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1.
Curr Pediatr Rep ; : 1-5, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631303

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: We highlight practice changes adopted to increased use of telemedicine, look at precision, and accuracy in using a virtual visit to evaluate and treat rheumatic disease, and describe our shift in engaging patients and their families in supporting our research aims. Recent Findings: Telemedicine visits increased substantially with the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. With this change came the need for significant advances to our telemedicine practices to allow for quality patient visits and continued research collection. Summary: Telemedicine will continue to be an area of increasing importance and has been found to be especially useful for regions like ours which cover many patients in remote areas across Washington, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska. Through the development of new techniques and the use of new technologies, we have been able to improve both the visit quality for patients and our ability to collect research data.

2.
Opt Express ; 29(15): 23549-23557, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614619

RESUMO

Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in micro-resonators are of interest due to their high Q-factors. Ultra-thin fiber tapers are widely deployed to couple light into micro-resonators but achieving stable and practical coupling for out-of-lab use remains challenging. Here, a new WGM coupling scheme using an exposed-core silica fiber (ECF) is proposed, which overcomes the challenge of using fragile fiber tapers. Microspheres are deposited onto the exposed channel for excitation via the evanescent field of the fiber's guided modes. The outer jacket of the ECF partially encapsulates the microspheres, protecting them from external physical disturbance. By varying the mode launching conditions in this few-mode ECF, in combination with a Fano resonance effect, we demonstrate a high degree of tunability in the reflection spectrum. Furthermore, we show multi-particle WGM excitation, which could be controlled to occur either simultaneously or separately through controlling the ECF mode launching conditions. This work can bring value towards applications such as optical switches and modulators, multiplexed/distributed biosensing, and multi-point lasing, integrated in a single optical fiber device that avoids fiber post-processing.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(14): 1393-1403, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), there are no data comparing initial triple oral therapy with initial double oral therapy. OBJECTIVES: TRITON (The Efficacy and Safety of Initial Triple Versus Initial Dual Oral Combination Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension; NCT02558231), a multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase 3b study, evaluated initial triple (macitentan, tadalafil, and selexipag) versus initial double (macitentan, tadalafil, and placebo) oral therapy in newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients with PAH. METHODS: Efficacy was assessed until the last patient randomized completed week 26 (end of main observation period). The primary endpoint was change in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at week 26. RESULTS: Patients were assigned to initial triple (n = 123) or initial double therapy (n = 124). At week 26, both treatment strategies reduced PVR compared with baseline (by 54% and 52%), with no significant difference between groups (ratio of geometric means: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.86-1.07; P = 0.42). Six-minute walk distance and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide improved by week 26, with no difference between groups. Risk for disease progression (to end of main observation period) was reduced with initial triple versus initial double therapy (hazard ratio: 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-1.09). Most common adverse events with initial triple therapy included headache, diarrhea, and nausea. By the end of the main observation period, 2 patients in the initial triple and 9 in the initial double therapy groups had died. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with newly diagnosed PAH, both treatment strategies markedly reduced PVR by week 26, with no significant difference between groups (primary endpoint not met). Exploratory analyses suggested a possible signal for improved long-term outcomes with initial triple versus initial double oral therapy.

4.
Clin Liver Dis ; 25(4): 859-874, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593158

RESUMO

Owing to standard precautions and initiatives for universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in the general population and health care workers, risk of transmission of HBV infection from the patient to a health care worker (and vice versa) is very low. The need for mandatory HBV screening and vaccination in health care workers is less clear than in the past. Health care workers with chronic HBV infection neither require restrictions on professional practice nor disclosure of infection status to a patient. Further study is required to develop effective revaccination strategies to manage health care workers who are vaccine nonresponders.

