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1.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 22(1): 27-36, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined motor unit (MU) firing rates during a prolonged isometric contraction of the vastus lateralis (VL) for females and males. METHODS: Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were recorded from the VL for eleven females and twelve males during a 45-second isometric trapezoid muscle actions at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). For each MU, mean firing rate (MFR) was calculated for the initial and final 10-second epochs of the steady torque segment and regressed against recruitment threshold (RT, expressed as %MVC), as well as time at recruitment (TREC, seconds). MFR was also averaged for each subject. RESULTS: Significant differences existed across epochs for the y-intercepts (P=0.009) of the MFR vs. TREC relationship, as well as the grouped MFR analysis (P<0.001); no differences were observed between epochs for the MFR vs. RT relationship. Significant differences existed between sexes for the grouped MFR analysis (P=0.049), but no differences were observed for the MFR vs. TREC or MFR vs. RT relationships. CONCLUSION: Analysis method may impact interpretation of firing rate behavior; increases in MU firing rates across a prolonged isometric contraction were observed in the MFR vs. TREC relationship and the grouped MFR analysis.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia
2.
Auton Neurosci ; 239: 102953, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168077

RESUMO

Ultra-short-term (UST; <5 min) heart rate variability (HRV) is increasingly used to indirectly assess autonomic nervous system modulation and physical health. However, UST HRV estimates may vary with measurement technique, physiological state, and data preprocessing. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the information content of UST HRV and its sensitivity to different physiological states and preprocessing techniques. 26 time, frequency, and non-linear HRV measures were determined in 80 healthy men (age: 22.1 ± 3.7 yr) and 25 women (age: 19.4 ± 2.8 yr) from 2-min ECG recordings during seated and standing rest, low-intensity exercise, and seated recovery after maximal exercise. For men, HRV measures obtained during each condition were further analyzed with principal component analysis, k-means clustering, and one-way ANCOVAs. Backward stepwise regression was used to determine the ability of UST HRV to predict aerobic fitness. The sensitivity of UST HRV estimates to different artifact correction procedures was determined with intraclass correlation coefficients. Compared with men, women displayed HRV characteristics suggestive of greater vagal modulation. Nearly 80% of HRV information content was distilled into three principal components comprised of similar measures across conditions. K-means clusters varied in composition and HRV characteristics but not aerobic fitness, which was best predicted by HRV during standing rest. HRV estimates differed depending on artifact correction procedures but were generally similar after individualized correction. Our results indicate that UST HRV measures display redundancy but convey state-specific information and do not strongly predict aerobic fitness in healthy men. Most UST HRV measures are robust to slight differences in artifact correction procedures.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Descanso , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Descanso/fisiologia , Nervo Vago , Adulto Jovem
3.
Exp Brain Res ; 240(3): 825-839, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048160

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of continuous endurance training on motor unit (MU) mean firing rates (MFR), percent myosin heavy chain (%MHC) isoforms, and muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) of the vastus lateralis (VL). Twelve females completed 5-weeks of continuous cycling-training (CYC), while 8 females were controls (CON). Participants performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and 40% MVCs of the knee extensors before (PRE) and after the 5-week treatment period at the same absolute pre-treatment submaximal torque (POSTABS) and relative to post-treatment MVCs (POSTREL). Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were decomposed with the Precision Decomposition III algorithm. MU firing times and waveforms were validated with reconstruct-and-test and spike trigger average procedures. MFRs at steady torque, recruitment thresholds (RT), and normalized EMG amplitude (N-EMGRMS) were analyzed. Y-intercepts and slopes were calculated for the MFR vs. RT relationships. MHC isoforms and mCSA were determined with muscle biopsies and ultrasonography. CYC decreased MVCs and type IIX %MHC isoform without changes in mCSA. The slopes for the MFR vs. RT relationships decreased for CYC during POSTREL and POSTABS while N-EMGRMS increased for POSTABS with no differences between PRE and POSTREL. Type I %MHC isoform was correlated with the slope for the MFR vs. RT relationship during POSTABS and POSTREL for CYC. This study provides evidence that decreases in the MFRs of higher threshold MUs post-CYC is likely a function of changes in input excitation (POSTABS) and the firing frequency-excitation relationships (POSTREL). Evidence is provided that MHC isoforms influence the firing rate scheme of the muscle following short-term training.


