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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal conditions may be associated with future allergic disease; however, data are conflicting and incomplete for childhood allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy outcome (caesarean delivery, preterm birth, low birth weight) and offspring AR as defined by national registers. METHODS: Nationwide longitudinal cohort study using prospectively recorded register data from 1,059,600 singleton livebirths born in Sweden in 2001-2012. Cox regression adjusted for infant sex and maternal factors (age at delivery, country of birth, parity, smoking, body mass index and asthma/pulmonary disease) estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for AR during childhood. RESULTS: During the study period 2001-2013, 22,386 (2.11%) children were diagnosed with AR. AR was more common in infants born through caesarean delivery (2.34%) than in those born vaginally (2.10%) (HR=1.12; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.08-1.16). This was equivalent to one extra case of AR in 383 children followed-up in our study. AR was also associated with moderately preterm birth (≥32-36 weeks of gestation: HR=1.12, 95%CI=1.04-1.20), large for gestational age (LGA) (HR=1.05, 95%CI=1.01-1.10) and low (<7) 5-minute Apgar score (HR=1.15, 95%CI=1.02-1.30). Similar risk estimates were obtained when we restricted the outcome to ≥2 hospital-based records of AR. No association was observed between very preterm birth, post-term birth, low birth weight or small for gestational age (SGA) and AR. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates an association between pregnancy outcomes and childhood AR, although observed effect sizes were generally modest.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine pregnancy outcomes among births to women with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) in relation to time of IIM diagnosis using population-based data. METHODS: This study used Swedish nationwide registers to identify all singleton births that occurred between 1973 and 2016 among women diagnosed with IIM between 1998 and 2016 and among women unexposed to IIM. We classified births according to the IIM status of the mother at time of delivery: post-IIM (n = 68), 1-3 years pre-IIM (n = 23), >3 years pre-IIM (n = 710) and unexposed to IIM (n = 4101). Multivariate regression models were used to estimate relative risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in post-IIM births and pre-IIM births separately, in comparison with their non-IIM comparators. RESULTS: We found that post-IIM births had increased risks of caesarean section [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.64], preterm birth (aRR = 3.35; 95% CI: 1.28, 8.73) and low birth weight (aRR = 5.69; 95% CI: 1.84, 17.55) compared with non-IIM comparators. We also noticed higher frequencies of caesarean section and instrumental delivery in 1-3 years pre-IIM births than in the non-IIM comparators. CONCLUSION: Women who gave birth after IIM diagnosis had higher risks of caesarean section, preterm birth and low birth weight. These results further underline the importance of special care and close monitoring of women with IIM. Higher frequencies of caesarean section and instrumental delivery in pre-IIM births highlight the need for future research on the influence of subclinical features of IIM on pregnancy outcomes.

3.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(1): 94-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine risks of adverse birth outcomes in women exposed to varenicline during pregnancy. METHODS: Population-based cohort study including live-born and stillborn infants from 1 May 2007 to 31 December 2012. Data from health and administrative registries in Denmark and Sweden, two Nordic countries with universal health care and routine registration of major life and health events. Infants were allocated to three cohorts on the basis of their in utero exposure: the exposed cohort consisting of infants whose mothers were dispensed varenicline during pregnancy; the unexposed cohort comprised infants unexposed to varenicline, but exposed to maternal smoking in utero; and the reference cohort of infants unexposed to varenicline and maternal smoking in utero. The primary outcome was major congenital malformations diagnosed from birth to the first year of life. Secondary outcomes included stillbirth, fetal growth restriction (measured as small for gestational age), preterm delivery, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and sudden infant death syndrome. We estimated the prevalence of the primary outcome and secondary outcomes in the exposed, unexposed, and reference cohorts. Prevalence odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using logistic regression with propensity score adjustment to control for potential confounders. RESULTS: The combined cohort included 885 185 infants. Of these, 335 infants were exposed, 78 412 were unexposed, and the remaining 806 438 comprised the reference cohort. Major congenital malformations were detected among 3.6% of exposed infants, 4.3% of unexposed infants, and 4.2% of infants in the reference cohort. The propensity score-adjusted prevalence odds ratio for major congenital malformations was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.45-1.42) for exposed vs unexposed infants. All analyses of primary and secondary outcomes comparing exposed with unexposed infants yielded odds ratio estimates below or close to unity. Use of varenicline during pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse birth outcomes.

