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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396611

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the relationship between APOE*4 carriage on cognitive decline, and whether these associations were moderated by sex, baseline age, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors. Participants were 19,225 individuals aged 54-103 years from 15 longitudinal cohort studies with a mean follow up duration ranging between 1.2 and 10.7 years. Two-step individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis was used to pool results of study-wise analyses predicting memory and general cognitive decline from carriage of one or two APOE*4 alleles, and moderation of these associations by age, sex, vascular risk factors and ethnicity. Separate pooled estimates were calculated in both men and women who were younger (i.e., 62 years) and older (i.e., 80 years) at baseline. Results showed that APOE*4 carriage was related to faster general cognitive decline in women, and faster memory decline in men. A stronger dose-dependent effect was observed in older men, with faster general cognitive and memory decline in those carrying two versus one APOE*4 allele. Vascular risk factors were related to an increased effect of APOE*4 on memory decline in younger women, but a weaker effect of APOE*4 on general cognitive decline in older men. The relationship between APOE*4 carriage and memory decline was larger in older-aged Asians than Whites. In sum, APOE*4 is related to cognitive decline in men and women, although these effects are enhanced by age and carriage of two APOE*4 alleles in men, a higher numbers of vascular risk factors during the early stages of late adulthood in women, and Asian ethnicity.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore what motivates individuals to change their behaviour to reduce their risk of dementia. METHODS: We conducted secondary qualitative analysis of a UK-based online survey on motivation to change lifestyle and health behaviour for dementia risk reduction. Participants were recruited through social media, the Join Dementia Research network and the National Institute for Health Research Portfolio. Free-text comments from people aged ≥50 years were analysed by two researchers independently using inductive content analysis. Inter-rater agreement was measured through Cohen's Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Of the 3,948 participants completing the survey, 653 provided free text comments that were included in the analysis (Mean age = 64.1; SD = 8.3 years). The majority of the sample were women (n = 459; 70.3%), Caucasian (n = 625; 95.7%) and married/in partnership (n = 459; 70.3%). Three overarching themes were identified: (1) motivators to changing lifestyle; (2) barriers for lifestyle change; and, (3) quality of the information received. The inter-rater reliability of the coding was high (k = 0.7). Having a family history of dementia or feeling like they had a healthy lifestyle already were motivating factors for behaviour change. Having competing health priorities other than dementia and caring for someone acted as de-motivators as they reduced the time available to dedicate to one's own health. Evidence-based information around dementia prevention was a motivator, but commonly the information was not trusted. DISCUSSION: Aligned with the World Health Organisation (WHO) mandate on dementia prevention, community health campaigns targeting population awareness around behaviour change and dementia risk factor reduction are urgently needed. To be successful, such campaigns will need to be accompanied by individual approaches that can overcome age-related barriers and individual differences in motivation levels, personal barriers and trust in the information received.

3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e524-e535, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, dementia prediction models have been exclusively developed and tested in high-income countries (HICs). However, most people with dementia live in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where dementia risk prediction research is almost non-existent and the ability of current models to predict dementia is unknown. This study investigated whether dementia prediction models developed in HICs are applicable to LMICs. METHODS: Data were from the 10/66 Study. Individuals aged 65 years or older and without dementia at baseline were selected from China, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. Dementia incidence was assessed over 3-5 years, with diagnosis according to the 10/66 Study diagnostic algorithm. Discrimination and calibration were tested for five models: the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia risk score (CAIDE); the Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia (AgeCoDe) model; the Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index (ANU-ADRI); the Brief Dementia Screening Indicator (BDSI); and the Rotterdam Study Basic Dementia Risk Model (BDRM). Models were tested with use of Cox regression. The discriminative accuracy of each model was assessed using Harrell's concordance (c)-statistic, with a value of 0·70 or higher considered to indicate acceptable discriminative ability. Calibration (model fit) was assessed statistically using the Grønnesby and Borgan test. FINDINGS: 11 143 individuals without baseline dementia and with available follow-up data were included in the analysis. During follow-up (mean 3·8 years [SD 1·3]), 1069 people progressed to dementia across all sites (incidence rate 24·9 cases per 1000 person-years). Performance of the models varied. Across countries, the discriminative ability of the CAIDE (0·52≤c≤0·63) and AgeCoDe (0·57≤c≤0·74) models was poor. By contrast, the ANU-ADRI (0·66≤c≤0·78), BDSI (0·62≤c≤0·78), and BDRM (0·66≤c≤0·78) models showed similar levels of discriminative ability to those of the development cohorts. All models showed good calibration, especially at low and intermediate levels of predicted risk. The models validated best in Peru and poorest in the Dominican Republic and China. INTERPRETATION: Not all dementia prediction models developed in HICs can be simply extrapolated to LMICs. Further work defining what number and which combination of risk variables works best for predicting risk of dementia in LMICs is needed. However, models that transport well could be used immediately for dementia prevention research and targeted risk reduction in LMICs. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust, WHO, US Alzheimer's Association, and European Research Council.