Assuntos
Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina , Músculo Quadríceps , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Torque
4.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(12): 3389-3398, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477930

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Changes in motor unit (MU) activity pre- to post-interventions is of high interest. However, there is minimal information regarding day-to-day changes or the reliability of measuring MU activity. This study examined the reliability of relationships calculated via the MU action potential (AP) trains derived from surface electromyography signal decomposition. A comparison between reliability statistics was made between MUAP trains verified with only the reconstruct-and-test versus verification including reconstruct-and-test with spike trigger average (STA) procedures. METHODS: Twenty-one individuals performed isometric muscle actions at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction of the first dorsal interosseous on two separate visits. MUs included for reliability analyses initially met the > 90% accuracy from the reconstruct-and-test. STA was applied as an additional exclusionary procedure. Linear regressions were applied to the firing rate and AP amplitude versus recruitment threshold relationships with and without MUs that met the STA criteria. Reliability statistics were also performed on relationships that met a strict range of recruitment thresholds. Reliability was established with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) along with other traditional parameters. RESULTS: The firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships were reliable (ICC > 0.56) and improved (ICC > 0.84) when recruitment ranges were controlled. The slopes of the MUAP amplitude versus recruitment threshold relationships were reliable (ICC > 0.78) while the y-intercepts were reliable (ICC > 0.81) once corrections were made to combat negative scores. CONCLUSIONS: Electromyographic signal decomposition without the secondary STA verification procedures can be used to detect intervention-related changes in neural drive with confidence when recorded MU recruitment thresholds are similar across days.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(5): 1367-1377, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 10 weeks of endurance cycling training on mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)-torque relationships and muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) of the vastus lateralis (VL) for 10 sedentary males (Age ± SD; 20.2 ± 1.9 years) and 14 sedentary females (21.9 ± 5.3 years). METHODS: Participants performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and an isometric ramp up muscle action to 70% MVC of the knee extensors before (PRE) and after training at the same absolute pre-treatment submaximal torque (POSTABS). MMG was recorded from the VL and b terms were calculated from the natural log-transformed MMGRMS-torque relationships for each subject. mCSA was determined with ultrasonography. RESULTS: Cycling decreased MVCs from pre- (168.10 ± 58.49 Nm) to post-training (160.78 ± 58.39 Nm; p = 0.005) without changes in mCSA. The b terms were greater for POSTABS (0.623 ± 0.204) than PRE (0.540 ± 0.226; p = 0.012) and for males (0.717 ± 0.171) than females (0.484 ± 0.168; p = 0.003). mCSA was correlated with the b terms for PRE (p < 0.001, r = 0.674) and POSTABS (p = 0.020, r = 0.471). CONCLUSION: The decrease in MVC and increase in MMGRMS (b terms) post-training suggests increased motor unit (MU) recruitment to match pre-training torques. The greater acceleration in the b terms by males may reflect sex-related differences in fiber-type area. MMGRMS-torque relationships during a high-intensity contraction provided insight on MU activation strategies following endurance training and between sexes. Furthermore, the findings suggest a relationship between MMGRMS and muscle size.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Torque , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Neurophysiol ; 125(4): 1006-1021, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596734