4.
BMJ ; 367: l6131, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if induction of labour at 41 weeks improves perinatal and maternal outcomes in women with a low risk pregnancy compared with expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. DESIGN: Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 hospitals in Sweden, 2016-18. PARTICIPANTS: 2760 women with a low risk uncomplicated singleton pregnancy randomised (1:1) by the Swedish Pregnancy Register. 1381 women were assigned to the induction group and 1379 were assigned to the expectant management group. INTERVENTIONS: Induction of labour at 41 weeks and expectant management and induction of labour at 42 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite perinatal outcome including one or more of stillbirth, neonatal mortality, Apgar score less than 7 at five minutes, pH less than 7.00 or metabolic acidosis (pH <7.05 and base deficit >12 mmol/L) in the umbilical artery, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, intracranial haemorrhage, convulsions, meconium aspiration syndrome, mechanical ventilation within 72 hours, or obstetric brachial plexus injury. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: The study was stopped early owing to a significantly higher rate of perinatal mortality in the expectant management group. The composite primary perinatal outcome did not differ between the groups: 2.4% (33/1381) in the induction group and 2.2% (31/1379) in the expectant management group (relative risk 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.73; P=0.90). No perinatal deaths occurred in the induction group but six (five stillbirths and one early neonatal death) occurred in the expectant management group (P=0.03). The proportion of caesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, or any major maternal morbidity did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study comparing induction of labour at 41 weeks with expectant management and induction at 42 weeks does not show any significant difference in the primary composite adverse perinatal outcome. However, a reduction of the secondary outcome perinatal mortality is observed without increasing adverse maternal outcomes. Although these results should be interpreted cautiously, induction of labour ought to be offered to women no later than at 41 weeks and could be one (of few) interventions that reduces the rate of stillbirths. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26113652.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Nascimento a Termo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a lifelong disorder with a high rate of comorbidities and complications. We hypothesized that women with CP are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this nationwide population-based cohort study 1997-2011, we examined the outcome of 770 births in women with CP vs 1 247 408 births in women without a CP diagnosis using the Swedish Medical Birth Register. We used unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, parity, year of birth and epilepsy, to calculate adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcome. Main adverse outcome was preterm birth. Secondary outcomes were cesarean section, induction of labor, low 5-min Apgar score, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, and stillbirth. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, maternal CP was associated with increased risk of preterm birth (12.9% vs 4.9%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8, 95% CI 2.3-3.5), cesarean delivery (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2), induced delivery (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.6), low 5-min Apgar score (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9) and small of gestational age birth (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). We found no increased risk of large for gestational age or stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: Women with CP are at increased risk of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, suggesting that they deserve extra surveillance during antenatal care. Further studies, with information on type of CP and gross motor function, are warranted to better understand the association between CP and pregnancy outcome.