4.
Neuroepidemiology ; 54(2): 157-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018263

RESUMO

In recent years, a rapidly increasing collection of investigative methods in addition to changes in diagnostic criteria for dementia have followed "high-tech" trends in medicine, with the aim to better define the dementia syndrome and its biological substrates, mainly in order to predict risk prior to clinical expression. These approaches are not without challenge. A set of guidelines have been developed by a group of European experts in population-based cohort research through a series of workshops, funded by the Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Disorders (JPND). The aims of the guidelines are to assist policy makers and researchers to understand (1) What population studies for ageing populations should encompass and (2) How to interpret the findings from population studies. Such studies are essential to provide evidence relevant to the understanding of healthy and frail brain ageing, including the dementia syndrome for contemporary and future societies by drawing on the past.

5.
Neurology ; 94(3): e267-e281, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is one of the main modifiable risk factors for dementia. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the best antihypertensive class for optimizing cognition. Our objective was to determine whether any particular antihypertensive class was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline or dementia using comprehensive meta-analysis including reanalysis of original participant data. METHODS: To identify suitable studies, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO and preexisting study consortia were searched from inception to December 2017. Authors of prospective longitudinal human studies or trials of antihypertensives were contacted for data sharing and collaboration. Outcome measures were incident dementia or incident cognitive decline (classified using the reliable change index method). Data were separated into mid and late-life (>65 years) and each antihypertensive class was compared to no treatment and to treatment with other antihypertensives. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data. RESULTS: Over 50,000 participants from 27 studies were included. Among those aged >65 years, with the exception of diuretics, we found no relationship by class with incident cognitive decline or dementia. Diuretic use was suggestive of benefit in some analyses but results were not consistent across follow-up time, comparator group, and outcome. Limited data precluded meaningful analyses in those ≤65 years of age. CONCLUSION: Our findings, drawn from the current evidence base, support clinical freedom in the selection of antihypertensive regimens to achieve blood pressure goals. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: The review was registered with the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), registration number CRD42016045454.

6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(11): 1085-1092, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489532

RESUMO

Identification of individuals at high risk of dementia has usually focused attention on the clinical concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which captures an intermediate state between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. In many countries age specific risk of dementia has declined, but whether this is also the case for subclinical cognitive impairment is unknown. This has important implications for prevention, planning and policy. Here we describe subclinical cognitive impairment and mild dementia prevalence changes, in the UK, over 2 decades. The Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies have examined the full spectrum of cognition, from normal to dementia, in representative populations of people aged ≥ 65 years in the UK over the last 2 decades 7635 participants were interviewed in CFAS I in Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham in 1991, with 1457 being diagnostically assessed. In the same geographical areas, the CFAS II investigators interviewed 7796 individuals in 2011. Using established criteria, the population was categorised into seven groups: no cognitive impairment, Mild cognitive Impairment (defined using consensus criteria), other cognitive impairment no dementia without functional impairment, OCIND with functional impairment, cognitive impairment (MMSE < 24 and no functional impairment), mild dementia (MMSE < 24 with functional impairment, not captured by CFAS dementia criteria), and CFAS dementia criteria. Multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for age and sex, was used to estimate the prevalence of impairment in both studies. Results were standardized to the age-sex specific UK and global population. There is a clear increase in the prevalence of other cognitive Impairment no Dementia (without functional impairment), with the purer MCI remaining stable. In the UK, mild dementia is estimated to fall from 520,704 cases (5.7%, 95% CI 3.8, 8.1) in 1991 to 315,142 (3.0%, 95% CI 2.4, 3.8) in 2011, cognitive impairment, has fallen from 1,225,984 (13.5%, 95% CI 10.1, 17.5) to 654,436 (6.3%, 95% CI 5.4, 7.3) cases. Using additional categories which reflect the continuum of cognitive decline and impairment in populations we see that the mildest dementia declines, but that there is stability in estimates of those who meet MCI criteria. Increases were found in the Other Cognitive Impairment no Dementia group. The decline observed in severe impairment thus seems to have resulted in larger proportions of the population in milder forms, seen alongside physical illnesses.