RESUMO

Traumatic musculoskeletal injury (MSI) may involve changes in corticomotor structure and function, but direct evidence is needed. To determine the corticomotor basis of MSI, we examined interactions among skeletomotor function, corticospinal excitability, corticomotor structure (cortical thickness and white matter microstructure), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS)-induced plasticity. Nine women with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL) 3.2 ± 1.1 yr prior to the study and 11 matched controls (CON) completed an MRI session followed by an offline plasticity-probing protocol using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study design. iTBS was applied to the injured (ACL) or nondominant (CON) motor cortex leg representation (M1LEG) with plasticity assessed based on changes in skeletomotor function and corticospinal excitability compared with sham iTBS. The results showed persistent loss of function in the injured quadriceps, compensatory adaptations in the uninjured quadriceps and both hamstrings, and injury-specific increases in corticospinal excitability. Injury was associated with lateralized reductions in paracentral lobule thickness, greater centrality of nonleg corticomotor regions, and increased primary somatosensory cortex leg area inefficiency and eccentricity. Individual responses to iTBS were consistent with the principles of homeostatic metaplasticity; corresponded to injury-related differences in skeletomotor function, corticospinal excitability, and corticomotor structure; and suggested that corticomotor adaptations involve both hemispheres. Moreover, iTBS normalized skeletomotor function and corticospinal excitability in ACL. The results of this investigation directly confirm corticomotor involvement in chronic loss of function after traumatic MSI, emphasize the sensitivity of the corticomotor system to skeletomotor events and behaviors, and raise the possibility that brain-targeted therapies could improve recovery.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Traumatic musculoskeletal injuries may involve adaptive changes in the brain that contribute to loss of function. Our combination of neuroimaging and theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) revealed distinct patterns of iTBS-induced plasticity that normalized differences in muscle and brain function evident years after unilateral knee ligament rupture. Individual responses to iTBS corresponded to injury-specific differences in brain structure and physiological activity, depended on skeletomotor deficit severity, and suggested that corticomotor adaptations involve both hemispheres.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Tratos Piramidais/fisiopatologia , Músculo Quadríceps/lesões , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ruptura/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
7.
Hum Mov Sci ; 72: 102650, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721368

RESUMO

Motor unit (MU) firing rates of the vastus lateralis in children and adults were examined. Seven healthy adult males (mean ± SD, age = 21 ± 2.6 yrs) and six healthy male children (mean ± SD age = 8.8 ± 1.7) volunteered. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from 20% and 60% maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Surface EMG signals were decomposed into firing events of individual MUs and slopes and y-intercepts were calculated for the mean firing rate (MFR, pps) at steady torque vs. recruitment thresholds (RT) relationships for each subject. Muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) was measured, via ultrasonography, with specific torque calculated (MVC/mCSA). Adults possessed greater mCSA (p = .002; children = 11.5 ± 2.1 cm2; adults = 31.80 ± 12.15 cm2) and greater specific torque (p = .018; children = 4.63 ± 1.4 Nm/cm2; adults = 7.1 ± 1.8 Nm/cm2) compared to children. The y-intercepts were significantly (p < .001) greater during the 60% (28.91 ± 4.56 pps) than the 20% MVC (23.5 ± 4.9 pps) collapsed across groups while the children had significantly (p = .036) lower y-intercepts (23.9 ± 5.4 pps) than the adults (28.2 ± 4.8 pps) when collapsed across intensities. Slopes of the MFR vs RT relationships were greater for the 60% (-0.342 ± 0.127 pps/%MVC) contraction than the 20% (-0.50 ± 0.159 pps/%MVC) MVC when collapsed across groups. Adults had greater firing rates regardless of recruitment threshold than children. This may be due to lower recruitment potential and overall excitation to the motoneuron pool of children as indicated with differences in specific torque and/or differences in antagonist co-activation.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Locomoção , Masculino , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Torque , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 52: 102421, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353708

RESUMO

This study included spike trigger averaging (STA) procedures to examine the acceptability of the Precision Decomposition (PD) III derived motor unit action potential (MUAP) trains that met the >90% accuracy criteria from the reconstruct-and-test. MUs met the >90% accuracy criteria from the reconstruct-and-test with STA procedures then applied. Y-intercepts and slopes were calculated for the firing rate- and MUAP amplitude-recruitment threshold relationships. Gaussian noise (1% of the SD of the mean interspike interval) was added to the firing times with the changes in MUAPs quantified. A total of 455 MUs were decomposed with 155 MUs removed as a result of the reconstruct-and-test. Five additional MUs were excluded via the STA criteria. The MUAP waveforms deteriorated with the inclusion of Gaussian noise. There were differences in the derived action potentials amplitudes of higher-threshold MUs between the PD III algorithm and the STA procedure. There was excellent agreement among the slopes and y-intercepts between the relationships that included or excluded MUs that did not meet the STA criteria. There was good agreement between the MUAP amplitude-recruitment threshold relationships derived from the PD III and STA procedure. The addition of the STA procedures did not alter the MU-derived relationships.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Eletromiografia/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Exp Brain Res ; 238(5): 1133-1144, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232542