5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(1): 101832, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607157

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology has profoundly been involved in sequencing whole genomes of several organisms in a fast and cost-effective manner. Although HTS provides an alternative biomonitoring method to the time-consuming and taxonomy-expertise dependent morphological approach, still we cannot rule out the possibility of the impediment and misidentification biases. In this article we aim to retrieve whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from publicly available raw sequencing data for phylogenetic comparison of Ixodes persulcatus. For this comparison, we sequenced whole mitogenomes of four I. persulcatus ticks from Japan and constructed mitogenomes from raw sequencing data of 74 I. persulcatus ticks from China. Bayesian phylogenetic trees were inferred by the concatenated fifteen mitochondrial genes. We further tested our results by the phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. Our findings showed that 70 constructed mitogenomes from China were clustered with the sequenced four mitogenomes of I. persulcatus from Japan. We also revealed that mitogenome sequences retrieved from two data sets CRR142297 and CRR142298 were clustered with Ixodes nipponensis. Moreover, other two mitogenome sequences from CRR142310 and CRR142311 formed a clade with Ixodes pavlovskyi. The phylogenetic analysis of cox1 gene and ITS2 sequences confirmed the identification errors of these four samples. The overall phylogenetics in our study concluded that accurate morphological identification is necessary before implementing HTS to avoid any misidentification biases.

6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 124: 108336, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607215

RESUMO

For idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE), brain network analysis is emerging as a biomarker for potential use in clinical care. To determine whether people with IGE show alterations in resting-state brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, and to quantify these differences, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG) functional connectivity and network studies. The review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-two studies were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes from individual studies supported hypotheses for interictal, resting-state brain connectivity alterations in IGE patients compared to healthy controls. In contrast, meta-analysis from six studies of common network metrics clustering coefficient, path length, mean degree and nodal strength showed no significant differences between IGE and control groups (effect sizes ranged from -0.151 -1.78). The null findings of the meta-analysis and the heterogeneity of the included studies highlights the importance of developing standardized, validated methodologies for future research. Network neuroscience has significant potential as both a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in epilepsy, though individual variability in network dynamics needs to be better understood and accounted for.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a health system level intervention to reduce escalating multiple sclerosis (MS) disease modifying treatment (DMT) expenditures and improve outcomes. METHODS: We conducted stakeholder meetings, reviewed pharmacy utilization data, and abstracted information in subsets of persons with MS (pwMS) from the electronic health record to identify gaps in, and barriers to improving, quality, and affordability of MS care in Kaiser Permanente Southern California. These results informed the development and implementation of the MS Treatment Optimization Program (MSTOP). RESULTS: The two main gaps identified were under-prescribing of highly effective DMTs (HET, 4.9%) and the preferred formulary DMT (20.9%) among DMT-treated pwMS. The main barriers identified were prescribers' fear of rare but serious HET side effects, lack of MS-specific and health systems science knowledge, Pharma influence, evidence gaps, formulary decisions-based solely on costs, and multidirectional mistrust between neurologists, practice leaders, and health plan pharmacists. To overcome these barriers MSTOP developed four strategies: (1) risk-stratified treatment algorithm to increase use of HETs; (2) an expert-led ethical, cost-sensitive, risk-stratified, preferred formulary; (3) proactive counter-launch campaigns to minimize uptake of new, low-value DMTs; and (4) discontinuation of ineffective DMTs in progressive, non-relapsing MS. The multicomponent MSTOP was implemented through education, training, and expanding access to MS-trained providers, audit and feedback, and continual evidence reviews. INTERPRETATION: The causes of wasteful spending on MS DMTs are complex and require multiple strategies to resolve. We provide herein granular details of how we designed and implemented our health system intervention to facilitate its adaption to other settings and conditions.

9.
Cereb Cortex Commun ; 2(4): tgab053, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647030

RESUMO

Microglial cells, the innate immune cells of the brain, are derived from yolk sac precursor cells, begin to colonize the telencephalon at the onset of cortical neurogenesis, and occupy specific layers including the telencephalic proliferative zones. Microglia are an intrinsic component of cortical germinal zones, establish extensive contacts with neural precursor cells (NPCs) and developing cortical vessels, and regulate the size of the NPC pool through mechanisms that include phagocytosis. Microglia exhibit notable differences in number and distribution in the prenatal neocortex between rat and old world nonhuman primate telencephalon, suggesting that microglia possess distinct properties across vertebrate species. To begin addressing this subject, we quantified the number of microglia and NPCs in proliferative zones of the fetal human, rhesus monkey, ferret, and rat, and the prehatch chick and turtle telencephalon. We show that the ratio of NPCs to microglia varies significantly across species. Few microglia populate the prehatch chick telencephalon, but the number of microglia approaches that of NPCs in fetal human and nonhuman primate telencephalon. These data demonstrate that microglia are in a position to perform important functions in a number of vertebrate species but more heavily colonize proliferative zones of fetal human and rhesus monkey telencephalon.