7.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019871915, 2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543058

RESUMO

The incidence of stroke and dementia are diverging across the world, rising for those in low-and middle-income countries and falling in those in high-income countries. This suggests that whatever factors cause these trends are potentially modifiable. At the population level, neurological disorders as a group account for the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years globally (10%). Among neurological disorders, stroke (42%) and dementia (10%) dominate. Stroke and dementia confer risks for each other and share some of the same, largely modifiable, risk and protective factors. In principle, 90% of strokes and 35% of dementias have been estimated to be preventable. Because a stroke doubles the chance of developing dementia and stroke is more common than dementia, more than a third of dementias could be prevented by preventing stroke. Developments at the pathological, pathophysiological, and clinical level also point to new directions. Growing understanding of brain pathophysiology has unveiled the reciprocal interaction of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration identifying new therapeutic targets to include protection of the endothelium, the blood-brain barrier, and other components of the neurovascular unit. In addition, targeting amyloid angiopathy aspects of inflammation and genetic manipulation hold new testable promise. In the meantime, accumulating evidence suggests that whole populations experiencing improved education, and lower vascular risk factor profiles (e.g., reduced prevalence of smoking) and vascular disease, including stroke, have better cognitive function and lower dementia rates. At the individual levels, trials have demonstrated that anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation can reduce the risk of dementia by 48% and that systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mmHg may be better for the brain. Based on these considerations, the World Stroke Organization has issued a proclamation, endorsed by all the major international organizations focused on global brain and cardiovascular health, calling for the joint prevention of stroke and dementia. This article summarizes the evidence for translation into action. © 2019 the Alzheimer's Association and the World Stroke Organisation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(7): 961-984, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327392

RESUMO

The incidence of stroke and dementia are diverging across the world, rising for those in low- and middle-income countries and falling in those in high-income countries. This suggests that whatever factors cause these trends are potentially modifiable. At the population level, neurological disorders as a group account for the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years globally (10%). Among neurological disorders, stroke (42%) and dementia (10%) dominate. Stroke and dementia confer risks for each other and share some of the same, largely modifiable, risk and protective factors. In principle, 90% of strokes and 35% of dementias have been estimated to be preventable. Because a stroke doubles the chance of developing dementia and stroke is more common than dementia, more than a third of dementias could be prevented by preventing stroke. Developments at the pathological, pathophysiological, and clinical level also point to new directions. Growing understanding of brain pathophysiology has unveiled the reciprocal interaction of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration identifying new therapeutic targets to include protection of the endothelium, the blood-brain barrier, and other components of the neurovascular unit. In addition, targeting amyloid angiopathy aspects of inflammation and genetic manipulation hold new testable promise. In the meantime, accumulating evidence suggests that whole populations experiencing improved education, and lower vascular risk factor profiles (e.g., reduced prevalence of smoking) and vascular disease, including stroke, have better cognitive function and lower dementia rates. At the individual levels, trials have demonstrated that anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation can reduce the risk of dementia by 48% and that systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mmHg may be better for the brain. Based on these considerations, the World Stroke Organization has issued a proclamation, endorsed by all the major international organizations focused on global brain and cardiovascular health, calling for the joint prevention of stroke and dementia. This article summarizes the evidence for translation into action.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 938-948, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mediterranean countries, adherence to a traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) is associated with better cognitive function and reduced dementia risk. It is unclear if similar benefits exist in non-Mediterranean regions. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine associations between MedDiet adherence and cognitive function in an older UK population and to investigate whether associations differed between individuals with high compared with low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We conducted an analysis in 8009 older individuals with dietary data at Health Check 1 (1993-1997) and cognitive function data at Health Check 3 (2006-2011) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). Associations were explored between MedDiet adherence and global and domain-specific cognitive test scores and risk of poor cognitive performance in the entire cohort, and when stratified according to CVD risk status. RESULTS: Higher MedDiet adherence defined by the Pyramid MedDiet score was associated with better global cognition (ß ± SE = -0.012 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), verbal episodic memory (ß ± SE = -0.009 ± 0.002; P < 0.001), and simple processing speed (ß ± SE = -0.002 ± 0.001; P = 0.013). Lower risk of poor verbal episodic memory (OR: 0.784; 95% CI: 0.641, 0.959; P = 0.018), complex processing speed (OR: 0.739; 95% CI: 0.601, 0.907; P = 0.004), and prospective memory (OR: 0.841; 95% CI: 0.724, 0.977; P = 0.023) was also observed for the highest compared with the lowest Pyramid MedDiet tertiles. The effect of a 1-point increase in Pyramid score on global cognitive function was equivalent to 1.7 fewer years of cognitive aging. MedDiet adherence defined by the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) score (mapped through the use of both binary and continuous scoring) showed similar, albeit less consistent, associations. In stratified analyses, associations were evident in individuals at higher CVD risk only (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to the MedDiet is associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of poor cognition in older UK adults. This evidence underpins the development of interventions to enhance MedDiet adherence, particularly in individuals at higher CVD risk, aiming to reduce the risk of age-related cognitive decline in non-Mediterranean populations.