RESUMO

Despite ample evidence that females are weaker and possess smaller muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) compared to males, it remains unclear if there are sex-related differences in the properties of motor units (MU). Eleven males (age 22 ± 3 years) and 12 females (age 21 ± 1 years) performed isometric trapezoid muscle actions at 10% and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Surface electromyography signals were recorded and decomposed into MU action potential (AP) waveforms and firing instances. Average MUAP amplitudes (MUAPAMPS), mean firing rates (MFRs), initial firing rates (IFRs), and recruitment thresholds (RT) were calculated for the 10% MVC, while MUAPAMPS, IFRs, and MFRs were regressed against RT for the 70% MVC. Ultrasonography was used to measure CSA of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Males had greater CSAs (p < 0.001; males 2.34 ± 0.28 cm2, females 1.82 ± 0.18 cm2) and MVC strength (p < 0.001; males 25.9 ± 5.5 N, females 16.44 ± 2.5 N). No differences existed for MUAPAMPS, IFRs, MFRs, or RTs (p > 0.05) during the 10% MVC. For the 70% MVC, the y-intercepts from the MUAPAMPS vs. RT relationships were greater (p < 0.05) for the males (males - 0.19 ± 0.53 mV; females - 0.78 ± 0.75 mV), while the inverse was true for the MFR vs. RT relationships (males 31.55 ± 6.92 pps, females 38.65 ± 6.71 pps) with no differences (p > 0.05) in the slopes. Therefore, smaller CSAs and weaker MVCs are likely the result of smaller higher-threshold MUs for females.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Sexuais , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322188

RESUMO

Isolated ginsenoside metabolites such as Compound K (CK) are of increasing interest to consumer and clinical populations as safe and non-pharmacological means to enhance psychomotor performance constitutively and in response to physical or cognitive stress. Nevertheless, the influence of CK on behavioral performance and EEG measures of cortical activity in humans is undetermined. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study, dose-dependent responses to CK (placebo, 160 and 960 mg) were assessed after 2 weeks of supplementation in nineteen healthy men and women (age: 39.9 ± 7.9 year, height 170.2 ± 8.6 cm, weight 79.7 ± 11.9 kg). Performance on upper- and lower-body choice reaction tests (CRTs) was tested before and after intense lower-body anaerobic exercise. Treatment- and stress-related changes in brain activity were measured with high-density EEG based on event-related potentials, oscillations, and source activity. Upper- (-12.3 ± 3.5 ms, p = 0.002) and lower-body (-12.3 ± 4.9 ms, p = 0.021) response times improved after exercise, with no difference between treatments (upper: p = 0.354; lower: p = 0.926). Analysis of cortical activity in sensor and source space revealed global increases in cortical arousal after exercise. CK increased activity in cortical regions responsible for sustained attention and mitigated exercise-induced increases in arousal. Responses to exercise varied depending on task, but CK appeared to reduce sensory interference from lower-body exercise during an upper-body CRT and improve the general maintenance of task-relevant sensory processes.

