells, may be a valid treatment option for refractory post-HSCT AIC.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707514

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a known yet rare cause of combined immunodeficiency with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. We aim to add to the expanding clinical spectrum of disease, and to summarize the available data on bone marrow transplant for this condition. METHODS: Data was collected from patient files retrospectively. A review of the literature of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for PNP deficiency was conducted. RESULTS: Four patients were treated in two centers in Israel. One patient died of EBV-related lymphoma with CNS involvement prior to transplant. The other three patients underwent successful HSCT with good immune reconstitution post-transplant (follow-up 8-108 months) and excellent neurological outcomes. CONCLUSION: PNP is a variable immunodeficiency and should be considered in various clinical contexts, with or without neurological manifestations. HSCT offers a good treatment option, with excellent clinical outcomes, when preformed in a timely manner.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562398

RESUMO

Treatment of relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (RR-ALL) remains a clinical challenge with generally dismal prognosis. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation using sequential conditioning ("FLAMSA"-like) has shown promising results in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia, but little is known about its efficacy in RR-ALL. We identified 115 patients (19-66 years) with relapsed (74%) or primary-refractory (26%) ALL allografted from matched related (31%), matched unrelated (58%), or haploidentical donor (11%). Median follow-up was 37 (13-111) months. At day 100, cumulative incidences of grade II-IV/III-IV acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) were 30% and 17%, respectively. Two-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 25% with 11% extensive cases. Two-year relapse incidence (RI) was 45%, non-relapse mortality was 41%. Two-year leukemia free survival (LFS) was 14%, overall survival (OS) 17%, and GVHD relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 14%. In multivariable analysis, Karnofsky score <90 negatively affected RI, LFS, OS, and GRFS. Conditioning with chemotherapy alone, compared with total body irradiation (TBI) negatively affected RI (HR = 3.3; p = 0.008), LFS (HR = 1.94; p = 0.03), and OS (HR = 2.0; p = 0.03). These patients still face extremely poor outcomes, highlighting the importance of incorporating novel therapies (e.g., BITE antibodies, inotuzumab, CAR-T cells). Nevertheless, patients with RR-T-cell ALL remain with an unmet treatment need, for which TBI-based sequential conditioning could be one of few available options.

4.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313695

RESUMO

The development of T-cell lymphomas, granulomatous reactions, and autoimmunity has been observed in immunodeficiency due to milder forms of recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency. A few cases of cutaneous clonal papulonodular CD8 lymphocytic infiltrates and cutaneous CD8 granulomatous T-cell lymphoma have been described in association with common variable immunodeficiency, and with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. We describe a 15-year-old girl with several autoimmune disorders and recurrent infections that presented with several nodules on her cheek. Histopathological studies demonstrate histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings compatible with a primary cutaneous clonal CD8 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Vacuolar interface changes were also seen in the involved skin, reminiscent of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a germline novel homozygous missense mutation in RAG1 (T1003>C). The parents were heterozygous carriers. The facial cutaneous lesions recurred despite local radiation therapy. Because of recurrent life-threatening systemic infections, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was performed. The pathogenesis of this primary cutaneous clonal CD8 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder may have been related to a chronic stimulation of autoreactive T cells in the involved skin paired with reduced RAG1 activity.

5.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(8): e493-e498, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318820

RESUMO

Gram-negative rod (GNR) infections adversely affect the outcome of patients with malignancies and following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This retrospective observational study aimed to describe the epidemiology, outcome, and resistance patterns of GNR bacteremia in children with hematologic malignancies (HM) and after HSCT during the period spanning from 2010 to 2014 in a tertiary children's hospital. A total of 270 children were included in the analysis; 65 (24%) developed 85 episodes of GNR bacteremia; the rate was 36/122 (29.5%) in post-HSCT and 29/178 (16.3%) in HM patients (P<0.05). Overall, 10% of the GNRs were carbapenem resistant. In multivariate analysis, prolonged neutropenia (≥7 d; odds ratio: 19.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.6-148.4) and total hospitalization for a duration of >30 days in the last 3 months (odds ratio: 17.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-224.4) were associated with carbapenem-resistant GNR bacteremia. Thirty-day mortality following GNR bacteremia was 0% in HM and 7/52 episodes (13.5%) in HSCT patients (P<0.05). Carbapenem-resistant versus carbapenem-sensitive bacteremia was associated with longer duration of bacteremia (mean: 3.8 vs. 1.7 d), higher risk for intensive care unit hospitalization (44.4% vs. 10.1%), and higher mortality rate (33% vs. 5.8%) (P<0.05). To summarize, GNR bacteremia was frequent, especially in post-HSCT children. Carbapenem resistance adversely affects patients' outcome, increasing morbidity and mortality. Empirical antibiotic therapy must be adjusted to the local resistance patterns.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217572, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188842