11.
J Aging Res ; 2019: 9151802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093373

RESUMO

Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and social capital were known to be related to self-rated health (SRH). Despite this, no studies have examined the potential interaction of SMC and social capital on SRH. Using data from a cross-sectional health survey of men and women aged 56 years and above (n = 6,421), we examined how SMCs and social capital explained SRH in a population of community-dwelling older adults in a semirural area in Malaysia. We also evaluated whether SRH's relationship with SMCs is moderated by social capital. The association of SMC and social capital with poor SRH was investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Social capital (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.82-0.89), mild SMC (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.50-1.94), and moderate SMC (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.63-2.20) were found to be associated with poor SRH after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and depression in the initial regression model. SMC was found to have partial interaction effects with social capital which was included in the subsequent regression model. Unlike individuals with no SMC and mild SMC, those who reported moderate SMC did not show decreasing probabilities of poor SRH despite increasing levels of social capital. Nevertheless, this analysis suggests that social capital and SMC are independent predictors of poor SRH. Further research needs to be targeted at improving the understanding on how social capital and SMC moderate and interact with the perception of health in older adults.

12.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 65: 20-31, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyse conversion rates from normal cognition to Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Reversion rates in patients with MCI (i.e. PD-MCI) were also investigated. METHODS: Electronic searches of PsycINFO, Medline and EBSCOhost were conducted in January 2018, with 1833 articles identified after duplicate removal. Articles were included if they assessed conversion/reversion in PD patients between normal cognition, PD-MCI and PD dementia (PD-D). RESULTS: In total, 39 articles met the inclusion criteria, representing 4011 patients (mean age range 58-75; 61% male). Within three years, in those with PD and normal cognition, 25% (95%CI 20-30%) converted to PD-MCI and 2% (95%CI 1-7%) converted to dementia. Of those with PD-MCI, 20% (95%CI 13-30%) converted to dementia while 28% (95%CI 20-37%) reverted back to a state of normal cognitive function. The conversion rates to MCI and dementia were higher, and reversion rates lower, when follow-up was ≥3 years. When International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) criteria were used to diagnose MCI, Level I criteria were associated with a greater reversion estimate from PD-MCI to normal cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: These findings summarise the trajectory of cognitive impairment in PD and highlight that MCI is common in this patient group. Understanding cognitive trajectories in PD patients is important for patient care in terms of prognosis, as well as for identifying windows for intervention for cognitive symptoms. As the number of PD patients increases with an ageing population, this information can inform future policy and planning.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025586, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stroke-survivors are at increased risk of future dementia. Assessment to identify those at high risk of developing a disease using predictive scores has been utilised in different areas of medicine. A number of risk assessment scores for dementia have been developed but none has been recommended for use clinically. The aim of this qualitative study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of using a risk assessment tool to predict post-stroke dementia. DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed thematically. The patients and carers were offered interviews at around 6 (baseline) and 12 (follow-up) months post-stroke; clinicians were interviewed once. SETTING: The study was conducted in the North-East of England with stroke patients, family carers and healthcare professionals in primary and secondary care. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-nine interviews were conducted (17 clinicians and 15 stroke patients and their carers at baseline. Twelve stroke patients and their carers were interviewed at follow-up, some interviews were conducted in pairs). RESULTS: Barriers and facilitators to risk assessment were discussed. For the patients and carers the focus for facilitators were based on the outcomes of risk assessment for example assistance with preparation, diagnosis and for reassurance. For clinicians, facilitators were focused on the process that is, familiarity in primary care, resource availability in secondary care and collaborative care. For barriers, both groups focused on the outcome including for example, the anxiety generated from a potential diagnosis of dementia. For the patients/carers a further barrier included concerns about how it may affect their recovery. For clinicians there were concerns about limited interventions and how it would be different from standard care. CONCLUSIONS: Risk assessment for dementia post-stroke presents challenges given the ramifications of a potential diagnosis of dementia. Attention needs to be given to how information is communicated and strategies developed to support the patients and carers if risk assessment is used.