11.
J Neurotrauma ; 37(19): 2102-2112, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340548

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in military populations and share numerous symptoms. Functional graph theory studies demonstrate altered small-world brain networks in mTBI and PTSD, but little is known about structural covariance networks or the potentially distinct topology of mTBI-PTSD comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain structural covariance networks in healthy active duty military service members (CON) to those with PTSD, mTBI, and mTBI-PTSD. Seventy-six service members (31 CON, 14 PTSD, 12 mTBI, 19 mTBI-PTSD) completed clinical questionnaires and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cortical thickness-derived adjacency matrices were used to determine structural covariance network topologies. Pairwise comparisons for characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, modularity (global), closeness centrality (nodal), and local efficiency were made across a range of network densities (5-35%) using non-parametric permutation tests. All clinical groups showed greater levels of arousal, stress, anxiety, and depression compared with CON. Global network analysis revealed greater clustering and local efficiency in PTSD compared with CON, whereas nodal analysis indicated altered path lengths and closeness centrality in fronto-limbic areas with mTBI-PTSD. Global and nodal graph outcomes suggest distinct pathophysiological manifestations of mTBI, PTSD, and mTBI-PTSD in structural brain networks. Greater network segregation and nodal differences in fronto-limbic areas may be tied to emotional fluctuations.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conectoma , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 120(1): 281-294, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous investigations analyzing resistance training's influence on motor unit (MU) firing rates have yielded mixed results. These mixed results may be clarified by concurrently measuring changes in MU size. Thus, this study analyzed whether post-training strength gains were due to increases in MU firing rates and/or sizes as measured indirectly via action potential amplitudes. METHODS: Sixteen males (age = 20.7 ± 1.9 years) completed 8 weeks of resistance training, while eight males (age = 19.4 ± 2.5 years) served as controls. Vastus lateralis surface electromyography signals collected during submaximal isometric knee extensions were decomposed to yield an action potential amplitude (MUAPAMP), mean firing rate (MFR), and recruitment threshold (RT) for each MU. Each contraction's average MFR and MUAPAMP, and coefficients of the linear (y-intercept and slope) MUAPAMP-RT, linear MFR-RT and exponential (A and B terms) MFR-MUAPAMP relationships were analyzed. Firing instances and action potentials were validated via reconstruct-and-test and spike-triggered averaging procedures. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (CSA) was analyzed with ultrasonography. RESULTS: Resistance training increased isometric strength from 204.6 ± 34.9 to 239.8 ± 36.3 Nm and vastus lateralis CSA from 28.7 ± 4.7 to 34.0 ± 5.0 cm2. Resistance training did not affect MFR-RT relationship parameters or average MFRs but did increase the slopes of the MUAPAMP-RT relationships (0.0067 ± 0.0041 to 0.0097 ± 0.0045 mV/%MVC) and average MUAPAMPs from 0.189 ± 0.093 to 0.249 ± 0.127 mV. MU hypertrophy altered the MFR-MUAPAMP relationships (B terms: - 3.63 ± 1.40 to - 2.66 ± 1.38 pps/mV). CONCLUSION: Resistance training induced MU and muscle hypertrophy, but did not alter firing rates. Greater MU twitch forces resulting from larger MUs firing at pre-training rates likely explain resistance training strength gains.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado Motor , Contração Isométrica , Força Muscular , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Treinamento de Força/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hum Mov Sci ; 66: 416-424, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174016

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in motor unit action potential amplitudes (MUAPAMPS) and firing rates of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in male and female children aged 8-10 years. Eight male (mean ±â€¯SD, age = 8.8 ±â€¯0.7 yrs; BMI = 16.5 ±â€¯1.3 kg/m2) and eight female (age = 9.3 ±â€¯0.9 yrs; BMI = 16.1 ±â€¯1.5 kg/m2) children volunteered to complete isometric trapezoidal muscle actions of the first dorsal interosseous at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Electromyographic signals were decomposed to yield MUAPAMPS and mean firing rates (MFR) at the targeted force. An exponential model was fitted to the MUAPAMPS vs. recruitment threshold (RT) while linear models were fitted to the MFRs vs. RT relationships for each subject. Ultrasonography determined the muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the FDI. Independent samples t-tests were used to examine possible differences between the male and female children for MVC strength, CSA, and the coefficients from the MU relationships. There were no differences in MVC strength, CSA, or the MUAPAMP vs. RT relationships between the male and female children (P < 0.05). Males, however, had greater MFRs of lower-threshold MUs as evident by significantly larger y-intercepts (P = 0.019) and more negative slopes (P = 0.004) from the MFR vs. RT relationships. Despite no differences in muscle strength, CSA, and MUAPAMPS, differences in firing rates existed between male and female children aged 8-10 years. Neural mechanisms may primarily contribute to sex-related differences in firing rates.