RESUMO

Steroid-resistant GvHD is one of the most significant causes of mortality following allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) seems to be a promising solution, however the results from clinical studies are still equivocal. Better selection of candidate patients and improving monitoring of patients following MSC administration can increase treatment effectiveness. In order to determine which characteristics can be used to predict a good response and better monitoring of patients, blood samples were taken prior to therapy, one week and one month after therapy, from 26 allogeneic HSCT patients whom contracted GvHD and were treated with MSCs. Samples were examined for differential blood counts, bilirubin levels and cell surface markers. Serum cytokine levels were also measured. We found that the level of lymphocytes, in particular T and NK cells, may predict a good response to therapy. A better response was observed among patients who expressed low levels of IL-6 and IL-22, Th17 related cytokines, prior to therapy. Patients with high levels of bilirubin prior to therapy showed a poorer response. The results of this study may facilitate early prediction of success or failure of the treatment, and subsequently, will improve selection of patients for MSC therapy.

7.
Blood Adv ; 3(6): 862-868, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885997

RESUMO

Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare disease caused by defective osteoclast differentiation or function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment available in the infantile "malignant" form of OP. Improved clinical and genetic diagnosis of OP has seen the emergence of a cohort of patients with less severe and heterogeneous clinical presentations. This intermediate form of OP does not call for urgent intervention, but patients accumulate debilitating skeletal complications over years and decades, which are severe enough to require curative treatment and may also require intermittent transfusion of blood products. Here we present data from 7 patients with intermediate OP caused by mutations in TCIRG1 (n = 2), CLCN7 (n = 2), RANK (n = 1), SNX10 (n = 1), and CA2 (n = 1), who were transplanted between the ages of 5 to 30 years (mean, 15; median, 12). Donors were matched siblings or family (n = 4), matched unrelated (n = 2), or HLA haploidentical family donors (n = 1). Conditioning was fludarabine and treosulfan based. All 6 patients transplanted from matched donors are currently alive with a follow-up period between 1 and 8 years at time of publication (median, 4 years) and have demonstrated a significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Patients with intermediate OP should be considered for HSCT.

8.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804083

RESUMO

The deubiquitinase OTULIN removes methionine-1 (M1)-linked polyubiquitin signals conjugated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and is critical for preventing TNF-driven inflammation in OTULIN-related autoinflammatory syndrome (ORAS). Five ORAS patients have been reported, but how dysregulated M1-linked polyubiquitin signalling causes their symptoms is unclear. Here, we report a new case of ORAS in which an OTULIN-Gly281Arg mutation leads to reduced activity and stability in vitro and in cells. In contrast to OTULIN-deficient monocytes, in which TNF signalling and NF-κB activation are increased, loss of OTULIN in patient-derived fibroblasts leads to a reduction in LUBAC levels and an impaired response to TNF Interestingly, both patient-derived fibroblasts and OTULIN-deficient monocytes are sensitised to certain types of TNF-induced death, and apoptotic cells are evident in ORAS patient skin lesions. Remarkably, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation leads to complete resolution of inflammatory symptoms, including fevers, panniculitis and diarrhoea. Therefore, haematopoietic cells are necessary for clinical manifestation of ORAS Together, our data suggest that ORAS pathogenesis involves hyper-inflammatory immune cells and TNF-induced death of both leukocytes and non-haematopoietic cells.

9.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(1): e27473, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294941

RESUMO

Mutations in the VPS45 gene lead to a severe primary immune deficiency characterized by severe congenital neutropenia and primary myelofibrosis, leading to overwhelming infection and early death. This condition is exceedingly rare with only 16 patients previously reported, including four with successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We review the pathophysiology underlying this condition and detail our approach to treatment, particularly vis-à-vis bone marrow transplantation and the challenges of transplanting into a diseased bone marrow niche. We provide an update on the progress of our three previously reported patients, and two additional patients transplanted at our center.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/patologia , Neutropenia/terapia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Prognóstico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2400, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386345