14.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(1): 3-7, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247787

RESUMO

Approximately 47 million people have dementia worldwide, with this figure, it is expected to almost triple by 2050. Most people with dementia (approximately two-thirds) live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This presents a significant challenge for such countries that often have limited financial resources and less well-developed health and social care systems. In the absence of a cure, reducing the future costs of dementia care and burden of disease may be best achieved by a greater emphasis on (1) more timely diagnosis with earlier intervention to maintain functional independence and (2) undertaking "screening" in groups at high risk of developing dementia, case finding, and using brief cognitive assessment instruments. In clinical settings, a wide range of instruments for dementia screening and diagnosis are currently available; however, few cognitive assessment tools have been developed specifically for clinical use within LMIC settings. Screening for dementia and cognitive impairment in LMICs largely relies on tools adapted from high-income countries (HICs); these often lack validation in these settings leading to education, literacy, and cultural biases. Research is urgently needed to develop cognitive assessment tools and dementia diagnostic approaches that are appropriate and feasible for clinical use in LMIC settings.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Demência/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(7): 543-551, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identification of individuals at high risk of dementia is essential for development of prevention strategies, but reliable tools are lacking for risk stratification in the population. The authors developed and validated a prediction model to calculate the 10-year absolute risk of developing dementia in an aging population. METHODS: In a large, prospective population-based cohort, data were collected on demographic, clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, and neuroimaging parameters from 2,710 nondemented individuals age 60 or older, examined between 1995 and 2011. A basic and an extended model were derived to predict 10-year risk of dementia while taking into account competing risks from death due to other causes. Model performance was assessed using optimism-corrected C-statistics and calibration plots, and the models were externally validated in the Dutch population-based Epidemiological Prevention Study of Zoetermeer and in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort 1 (ADNI-1). RESULTS: During a follow-up of 20,324 person-years, 181 participants developed dementia. A basic dementia risk model using age, history of stroke, subjective memory decline, and need for assistance with finances or medication yielded a C-statistic of 0.78 (95% CI=0.75, 0.81). Subsequently, an extended model incorporating the basic model and additional cognitive, genetic, and imaging predictors yielded a C-statistic of 0.86 (95% CI=0.83, 0.88). The models performed well in external validation cohorts from Europe and the United States. CONCLUSIONS: In community-dwelling individuals, 10-year dementia risk can be accurately predicted by combining information on readily available predictors in the primary care setting. Dementia prediction can be further improved by using data on cognitive performance, genotyping, and brain imaging. These models can be used to identify individuals at high risk of dementia in the population and are able to inform trial design.