14.
J Biomech ; 86: 251-255, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795842

RESUMO

It remains unclear if the sizes of higher-threshold motor units (MU) are associated with muscular strength and power. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sex-related differences in muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA), percent myosin heavy chain (%MHC) isoform expression, and the MU action potential amplitudes (MUAPAMPS)-recruitment threshold (RT) relationships of the vastus lateralis and isometric peak torque, isokinetic peak torque and mean power at 1.05 rad·s-1 of the leg extensors. Surface electromyographic decomposition techniques were used to quantify MUAPAMPS recorded during isometric muscle actions at 70% of maximal voluntary contractions and regressed against RTs with the slopes calculated. Ultrasound images were used to measure mCSA. Males had greater slopes from the MUAPAMP-RT relationship than the females (P < 0.05). The greater slopes likely reflected larger higher-threshold MUs for the males. The mCSAs and slopes from the relationships were strongly correlated with isometric and isokinetic peak torque and isokinetic mean power (r = 0.78-0.82), however, type I %MHC isoform was only moderately correlated with isometric peak torque (r = -0.54). The results indicated that sex-related differences in muscular strength and power were associated more so with the sizes of the higher-threshold MUs (slopes) and mCSA than MHC isoforms. The amount of cross-bridge activity within muscle fibers that comprise higher-threshold MUs may be the primary contributor to muscular strength and power rather than the contractile properties of the muscle.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Isoformas de Proteínas , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Torque , Ultrassonografia
15.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(4): 1007-1018, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous research has indicated greater muscle activation is needed for children (CH) to match relative intensity submaximal contractions in comparison with adults (AD). However, no study has compared motor unit (MU) firing and recruitment patterns between children and adults. Therefore, MU action potential amplitudes (MUAPAMP) and firing rates were examined during two repetitive submaximal contractions of the first dorsal interosseous in children and adults. METHODS: Twenty-two children (age 9.0 ± 0.8 years) and 13 adults (age 22.9 ± 4.8 years) completed three maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) and two repetitive isometric contractions at 30% MVC for 40 s. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded and decomposed into action potential trains. MUAPAMPS, recruitment thresholds (RTs), and mean firing rates (MFRs) were calculated, and EMG amplitude was normalized (N-EMG) to MVC. For each subject and repetition, linear MFR vs. RT and exponential MUAPAMP vs. RT and MFR vs. MUAPAMP relationships were calculated. RESULTS: N-EMG (P = 0.001, CH = 56.5 ± 31.7%, AD = 30.3 ± 9.1%), MFRs regardless of RT, according to greater y-intercepts of the MFR vs. RT relationships [P = 0.013, CH = 31.1 ± 5.1 pulses per second (pps), AD = 25.9 ± 4.3 pps] and MFRs of MUs with smaller action potential amplitudes (P = 0.017, CH = 29.4 ± 6.8 pps, AD = 23.5 ± 3.5 pps), were greater for children. MUAPAMPS in relation with RT were similar between groups except the highest threshold MUs (RT = 28% MVC) were greater for the adults (1.02 ± 0.43 mV) than children (0.67 ± 0.24 mV) (P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle activation and MU firing rates were greater for children, which likely indicated a greater operating point of MU control in comparison with adults during an isometric contraction performed at a relative submaximal intensity.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(9): 1789-1800, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948198

RESUMO

This study examined motor unit (MU) amplitudes (APAMPS) and firing rates during moderate-intensity contractions and muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) and echo intensity (mEI) of the vastus lateralis (VL) in chronically endurance-trained and sedentary females. Eight endurance-trained (ET) and nine sedentary controls (SED) volunteered for this study. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from a five-pin electrode array were recorded from the VL during isometric trapezoid muscle actions at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Decomposition methods were applied to the EMG signals to extract the firing events and amplitudes of single MUs. The mean firing rate (MFR) during steady force and MUAPAMP for each MU was regressed against recruitment threshold (RT, expressed as %MVC). The y-intercepts and slopes from the MFR and MUAPAMP vs. RT relationships were calculated. EMG amplitude during steady force was normalized (N-EMGRMS) to peak EMG amplitude recorded during the MVC. Ultrasonography was used to measure mCSA and mEI. Significant differences existed between the ET and SED for the slopes (P = 0.005, P = 0.001) from the MFR and MUAPAMP vs. RT relationships with no differences for the y-intercepts (P > 0.05). N-EMGRMS was significantly (P = 0.033) lower for the ET than SED. There were no differences between groups for mCSA; however, the SED possessed significantly (P = 0.001) greater mEI. Subsequently, the ET likely possessed hypertrophied and stronger MUs that allowed for lower necessary muscle activation to maintain the same relative task as the SED. The larger MUs for the ET is supported via the MFR vs. RT relationships and ultrasound data.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Neurophysiol ; 119(5): 1902-1911, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412774