RESUMO

Serine/threonine kinase 4 (STK4) deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic condition that leads to primary immunodeficiency (PID) typically characterized by lymphopenia, recurrent infections and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) induced lymphoproliferation and -lymphoma. State-of-the-art treatment regimens consist of prevention or treatment of infections, immunoglobulin substitution (IVIG) and restoration of the immune system by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, we report on two patients from two consanguineous families of Turkish (patient P1) and Moroccan (patient P2) decent, with PID due to homozygous STK4 mutations. P1 harbored a previously reported frameshift (c.1103 delT, p.M368RfsX2) and P2 a novel splice donor site mutation (P2; c.525+2 T>G). Both patients presented in childhood with recurrent infections, CD4 lymphopenia and dysregulated immunoglobulin levels. Patient P1 developed a highly malignant B cell lymphoma at the age of 10 years and a second, independent Hodgkin lymphoma 5 years later. To our knowledge she is the first STK4 deficient case reported who developed lymphoma in the absence of detectable EBV or other common viruses. Lymphoma development may be due to the lacking tumor suppressive function of STK4 or the perturbed immune surveillance due to the lack of CD4+ T cells. Our data should raise physicians' awareness of [1] lymphoma proneness of STK4 deficient patients even in the absence of EBV infection and [2] possibly underlying STK4 deficiency in pediatric patients with a history of recurrent infections, CD4 lymphopenia and lymphoma and unknown genetic make-up. Patient P2 experienced recurrent otitis in childhood, but when she presented at the age of 14, she showed clinical and immunological characteristics similar to patients suffering from Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS): elevated DNT cell number, non-malignant lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, hematolytic anemia, hypergammaglobulinemia. Also patient P1 presented with ALPS-like features (lymphadenopathy, elevated DNT cell number and increased Vitamin B12 levels) and both were initially clinically diagnosed as ALPS-like. Closer examination of P2, however, revealed active EBV infection and genetic testing identified a novel STK4 mutation. None of the patients harbored typically ALPS-associated mutations of the Fas receptor mediated apoptotic pathway and Fas-mediated apoptosis was not affected. The presented case reports extend the clinical spectrum of STK4 deficiency.

12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13047, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412664

RESUMO

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) is a rare, innate autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency with 3 subtypes. Twenty-nine patients with LADs were diagnosed and treated in Israeli Medical Centers and in the Palestinian Authority. We discuss the phenotypic, genotypic and biochemical features of LAD-I, -II and -III diagnosed during the neonatal period and early infancy in 18, 6 and 5 patients, respectively. Consanguinity was frequent. Common features were severe infections of variable etiology, excessive leukocytosis and delayed umbilical cord detachment. In LAD-I the integrin CD18 expression varied from negligible to normal. However, CD11a expression was negligible in all tested patients, suggesting both CD11a and CD18 should be used to assess this subtype. LAD-II patients showed distinctive facial features, physical malformations, short stature and developmental delay. These patients show defective expression of SLeX (CD15a) on cell-surface glycoproteins and lack of H antigen on erythroid cell surfaces resulting in Bombay blood group (hh). LAD-III showed intact but inactive ß2 integrins associated with severe infections and significant bleeding disorders caused by defective platelet aggregation and thrombocytopenia. We report two new unpublished mutations; two LAD-I patients with c.1099delG in ITGB2 and two LAD-III patients with c.1069C>T in FERMT3. LAD-I patients harboring the c.119_128 deletion in ITGB2, seemed to have better outcomes as compared to other LAD-I patients. Eight patients with LAD-I and -III underwent successful hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Cumulative survival was 75%, 50% and 40% for LAD-I, -II and -III, with a median follow-up of 4 (0.08-19), 3.25 (1-32) and 6 (0.08-8) years, respectively. Prenatal diagnosis is recommended in families with LAD syndromes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(11): e27312, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thalassemia major (TM) is an inherited disorder caused by ineffective erythropoiesis. At the present time, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a curative option. Conventional busulfan and cyclophosphamide based myeloablative conditioning regimens are limited by increased toxicity, especially in high-risk patients. Replacement of cyclophosphamide with fludarabine has reduced toxicity and nonrelapse mortality (NRM), thus improving outcomes. We analyzed long-term data of our fludarabine-based myeloablative, reduced toxicity protocol, specifically in high-risk patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 47 consecutive patients with TM undergoing allo-SCT from matched donors, using the fludarabine-based regimen (reduced toxicity regimen). The median age of the cohort was 10 years. Thirty-eight patients (80%) were in the high-risk and nine patients (20%) were in the low-risk category. The primary aim of this analysis was thalassemia-free survival (TFS). RESULTS: The rejection rate was 11% within high-risk patients with NRM of 2%. With a median follow-up period of 7 years (1-15 years), the 10-year TFS in the entire cohort was 87%, and the overall survival (OS) was 97%. The 10-year TFS and OS among the low-risk and high-risk groups were 90% versus 84%, respectively (P = 0.45) and 100% versus 96%, respectively (P = 0.5), and both subsets of patients did equally well. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, replacement of high-dose cyclophosphamide with fludarabine is well tolerated with minimal regimen-related toxicity and acceptable rejection rates, especially in high-risk patients.