Assuntos
Demência/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
16.
Fam Pract ; 36(4): 506-510, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Memory and cognitive deficits post stroke are common and associated with increased risk of future dementia. Rehabilitation tends to focus on physical recovery; however, once in the community, it is unclear what happens in the longer term to the stroke-survivor with new memory difficulties. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this qualitative study was to examine in stroke-survivors what factors influence contact with health professionals. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stroke-survivors and their family carers where memory difficulties were reported at 6 months post stroke. A topic guide was used which sought to critically examine participants care experience following their stroke diagnosis. All participants were interviewed at baseline (around 6 months post stroke) and offered an interview at around 12 months post stroke. All interviews were conducted in the North East of England. All transcripts were coded and thematically analysed. RESULTS: Ten stroke-survivors (age range 72-84 years) were interviewed alongside five carers at baseline; eight stroke-survivors and four carers agreed to a follow-up interview. Three main barriers were identified: (i) fear of a dementia diagnosis; (ii) denial or minimization of symptoms leading to adaptation and (iii) obstacles to seeking help in the community. CONCLUSIONS: With an ageing population and increase in stroke-survival, the burden of post-stroke cognitive impairment and dementia will only increase. Stroke-survivors and their family carers in this study have identified issues that may hinder their presentation to health care professionals at a personal and organizational level. Health professionals need to be aware of these potential issues when planning services for stroke-survivors.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Transtornos da Memória , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência , Inglaterra , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Clin Nutr ; 38(1): 264-270, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on the definition of sarcopenic obesity (SO), resulting in inconsistent associations of SO with mortality risk. We aim to evaluate association of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) SO models with mortality risk in a US adult population (≥50 years). SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 3577 participants aged 50 years and older from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey with mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011. Difference in survival time in people with and without SO defined by three body composition DXA models (Model 1: body composition phenotype model; Model 2: Truncal Fat Mass (TrFM)/Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass (ASM) ratio model; Model 3: Fat Mass (FM)/Fat Free Mass (FFM) ratio). The differences between the models were assessed by the acceleration failure time model, and expressed as time ratios (TR). RESULTS: Participants age 50-70 years with SO had a significantly decreased survival time, according to the body composition phenotype model (TR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.97), and TrFM/ASM ratio model (TR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81-0.95). The FM/FFM ratio model did not detect significant differences in survival time. Participants with SO aged 70 years and older did not have a significantly decreased survival time, according to all three models. CONCLUSIONS: A SO phenotype increases mortality risk in people of age 50-70 years, but not in people aged 70 years and older. The application of the body composition phenotype and the TrFM/ASM ratio models may represent useful diagnostic approaches to improve the prediction of disease and mortality risk.

18.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(15): 2400-2410, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617153

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials examining the effect of inorganic nitrate or nitrite supplementation on cognitive function (CF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Two databases (PubMed, Embase) were searched for articles from inception until May 2017. Inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials; participants >18 years old; trials comparing a nitrate/nitrite intervention with a control. Thirteen and nine trials were included in the meta-analysis to assess CF and CBF, respectively. Random-effects models were used and the effect size described as standardized mean differences (SMDs). A total of 297 participants (median of 23 per trial) were included for CF; 163 participants (median of 16 per trial) were included for CBF. Nitrate/nitrite supplementation did not influence CF (SMD +0.06, 95% CI: -0.06, 0.18, P = 0.32) or CBF under resting (SMD +0.14, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.41, P = 0.31), or stimulated conditions (SMD + 0.23, 95% CI: -0.11, 0.56, P = 0.19). The meta-regression showed an inverse association between duration of the intervention and CBF (P = 0.02) but no influence of age, BMI or dose (P < 0.05). Nitrate and nitrite supplementation did not modify CBF or CF. Further trials employing larger samples sizes and interventions with longer duration are warranted.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Nitritos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Bases de Dados Factuais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 26(2): 186-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945138

RESUMO

This review aimed to systematically evaluate associations between the Metabolic Syndrome and domain specific cognitive performance from cross-sectional studies. PsycINFO and Medline were searched on 12 January 2017 with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome" and "cogni*." A total of 973 articles were identified, with 26 meeting inclusion criteria. Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome were consistently reported to have poorer performance on executive function tasks that were not adaptations of the verbal fluency task, including the Stockings of Cambridge test, Color-Word Inference Test and Frontal Assessment Battery; findings from adaptations of the verbal fluency test showed less consistent results. Associations with performance in attention/working memory/information processing, memory, language, and construction/motor performance domains were mixed. All studies reporting on perception showed nonsignificant results. Non-language based executive function tasks appear to be the most sensitive tests of Metabolic Syndrome, and hold promise as a cognitive screen and for the tracking of interventions in this group.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações
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