6.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746972

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of eating disorders is high among women of reproductive age, yet the association of eating disorders with pregnancy complications and neonatal health has not been investigated in detail, to our knowledge. Objective: To investigate the relative risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes for women with eating disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all singleton births included in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2014. A total of 7542 women with eating disorders were compared with 1 225 321 women without eating disorders. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2018, to April 30, 2019. Via linkage with the national patient register, women with eating disorders were identified and compared with women free of any eating disorder. Eating disorders were further stratified into active or previous disease based on last time of diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (hyperemesis, anemia, preeclampsia, and antepartum hemorrhage), the mode of delivery (cesarean delivery, vaginal delivery, or instrumental vaginal delivery), and the neonatal outcomes (preterm birth, small and large sizes for gestational age, Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes, and microcephaly) were calculated using Poisson regression analysis to estimate risk ratios (RRs). Models were adjusted for age, parity, smoking status, and birth year. Results: There were 2769 women with anorexia nervosa (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [5.3] years), 1378 women with bulimia nervosa (mean [SD] age, 30.2 [4.9] years), and 3395 women with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; mean [SD] age, 28.9 [5.3] years), and they were analyzed and compared with 1 225 321 women without eating disorders (mean [SD] age, 30.3 [5.2] years). All subtypes of maternal eating disorders were associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk of hyperemesis during pregnancy (anorexia nervosa: RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.8-2.5]; bulimia nervosa: RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.6-2.7]; EDNOS: RR, 2.6 [95% CI, 2.3-3.0]). The risk of anemia during pregnancy was doubled for women with active anorexia nervosa (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.2]) or EDNOS (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.5-2.8]). Maternal anorexia nervosa was associated with an increased risk of antepartum hemorrhage (RR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.2-2.1]), which was more pronounced in active vs previous disease. Women with anorexia nervosa (RR, 0.7 [95% CI, 0.6-0.9]) and women with EDNOS (RR, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7-1.0]) were at decreased risk of instrumental-assisted vaginal births; otherwise, there were no major differences in mode of delivery. Women with eating disorders, all subtypes, were at increased risk of a preterm birth (anorexia nervosa: RR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.4-1.8]; bulimia nervosa: RR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.0-1.6]; and EDNOS: RR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2-1.6]) and of delivering neonates with microcephaly (anorexia nervosa: RR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.5-2.4]; bulimia nervosa: RR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1-2.4]; EDNOS: RR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2-1.9]). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that women with active or previous eating disorders, regardless of subtype, are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and may need increased surveillance in antenatal and delivery care.

8.
CMAJ ; 191(42): E1149-E1158, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of obstetric anal sphincter injury has increased in recent years, particularly among operative vaginal deliveries. We sought to characterize temporal trends in episiotomy use and to quantify the association between episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injury. METHODS: Using a population-based retrospective cohort study design of hospital data from 2004 to 2017, we studied all vaginal deliveries of singleton infants at term gestation in Canada (excluding Quebec). Rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury were contrasted between women who had an episiotomy and those who did not. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the association between episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injury among women with spontaneous and operative vaginal deliveries after controlling for confounders. RESULTS: The study population included 2 570 847 deliveries. Episiotomy use declined significantly among operative vaginal deliveries (53.1% in 2004 to 43.2% in 2017, p < 0.0001) and spontaneous vaginal deliveries (13.5% in 2004 to 6.5% in 2017, p < 0.0001). Episiotomy was associated with higher rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury among spontaneous vaginal deliveries (4.8 with episiotomy v. 2.4% without; adjusted rate ratio [RR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-2.11) and this association remained after stratification by parity and obstetric history. In contrast, episiotomy was associated with lower rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury among forceps deliveries in nulliparous women (adjusted RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.61-0.66), and women with vaginal birth after cesarean (adjusted RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.85), but not among parous women without a previous cesarean (adjusted RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). INTERPRETATION: Episiotomy use has declined in Canada for all vaginal deliveries. The protective association between episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injury among women who gave birth by operative vaginal delivery (especially forceps) warrants reconsideration of clinical practice among nulliparous women and those attempting vaginal birth after cesarean.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To calculate diagnostic values of the femoral pulse palpation to detect coarctation of the aorta or other left-sided obstructive heart anomalies in newborn infants. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Stockholm-Gotland County 2008-2012. PATIENTS: All singleton live-born infants without chromosomal trisomies, at ≥35 gestational weeks, followed-up until 1-2 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic values and ORs for the femoral pulse test and subsequent diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta or left-sided obstructive heart malformation. RESULTS: Among the 118 592 included infants, 432 had weak or absent femoral pulses at the newborn examination. Seventy-eight infants were diagnosed with coarcation of the aorta and 48 with other left-sided obstructive heart malformations. The diagnostic values for the femoral pulse palpation test to detect coarctation of the aorta were: sensitivity: 19.2%, specificity: 99.6, positive predictive value: 3.5% and negative predictive value: 99.9%. For left-sided heart malformations: sensitivity: 8.3%, specificity: 99.6%, positive predictive value: 0.9% and negative predictive value: 100%. Sensitivity for coarctation of the aorta increased from 16.7% when examined at <12 hours of age to 30.0% at ≥96 hours of age. CONCLUSIONS: The femoral pulse test to detect coarctation of the aorta and left-sided heart malformations has limited sensitivity, whereas specificity is high. As many infants with life-threatening cardiac malformations leave the maternity ward undiagnosed, further efforts are necessary to improve the diagnostic yield of the routine newborn examination.