10.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685231

RESUMO

Despite recent successes in incorporating lignin into photoactive resins, lignin photo-properties can be detrimental to its application in UV-curable photopolymers, especially in specialized engineered resins for use in stereolithography printing. We report on chemical modification techniques employed to reduce UV absorption by lignin and the resulting mechanical, thermal, and cure properties of these modified lignin materials. Lignin was modified using reduction and acylation reactions and incorporated into a 3D printable resin formulation. UV-Vis absorption at the 3D printing range of 405 nm was reduced in all modified lignins compared to the unmodified sample by 25% to ≥ 60%. Resins made with the modified lignins showed an increase in stiffness and strength with lower thermal stability. Studying these techniques is an important step in developing lignin for use in UV-curing applications and further the effort to valorize lignin towards commercial use.

11.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585211048401, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the results of educational efforts concerning proper use of McDonald criteria (MC) revisions outside multiple sclerosis (MS) subspecialty centers. Neurology residents and MS subspecialist neurologists demonstrated knowledge gaps for core elements of the MC in a recent prior study. OBJECTIVE: To assess comprehension and application of MC core elements by non-MS specialist neurologists in the United States who routinely diagnose MS. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study design, a previously developed survey instrument was distributed online. RESULTS: A total of 222 neurologists completed the study survey. Syndromes atypical for MS were frequently incorrectly considered "typical" MS presentations. Fourteen percent correctly identified definitions of both "periventricular" and "juxtacortical" lesions and 2% correctly applied these terms to 9/9 images. Twenty-four percent correctly identified all four central nervous system (CNS) regions for satisfaction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dissemination in space. In two presented cases, 61% and 71% correctly identified dissemination in time (DIT) was not fulfilled, and 85% and 86% subsequently accepted nonspecific historical symptoms without objective evidence for DIT fulfillment. CONCLUSION: The high rate of knowledge deficiencies and application errors of core elements of the MC demonstrated by participants in this study raise pressing questions concerning adequacy of dissemination and educational efforts upon publication of revisions to MC.

12.
Pulm Circ ; 11(4): 20458940211032529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603686

RESUMO

Right ventricular function has prognostic significance in patients with pulmonary hypertension. We evaluated whether cardiac magnetic resonance-derived strain and strain rate parameters could reliably reflect right ventricular systolic and diastolic function in precapillary pulmonary hypertension. End-systolic elastance and the time constant of right ventricular relaxation tau, both derived from invasive high-fidelity micromanometer catheter measurements, were used as gold standards for assessing systolic and diastolic right ventricular function, respectively. Nineteen consecutive precapillary pulmonary hypertension patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance and right heart catheterization prospectively. Cardiac magnetic resonance data were compared with those of 19 control subjects. In pulmonary hypertension patients, associations between strain- and strain rate-related parameters and invasive hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. Longitudinal peak systolic strain, strain rate, and early diastolic strain rate were lower in PAH patients than in controls; peak atrial-diastolic strain rate was higher in pulmonary hypertension patients. Similarly, circumferential peak systolic strain rate was lower and peak atrial-diastolic strain rate was higher in pulmonary hypertension. In pulmonary hypertension, no correlations existed between cardiac magnetic resonance-derived and hemodynamically derived measures of systolic right ventricular function. Regarding diastolic parameters, tau was significantly correlated with peak longitudinal atrial-diastolic strain rate (r = -0.61), deceleration time (r = 0.75), longitudinal systolic to diastolic time ratio (r = 0.59), early diastolic strain rate (r = -0.5), circumferential peak atrial-diastolic strain rate (r = -0.52), and deceleration time (r = 0.62). Strain analysis of the right ventricular diastolic phase is a reliable non-invasive method for detecting right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in PAH.