14.
Am J Hematol ; 93(10): 1211-1219, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033639

RESUMO

Busulfan plus cyclophosphamide (BuCy) is the traditional conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) for young, fit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The thiotepa-busulfan-fludarabine (TBF) protocol has recently demonstrated promising outcome in cord blood and haploidentical SCT; however, there is limited evidence about this regimen in transplant from matched siblings (MSD) and unrelated donors (UD). We retrospectively compared outcomes of 2523 patients aged 18-50 with AML in remission, undergoing transplant from MSD or UD prepared with either TBF or BuCy conditioning. A 1:3 pair-matched analysis was performed: 146 patients receiving TBF were compared with 438 patients receiving BuCy. Relapse risk was significantly lower in the TBF when compared with BuCy group (HR 0.6, P = .02), while NRM did not differ. No significant difference was observed in LFS and OS between the two regimens. TBF was associated with a trend towards higher risk of grades III-IV aGVHD (HR 1.8, P = .06) and inferior cGVHD (HR 0.7, P = .04) when compared with BuCy. In patients undergoing transplant in first remission, the advantage for TBF in terms of relapse was more evident (HR 0.4, P = .02), leading to a trend for better LFS in favor of TBF (HR 0.7, P = .10), while OS did not differ between the two cohorts. In conclusion, TBF represents a valid myeloablative conditioning regimen providing significantly lower relapse and similar survival when compared with BuCy. Patients in first remission appear to gain the most from this protocol, as in this subgroup a tendency for better LFS was observed when compared with BuCy.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 527-536, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: All reported patients with hypomorphic X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) due to c.664C>T (p.R222C) mutations in the gene (IL2RG) encoding the common γ chain (γc) have presented with opportunistic infections within the first year of life, despite the presence of nearly normal NK and T cell numbers. Reporting five children of one extended family with hemizygous mutations in IL2RG, we explore potential diagnostic clues and extend our comprehension of the functional impact of this mutation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES); detailed immune phenotyping; cytokine-induced STAT phosphorylation; B, T, and NK cell activation; and quantification of sjTRECs in five Arab children with c.664C>T (p.R222C) IL2RG mutation. RESULTS: The mean age at clinical presentation with respiratory tract infection or diarrhea was 6.8 (range: 2-12) months. None of the children presented with opportunistic infections. Diagnostic clues were early onset in the first year of life, and a suggestive family history associated with reduced naïve CD4 T cells and absent switched memory B cells. Number and phenotype of NK cells and innate-like lymphocytes were normal. The diagnosis was made by WES and corroborated by absent STAT phosphorylation and reduced functional response after IL-2 and IL-21 stimulation. Four patients underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: As early diagnosis and treatment are important, a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of c.664C>T (p.R222C) X-SCID is needed. This requires prompt genetic testing by next generation sequencing in order to avoid unnecessary delays in the definite diagnosis since immunological work up may not be discriminating. Assays directly testing cytokine signaling or cytokine-dependent functions are helpful in confirming the functional impact of the identified hypomorphic variants.

16.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(8): 1163-1172, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777306