10.
Eur J Public Health ; 29(6): 1048-1055, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of migrants have fled armed conflict, persecution and deteriorating living conditions, many of whom have also endured risky migration journeys to reach Europe. Despite this, little is known about the perinatal health of migrant women who are particularly vulnerable, such as refugees, asylum-seekers, and undocumented migrants, and their access to perinatal care in the host country. METHODS: Using the Swedish Pregnancy Register, we analyzed indicators of perinatal health and health care usage in 31 897 migrant women from the top five refugee countries of origin between 2014 and 2017. We also compared them to native-born Swedish women. RESULTS: Compared to Swedish-born women, migrant women from Syria, Iraq, Somali, Eritrea and Afghanistan had higher risks of poor self-rated health, gestational diabetes, stillbirth and infants with low birthweight. Within the migrant population, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants had a higher risk of poor maternal self-rated health than refugee women with residency, with an adjusted risk ratio (RR) of 1.84 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.72-1.97. They also had a higher risk of preterm birth (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.21-1.79), inadequate antenatal care (RR 2.56, 95% CI 2.27-2.89) and missed postpartum care visits (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.22). CONCLUSION: Refugee, asylum-seeking and undocumented migrant women were vulnerable during pregnancy and childbirth. Living without residence permits negatively affected self-rated health, pregnancy and birth outcomes in asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants. Pregnant migrant women's special needs should be addressed by those involved in the asylum reception process and by health care providers.

11.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(10): 691-701, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009941

RESUMO

Background: Maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. How these risks vary with glycated hemoglobin (or hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]) levels is unclear. Objective: To examine preterm birth risk according to periconceptional HbA1c levels in women with T1D. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: Sweden, 2003 to 2014. Patients: 2474 singletons born to women with T1D and 1 165 216 reference infants born to women without diabetes. Measurements: Risk for preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks). Secondary outcomes were neonatal death, large for gestational age, macrosomia, infant birth injury, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, 5-minute Apgar score less than 7, and stillbirth. Results: Preterm birth occurred in 552 (22.3%) of 2474 infants born to mothers with T1D versus 54 287 (4.7%) in 1 165 216 infants born to mothers without diabetes. The incidence of preterm birth was 13.2% in women with a periconceptional HbA1c level below 6.5% (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] vs. women without T1D, 2.83 [95% CI, 2.28 to 3.52]), 20.6% in those with a level from 6.5% to less than 7.8% (aRR, 4.22 [CI, 3.74 to 4.75]), 28.3% in those with a level from 7.8% to less than 9.1% (aRR, 5.56 [CI, 4.84 to 6.38]), and 37.5% in those with a level of 9.1% or higher (aRR, 6.91 [CI, 5.85 to 8.17]). The corresponding aRRs for medically indicated preterm birth (n = 320) were 5.26 (CI, 3.83 to 7.22), 7.42 (CI, 6.21 to 8.86), 11.75 (CI, 9.72 to 14.20), and 17.51 (CI, 14.14 to 21.69), respectively. The corresponding aRRs for spontaneous preterm birth (n = 223) were 1.81 (CI, 1.31 to 2.52), 2.86 (CI, 2.38 to 3.44), 2.88 (CI, 2.23 to 3.71), and 2.80 (CI, 1.94 to 4.03), respectively. Increasing HbA1c levels were associated with the study's secondary outcomes: large for gestational age, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, low Apgar score, neonatal death, and stillbirth. Limitation: Because HbA1c levels were registered annually at routine visits, they were not available for all pregnant women with T1D. Conclusion: The risk for preterm birth was strongly linked to periconceptional HbA1c levels. Women with HbA1c levels consistent with recommended target levels also were at increased risk. Primary Funding Source: Swedish Diabetes Foundation.