13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 2282, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598629

RESUMO

An acoustic black hole (ABH) plate is a lightweight and high loss panel structure for effective reduction of vibration and radiated sound. It is understood that the high loss local ABH modes can be designed at desired frequencies by changing the size of the ABH cell(s). The ABH cell diameter (size) and minimum thickness play dominant roles in the performance of the ABH effect. In addition, attaching tuning masses at the center of the ABH cells has been shown to alter the local ABH modes with the result of improved low-frequency performance. In this work, the transmission loss (TL) of an embedded multi-scale ABH plate was investigated. The embedded large and small ABH cells were particularly designed to cut-on below and above the critical frequency of the plate, respectively. The results were compared with a uniform plate and an embedded single-scale ABH plate. Discrete tuning masses were attached at the ABH cells' center to manipulate the ABH cut-on modes to increase the TL further. The results show that the damped multi-scale ABH plate achieved a 10 dB TL increase, flattened the TL curve, and nearly eliminated the plate coincidence dip. Manipulating the high loss ABH modes by adding tuning masses (20 g each) demonstrated a 2 dB increase at low frequencies within the mass-law range. Although damping material was applied, adding some mass, an overall weight advantage was still attained compared to the uniform plate. The damped multi-scale ABH plate is 7% lighter than the uniform plate.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680341

RESUMO

Recently, the role of exosomes in the progression of both cancer and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) has been described. This study investigates the clinical significance of CD9-positive plasma exosomes in lung cancer patients, healthy individuals, and HIV-positive patients with or without lung cancer. Using a verified with transmission electron microscopy double-sandwich ELISA technique, plasma-derived exosomes were isolated and quantified from 210 lung cancer patients (including 44 metastatic patients with progressive disease after chemotherapy), 49 healthy controls, 20 patients with pulmonary granulomas, 19 HIV+ patients with lung cancer, 31 HIV+ patients without cancer, and 3 HIV+ patients with pulmonary granulomas. Plasma exosome concentrations differed between healthy controls, patients with immunocompetent pulmonary granulomas and patients with lung cancer even after chemotherapy (p < 0.001). Lung cancer patients after chemotherapy had lower exosome concentrations compared to patients with untreated lung cancer or granuloma (p < 0.001 for both). HIV+ patients without lung cancer had significantly higher exosome concentrations compared to HIV+ patients with lung cancer (p = 0.016). Although exosome concentrations differed between all different lung cancer histologies and healthy controls (p < 0.001 for all histologies), adjusted statistical significance was oµy retained for patients with granulomas and SCLC (Small-cell lung cancer, p < 0.001). HIV-induced immunodeficient patients with or without lung cancer had lower plasma exosomes compared to immunocompetent granuloma and lung cancer patients (p < 0.001). Finally, higher plasma exosomes were associated both on univariate (p = 0.044), and multivariate analysis (p = 0.040) with a better 3-year survival in stage II and III NSCLC (Non-small-cell lung carcinoma) patients. In conclusion, our study shows that CD9-positive plasma exosomes are associated with both lung cancer and HIV, prior chemotherapy, as well as with survival, suggesting a possible prognostic value.

15.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101191, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520759

RESUMO

Accumulation of α-synuclein is a main underlying pathological feature of Parkinson's disease and α-synucleinopathies, for which lowering expression of the α-synuclein gene (SNCA) is a potential therapeutic avenue. Using a cell-based luciferase reporter of SNCA expression we performed a quantitative high-throughput screen of 155,885 compounds and identified A-443654, an inhibitor of the multiple functional kinase AKT, as a potent inhibitor of SNCA. HEK-293 cells with CAG repeat expanded ATXN2 (ATXN2-Q58 cells) have increased levels of α-synuclein. We found that A-443654 normalized levels of both SNCA mRNA and α-synuclein monomers and oligomers in ATXN2-Q58 cells. A-443654 also normalized levels of α-synuclein in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons from a patient carrying a triplication of the SNCA gene. Analysis of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers showed that A-443654 successfully prevented α-synuclein toxicity and restored cell function in ATXN2-Q58 cells, normalizing the levels of mTOR, LC3-II, p62, STAU1, BiP, and CHOP. A-443654 also decreased the expression of DCLK1, an inhibitor of α-synuclein lysosomal degradation. Our study identifies A-443654 and AKT inhibition as a potential strategy for reducing SNCA expression and treating Parkinson's disease pathology.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126107, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546369