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency is a rare syndrome of primary immune deficiency and immune dysregulation. In this study, we sought to summarize our experience with respiratory manifestations in LRBA-deficient patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of LRBA-deficient patients treated at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Data retrieved included pulmonary workup, disease course, treatment, and outcome. Ten patients were included. Mean age at presentation of LRBA deficiency-related symptoms was 4.65 years (range 3 months-14 years). Respiratory symptoms were noted in six patients and consisted of chronic cough. Computed tomography revealed consolidation in five patients, atelectasis and bronchiectasis in two patients each, and diffuse interstitial lung disease in two additional patients. Respiratory tract cultures yielded a bacterial pathogen in five patients. Seven patients required active therapy: intravenous immunoglobulins (six patients), immunosuppressive drugs (five patients), and one was successfully treated with abatacept. Two patients underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Mean follow-up period was 4.5 (range 0.4-14.4) years. On their latest examination, seven patients had no respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary manifestations are common in LRBA deficiency. Respiratory characteristics in LRBA-deficient patients should be investigated, monitored, and treated from the time of diagnosis. What is Known: • Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency is a syndrome of primary immune deficiency and immune dysregulation. • Studies concerning the pulmonary characteristics of LRBA-deficient patients are lacking. What is New: • Respiratory manifestations include infections, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease, thoracic lymphadenopathy, and clubbing. • Awareness to pulmonary morbidity in LRBA-deficient patients and involvement of a pulmonologist in the workup and clinical decision-making is important. • Respiratory characteristics in LRBA-deficient patients should be investigated, monitored, and treated from a young age.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Bronquiectasia/etiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Adolescente , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Masculino , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Atelectasia Pulmonar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Harefuah ; 157(3): 188-191, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582952

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thirteen years after the completion of the human genome project, the determination of the genomic sequence of the coding parts of the DNA (the exones, hence the exome), has turned into a primary diagnostic tool in daily use in clinical practice. The Department of Genetics at Hadassah was the first in Israel to introduce exome analysis as a robust diagnostic tool into the pediatric departments. Till now 2600 exomes were analyzed at Hadassah, 850 of them in 2016 alone. Exome analysis is cheap and fast, enabling precise and non-invasive diagnosis for a vast array of genetic disorders and congenital malformations. The unique composition of the population which the hospital serves (marked by a high rate of consanguinity) enabled reaching diagnosis in 65% of the cases, twice the rate in medical centers worldwide. The results of this analysis enable genetic counseling to patients' families and prevention of serious disorders. Moreover, the results contribute to the understanding of the biological basis of newly identified disorders and in certain cases assist in the management of the patients. The major limitation of exome analysis is the multitude of identified variants which exist in any individual and which challenge our ability to pick the disease-causing variant. In the case of a disease-causing variant in a new gene, experimental proof is required to validate the causality of the variant; occasionally, an incidental finding with possible clinical significance is identified, raising serious ethical concerns. In this article, we will review the use of this technology through the experience of three pediatric departments at Hadassah.


Assuntos
Exoma , Projeto Genoma Humano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Criança , Aconselhamento Genético , Genômica , Humanos , Israel , Pediatria
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(6): e27010, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by defective osteoclast activity, with hematopoietic bone marrow transplant being the only available cure. Over the past several years, new conditioning regimes and donor options have emerged, thus extending the possibility of cure to a greater number of patients and improving the outcomes of bone marrow transplant. Here we detail the outcomes of bone marrow transplant in a cohort of 31 patients treated with a combination of fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin. PROCEDURES: Thirty-one patients with IMO who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin at our center from 2012 to 2017 are retrospectively reviewed in this study. Twenty-six patients were transplanted from 10/10 matched donors (13 from siblings, 11 from unrelated, and two from extended family donors), four from 9/10 matched unrelated donors, and one from a 9/10 matched family donor. RESULTS: Overall survival was 100% with a median follow-up of 363 days (range 74-1891). There were 12 cases of acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) (38.7%), no cases of veno-occlusive disease, and eight cases of hypercalcemia (25.8%). Almost 80% of patients suffered viral reactivations with two cases of Epstein-Barr-virus-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. All cases of GvHD and viral reactivation were successfully treated. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that transplantation in children with IMO using fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin is safe and effective and should be performed as early as possible following diagnosis, prior to the development of severe disease sequelae.

20.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 98(2): 206-211, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057425

RESUMO

Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to clinically characterize childhood cutaneous cGVHD. A retrospective study of children treated with HSCT at 2 tertiary medical centres in Israel between 2011 and 2014 was performed. A total of 112 children were included. Cutaneous cGVHD developed in 18% of subjects. Risk factors were older age, HSCT from peripheral blood and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The eruption was lichenoid in 90% of subjects, of whom one-third progressed to sclerosis. Topical treatments were usually sufficient in localized disease. Widespread eruption necessitated phototherapy, extracorporeal photopheresis and/or systemic immunosuppressants. Patients presenting with palmoplantar keratoderma, developed sclerosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing childhood cutaneous cGVHD. Lichenoid eruption is the most common cutaneous pattern of cGVHD in children. Sclerotic changes may be associated with prior keratoderma. cGVHD poses a therapeutic challenge and better treatments should be sought.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Israel , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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