12.
JAMA ; 321(12): 1188-1199, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912837

RESUMO

Importance: Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown. Objective: To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016. Design, Setting and Participants: All births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age (n = 2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016. Exposures: Delivery at 22-26 weeks' gestational age. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not have any major neonatal morbidity (specifically, without intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3-5, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Results: During 2004-2007, 1009 births (3.3/1000 of all births) occurred at 22-26 weeks' gestational age compared with 1196 births (3.4/1000 of all births) during 2014-2016 (P = .61). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (497 of 705 infants [70%]) than during 2014-2016 (711 of 923 infants [77%]) (difference, -7% [95% CI, -11% to -2.2%], P = .003). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age and without any major neonatal morbidity was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (226 of 705 infants [32%]) than during 2014-2016 (355 of 923 infants [38%]) (difference, -6% [95% CI, -11% to -1.7%], P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: Among live births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age in Sweden, 1-year survival improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(8): 988-996, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767210

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of placenta previa on pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the possible association of placental location other than previa with pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate if placental location other than previa is associated with adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study, with data from the regional population-based Stockholm-Gotland Obstetric Cohort, Sweden, from 2008 to 2014. The study population included 74 087 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live-born infants, with information about placental location from the second-trimester ultrasound screening. The association between placental location (fundal, lateral, anterior or posterior) and pregnancy outcomes was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated, and adjustments were made for maternal age, height, country of birth, smoking in early pregnancy, sex of the infant and in vitro fertilization. Main outcome measures were pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with posterior placental location, fundal and lateral placental locations were associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, the most important being: very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation) (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.18-2.63 and aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.39-2.25, respectively), moderate preterm birth (32-36 weeks of gestation) (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.001-1.51 and aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.32-2.00, respectively), small-for-gestational-age birth (aOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.07 and aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.39-2.25, respectively) and manual removal of the placenta in vaginal births (aOR 3.27, 95% CI 2.68-3.99 and aOR 3.27, 95% CI 2.60-4.10, respectively). Additionally, lateral placental location was associated with preeclampsia (aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.65) and severe postpartum hemorrhage (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.27-1.82). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with posterior placental location, fundal and lateral placental locations are associated with a number of adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes.

14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(6): 789-796, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In young men, high body mass index (BMI) has been linked to liver disease later in life, but it is unclear if this also applies to women. AIM: To study the association between BMI early in life and development of liver disease later in life in women. METHODS: We obtained data on early pregnancy BMI from 1 139 458 Swedish women between 1992 and 2015. National registers were used to ascertain incident severe liver disease, defined as cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease (hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal varices, hepatorenal syndrome or hepatic encephalopathy) or liver failure. A Cox regression model was used to investigate associations of BMI with incident severe liver disease adjusting for maternal age, calendar year, country of birth, smoking, civil status and education. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 13.8 years, 774 women developed severe liver disease. Compared to women with a low normal BMI (18.5-22.4), an increased risk of severe liver disease was found in women with BMI between 22.5 and 24.9 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50), 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2 (aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.53) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (aHR 1.77, 95% CI 1.40-2.24). When examining BMI as a continuous variable, the aHR increased by 4% per kg/m2 (95% CI 1.02-1.05). A diagnosis of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of severe liver disease independent of baseline BMI. CONCLUSION: A high BMI early in life in women is associated with a dose-dependent, increased risk for future severe liver disease.