RESUMO

Importance: Men and women should earn equal pay for equal work. An examination of the magnitude of pay disparities could inform strategies for remediation. Objective: To examine gender-based differences in pay within a large, comprehensive physician population practicing within a variety of payment systems. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) in the 2017 to 2018 fiscal year to estimate differences in gross payments between men and women physicians in Ontario, Canada. Pay gaps were calculated annually and daily. Regression analyses were used to control for observable practice characteristics that could account for individual differences in daily pay. In Canada's largest province, Ontario, medical services are predominantly provided by self-employed physicians who bill the province's single payer, OHIP. All physicians who submitted claims to OHIP were included. Data were analyzed from January 2020 to July 2021. Exposures: Physician gender, obtained from the OHIP Corporate Provider Database. Gender is recorded as male or female. Main Outcomes and Measures: Gross clinical payments were tabulated for individual physicians on a daily and annual basis in conjunction with each physician's practice characteristics, setting, and specialty. Results: A total of 31 481 physicians were included in the study sample (12 604 [40.0%] women; 18 877 [60.0%] men; mean [SD] time since graduation, 23.3 [13.6] years), representing 99% of active physicians in Ontario. The unadjusted differences in clinical payments between male and female physicians were 32.8% (95% CI, 30.8%-34.6%) annually and 22.5% (95% CI, 21.2%-23.8%) daily. After accounting for practice characteristics, region, and specialty, the overall daily payment gap was 13.5% (95% CI, 12.3%-14.8%). The pay gap persisted with differing magnitudes when examined by specialty (ranging from 6.6% to 37.6%), practice setting (8.3% to 17.2%), payment model (13.4% to 22.8% for family medicine; 8.0% to 11.6% for other specialties), and rurality (8.0% to 16.5%). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study examined differences in magnitude of annual and daily payment gaps and between unadjusted and adjusted gaps. Comparing the gaps for different specialties, geography, and payment systems illustrated the complexity of the issue by showing that the pay gap varied for physicians in different practice settings. As such, multiple directed interventions will be necessary to ensure that all physicians are paid equally for equal work, regardless of gender.

17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1344-1348, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555007

RESUMO

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine consists of 2 intramuscular doses (30 µg, 0.3 mL each) administered 3 weeks apart. In December 2020, the vaccine was granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as an interim recommendation for use among persons aged ≥16 years by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (1). In May 2021, the EUA and interim ACIP recommendations for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were extended to adolescents aged 12-15 years (2). During December 14, 2020-September 1, 2021, approximately 211 million doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were administered in the United States.* On August 23, 2021, FDA approved a Biologics License Application for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, Comirnaty (Pfizer, Inc.), in persons aged ≥16 years (3). The ACIP COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group's conclusions regarding the evidence for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were presented to ACIP at a public meeting on August 30, 2021. To guide its deliberations regarding the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, ACIP used the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework,† and incorporated a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.§ In addition to initial clinical trial data, ACIP considered new information gathered in the 8 months since issuance of the interim recommendation for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, including additional follow-up time in the clinical trial, real-world vaccine effectiveness studies, and postauthorization vaccine safety monitoring. The additional information increased certainty that benefits from prevention of asymptomatic infection, COVID-19, and associated hospitalization and death outweighs vaccine-associated risks. On August 30, 2021, ACIP issued a recommendation¶ for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years for the prevention of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunização/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Aprovação de Drogas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Qual Saf ; 6(5): e475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589649