15.
Epidemiology ; 30(2): 234-242, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies have consistently shown that maternal weight gain in pregnancy is positively associated with fetal size, but it is unknown whether the association is causal. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy weight gain on fetal growth using a sibling comparison design to control for unmeasured confounding by genetic and shared environmental factors. METHODS: Our study population included 44,457 infants (21,680 women) with electronic medical records in the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetrical Database, 2008-2014. We standardized pregnancy weight gain into gestational age-specific z-scores. Fetal size was classified as birthweight (gram), and as small- and large-for-gestational-age birth (birthweight <10th or >90th percentiles, respectively). Our sibling comparison analyses used multivariable linear fixed effects models for birthweight and hybrid logistic fixed effects models for small- and large-for-gestational-age birth (SGA and LGA). We repeated analyses using conventional (unmatched) regression models. RESULTS: Sibling comparison analyses showed a clinically meaningful association between weight gain and fetal size (e.g., adjusted difference of +89 g birthweight [95% CI = 82, 95 g]; adjusted risk ratios [aRR] for SGA of 0.80 [95% CI = 0.75, 0.86] per 1 z-score increase in weight gain for a woman of body mass index [BMI] = 25). These findings were consistent across the range of BMI. Estimates were only modestly attenuated compared with conventional approach (+97 g [95% CI = 92, 102 g], aRR for SGA of 0.70 [95% CI = 0.67, 0.73] per 1 z-score increase in weight gain). CONCLUSION: The positive association between pregnancy weight gain and fetal size we found using a sibling comparison design suggests that this relation has minimal confounding by familial factors that remain constant between pregnancies.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Birth ; 46(2): 379-386, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine risk of severe perineal trauma among nulliparous women and those undergoing vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study of all births to women with their two first consecutive singleton pregnancies in Stockholm-Gotland Sweden between 2008 and 2014. Risk of severe perineal trauma was compared between nulliparous women and those undergoing VBAC with severe perineal trauma being the main outcome measure. Associations between indication and timing of primary cesarean delivery and risk of severe perineal trauma in subsequent vaginal birth were analyzed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The rate of severe perineal trauma among nulliparous women and those undergoing VBAC was 7.0% and 12.3%, respectively. Compared with nulliparous women, those undergoing VBAC were significantly older, had a shorter stature, and gave birth in a non-upright position to heavier infants with larger head circumferences. The rate of instrumental vaginal delivery among nulliparous women and those undergoing VBAC was 19.3% and 20.2%, respectively (P = 0.331). An increased risk of severe perineal trauma remained after adjustments among those undergoing VBAC (adjusted risk ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1.23-1.63). Level of risk was not associated with indication (dystocia or signs of fetal distress) of primary cesarean delivery, nor how far the woman had progressed in labor (fully dilated versus planned cesarean delivery) before delivering by cesarean. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with nulliparous women, those undergoing VBAC are at increased risk of severe perineal trauma, irrespective of indication and timing of primary cesarean delivery.

17.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 1817-1826, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555264

RESUMO

Background: The consequences of autism in pregnancy outcomes have not been explored before, although it is of crucial importance because of the frequent comorbidities and medication in this group of women. Objectives: To estimate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women diagnosed with autism. Design: Nationwide population-based cohort study. Setting: Sweden. Participants: Singleton births identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 2006-2014. A total of 2,198 births to women diagnosed with autism registered in the Swedish National Patient Registry were compared to 877,742 singleton births to women without such a diagnosis. Main outcome and measures: Preterm delivery. Secondary measures were cesarean delivery (emergency and elective), Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, stillbirth, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. ORs were calculated through logistic regression, adjusted for maternal age at delivery, maternal country of birth, smoking, maternal body mass index, parity, calendar year of birth, and psychotropic and antiepileptic medication during pregnancy. Results: Women with autism were at increased risk of preterm birth (OR=1.30; 95% CI=1.10-1.54), especially medically indicated preterm birth (OR=1.41; 95% CI=1.08-1.82), but not with spontaneous preterm birth. Maternal autism was also associated with an increased risk of elective cesarean delivery (OR=1.44; 95% CI=1.25-1.66) and preeclampsia (OR=1.34; 95% CI=1.08-1.66), but not with emergency cesarean delivery, low Apgar score (<7), large for gestational age, gestational diabetes, and stillbirth. In women with medication during pregnancy, there was no increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome except for induction of delivery (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.14-1.55). Conclusion and relevance: Maternal autism is associated with preterm birth, likely due to an increased frequency of medically indicated preterm births, but also with other adverse pregnancy outcomes, suggesting a need for extra surveillance during prenatal care.

18.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(11): 1299-1305, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411076

RESUMO

There are limited data on pregnancy outcomes in women with cirrhosis. To address this gap, we examined the records of singleton births from Sweden's National Patient Register (NPR), Cause of Death Register (CDR), and Medical Birth Register (MBR) between 1997 and 2011 to assess exposure and pregnancy-related and liver-related outcomes of pregnant women with cirrhosis. Exposure status was defined as having an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code for cirrhosis obtained prior to or during pregnancy. Poisson regression with cluster-robust standard errors was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) adjusted for maternal age, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). We identified 103 pregnancies in women with cirrhosis and compared these to 1,361,566 pregnancies in women without cirrhosis. Pregnancies in women with cirrhosis were at increased risk of caesarean delivery (36% versus 16%, respectively; adjusted RR [aRR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-2.73), low birth weight (15% versus 3%; aRR, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.11-7.06), and preterm delivery (19% versus 5%; aRR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.16-5.72). Rates of maternal mortality during pregnancy (no cases), gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, small for gestational age, congenital malformations, and stillbirth were not increased when compared to the pregnant women without cirrhosis. There were 12 hospitalizations during pregnancy due to liver-related events, including one case with bleeding esophageal varices. Conclusion: Women with cirrhosis are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, severe maternal and fetal adverse events were rare in our study, and most pregnancies in women with cirrhosis ended without complications.

19.
PLoS Med ; 15(9): e1002656, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk of adverse delivery outcomes. Whether weight loss induced by bariatric surgery influences these risks remains to be determined. The objective was to investigate the risk of adverse delivery outcomes among post-surgery women compared with women without bariatric surgery history but with similar characteristics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 801,443 singleton live-born term births (≥37 gestational weeks) in the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013, of which 1,929 were in women with a history of bariatric surgery and a pre-surgery weight available from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry. For each post-surgery delivery, up to 5 control deliveries were matched by maternal pre-surgery BMI (early-pregnancy BMI used for controls), age, parity, smoking, education, height, country of birth, and delivery year (N post-surgery deliveries:matched controls = 1,431:4,476). The main outcome measures were mode of delivery, induction of labor, post-term pregnancy (≥42 + 0 gestational weeks), epidural analgesia, fetal distress, labor dystocia, peripartum infection, obstetric anal sphincter injury (perineal tear grade III-IV), and postpartum hemorrhage. Among the women with a history of bariatric surgery, the mean pre-surgery BMI was 42.6 kg/m2, the median surgery-to-conception interval was 1.4 years, and the mean BMI loss between surgery and early pregnancy was 13.5 kg/m2 (38 kg). Compared to matched control women, post-surgery women were less likely to have cesarean delivery (18.2% versus 25.0%, risk ratio [RR] 0.70, 95% CI 0.60-0.80), especially emergency cesarean (6.8% versus 15.1%, RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.51). Post-surgery women also had lower risks of instrumental delivery (5.0% versus 6.5%, RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.98), induction of labor (23.4% versus 34.0%, RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.59-0.78), post-term pregnancy (4.2% versus 10.3%, RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.53), obstetric anal sphincter injury (1.5% versus 2.9%, RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.81), and postpartum hemorrhage (4.6% versus 8.0%, RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.76). Since this study was not randomized, a limitation is the possibility of selection bias, despite our efforts using careful matching. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric-surgery-induced weight loss was associated with lower risks for adverse delivery outcomes in term births.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea , Estudos de Coortes , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia , Perda de Peso
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1510-1514.e2, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about early-life risk factors for food allergy in children. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between perinatal characteristics and future risk of food allergy in offspring. METHODS: This nationwide Swedish cohort study of 1,086,378 children born in Sweden in 2001-2012 used prospectively recorded data from health care registers. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for the association between perinatal characteristics (eg, cesarean delivery and preterm birth) and food allergy as defined by diagnoses in the National Patient Register, adjusting for infant sex and maternal factors (age at delivery, country of birth, parity, smoking, body mass index, and asthma/pulmonary disease). RESULTS: During the 13-year follow-up, 26,732 (2.5%) children were given a diagnosis of food allergy. Food allergy was positively associated with cesarean delivery (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.25), large for gestational age (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), and low 5-minute Apgar score (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.36) but negatively associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.98). No association was found between food allergy and moderately preterm birth, low birth weight, or small for gestational age. Risk estimates were similar when the outcome was restricted to 2 records of diagnosed food allergy. In 1,000 children undergoing cesarean delivery, an extra 5 developed food allergy compared with the reference group, suggesting that 17% of food allergy in children born by means of cesarean delivery can be explained by this exposure (attributable fraction). CONCLUSIONS: Cesarean delivery was associated with increased risk of food allergy, whereas very preterm birth decreased risk.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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