RESUMO

Traditional quality improvement (QI) strategies to describe workflow processes rely primarily upon qualitative methods or human-driven observations. These methods may be limited in scope and accuracy when applied to time-based workflow processes. This study sought to evaluate the utility of integrating objective time measurements to augment traditional QI strategies using procedural sedation workflow in a pediatric emergency department as an archetype. Methods: We applied the FOCUS-Plan-Do-Check-Act framework to reduce the time from arrival to sedation for long-bone fractures. First, we added supplementary framework-defining steps to repeat the Clarifying and Understanding steps. We then extracted objective time-based data from an electronic health record (EHR) system and a real-time locating system (RTLS). We then compared and contrasted the findings of traditional surveys with analyses of timed steps within the sedation workflow. Results: When identifying the source of delays, traditional survey techniques yielded ambiguous and even conflicting results based on clinical roles. The timestamps supported 5 measurable clinical role of subworkflows. By measuring the time to completion for 54 sedation cases, workflow patterns and significant bottlenecks were identified. Conclusions: Analyzing the time to complete individual tasks provided a more nuanced description of workflow delays and clarity when traditional survey results conflicted. Augmenting traditional QI process maps with EHR and RTLS timestamps better explained workflow bottlenecks, informing the QI team when selecting targets for subsequent Plan-Do-Check-Act work.

19.
AEM Educ Train ; 5(4): e10687, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589660

RESUMO

Background: This study used existing literature and expert feedback to develop and pilot a novel error-avoidance checklist tool for cricothyrotomy in attending physicians. Prior literature has not focused on expert cricothyrotomy performance. While published checklists teach a specific procedural method, ideal for novice learners, this may hinder expert learners. Objectives: We endeavored to create a succinct error-avoidance checklist for cricothyrotomy. We hypothesized that such a checklist would prove feasible and acceptable to attending physicians. Methods: This is a multicenter prospective checklist creation, evaluation, and feasibility study. Multiple experts pursued an iterative process to reach consensus on a 7-item error-avoidance checklist. The checklist was trialed for feasibility in pilot sessions at two sites by 45 attending emergency physicians who used the checklist for peer performance assessment and provided feedback. Results: During the pilot implementation, 94% of respondents completed the procedure within the allotted 120 s. Greater than 85% of respondents agreed that four of the five procedural errors on the checklist were very or somewhat critical to avoid, including cutting >2 cm from midline, creating a false passage, failing to continuously maintain an object in the trachea, and injuring oneself during the procedure. Only 66% of participants felt severing the cricoid cartilage was critical. Successful breath administration and time under 120 s were critical for 100% and 95% of participants, respectively. The checklist was rated "easy" or "very easy" to use by 93% of participants, and 95% found this checklist reasonable for evaluating attending physicians. Conclusions: We present the multicenter development and implementation of a novel error-avoidance checklist tool for use in expert cricothyrotomy performance. Attending emergency medicine (EM) physicians rated our tool easy to use and agreed that most of the proposed errors were critical. Participants overwhelmingly agreed this tool would be reasonable for evaluation of cricothyrotomy performance among attending EM physicians.

20.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(2): 100097, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589978

RESUMO

Introduction: Smoking cessation activities incorporated into lung cancer screening programs have been broadly recommended, but studies to date have not exhibited increased quit rates associated with cessation programs in this setting. We aimed to determine the long-term effectiveness of smoking cessation counseling in smokers presenting for lung cancer screening. Methods: This was a randomized control trial of an intensive, telephone-based smoking cessation counseling intervention incorporating lung cancer screening results versus usual care (information pamphlet). This analysis reports on the long-term impact (24-mo) of the intervention on abstinence from smoking. Results: A total of 337 active smokers who participated in the screening study were randomized to active smoking cessation counseling (n = 171) or control arm (n = 174) and completed a 24-month assessment. The 30-day smoking abstinence rates at 24 months postrandomization was 18.3% and 21.4% in the control and intervention arms, respectively-a 3.1% difference (95% confidence interval: -5.4 to 11.6, p = 0.48). No statistically significant differences in the 7-day abstinence, the use of pharmacologic cessation aids, nicotine replacement therapies, nor intent to quit in the following 30 days were noted (p > 0.05). The abstinence rates at 24-months were higher overall than at 12-months (19.9% versus 13.3%, p < 0.001), and smoking intensity was lower than at baseline for ongoing smokers. Conclusions: A telephone-based smoking cessation counseling intervention incorporating lung cancer screening results did not result in increased long-term cessation rates versus written information alone in unselected smokers undergoing lung cancer screening. Overall, quit rates were high and continued to improve throughout participation in the screening program. (ClinicalTrials.govNCT02431962).

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