RESUMO

We examined differences between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children aged 8-10 yr in strength, muscle composition, and motor unit (MU) behavior of the first dorsal interosseous. Ultrasonography was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), subcutaneous fat (sFAT), and echo intensity (EI). MU behavior was assessed during isometric muscle actions at 20% and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) by analyzing electromyography amplitude (EMGRMS) and relationships between mean firing rates (MFR), recruitment thresholds (RT), and MU action potential amplitudes (MUAPsize) and durations (MUAPtime). The OW group had significantly greater EI than the NW group ( P = 0.002; NW, 47.99 ± 6.01 AU; OW, 58.90 ± 10.63 AU, where AU is arbitrary units) with no differences between groups for CSA ( P = 0.688) or MVC force ( P = 0.790). MUAPsize was larger for NW than OW in relation to RT ( P = 0.002) and for MUs expressing similar MFRs ( P = 0.011). There were no significant differences ( P = 0.279-0.969) between groups for slopes or y-intercepts from the MFR vs. RT relationships. MUAPtime was larger in OW ( P = 0.015) and EMGRMS was attenuated in OW compared with NW ( P = 0.034); however, there were no significant correlations ( P = 0.133-0.164, r = 0.270-0.291) between sFAT and EMGRMS. In a muscle that does not support body mass, the OW children had smaller MUAPsize as well as greater EI, although anatomical CSA was similar. This contradicts previous studies examining larger limb muscles. Despite evidence of smaller MUs, the OW children had similar isometric strength compared with NW children. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Ultrasound data and motor unit action potential sizes suggest that overweight children have poorer muscle composition and smaller motor units in the first dorsal interosseous than normal weight children. Evidence is presented that suggests differences in action potential size cannot be explained by differences in subcutaneous fat alone.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético , Sobrepeso , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico por imagem , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia
18.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 43(8): 759-768, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481763

RESUMO

Previous investigations report no changes in motor unit (MU) firing rates during submaximal contractions following resistance training. These investigations did not account for MU recruitment or examine firing rates as a function of recruitment threshold (REC). Therefore, MU recruitment and firing rates in chronically resistance-trained (RT) and physically active controls (CON) were examined. Surface electromyography signals were collected from the first dorsal interosseous during isometric muscle actions at 40% and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). For each MU, force at REC, mean firing rate (MFR) during the steady force, and MU action potential amplitude (MUAPAMP) were analyzed. For each individual and contraction, the MFRs were linearly regressed against REC, whereas, exponential models were applied to the MFR versus MUAPAMP and MUAPAMP versus REC relationships with the y-intercepts and slopes (linear) and A and B terms (exponential) calculated. For the 40% MVC, the RT had less negative slopes (p = 0.001) and lower y-intercepts (p = 0.006) of the MFR versus REC relationships and lower B terms (p = 0.011) of the MUAPAMP versus REC relationships. There were no differences in either relationship between groups for the 70% MVC. During the 40% MVC, the RT had a smaller range of MFRs and MUAPAMPS in comparison with the CON, likely because of reduced MU recruitment. The RT had lower MFRs and recruitment during the 40% MVC, which may indicate a leftward shift in the force-frequency relationship, and thus require less excitation to the motoneuron pool to match the same relative force.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Músculos do Dorso/inervação , Contração Isométrica , Aptidão Física , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico , Treinamento de Força , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Músculos do Dorso/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular , Força Muscular , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 38(4): 610-616, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737276

RESUMO

Motor unit action potential size (MUAPsize ) versus recruitment threshold (RT) relationship analysis provides a non-invasive measure of motor unit (MU) hypertrophy; however, this method's ability to identify MU atrophy is unknown. This investigation sought to determine if MUAPsize versus RT relationship slope (APslope ) comparison could identify evidence of MU atrophy in older individuals. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of fourteen young (YG, age = 22·29 ± 2·79 years) and ten older (OG, 61·0 ± 2·0 years) subjects during a 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) isometric trapezoidal muscle action. The signals were decomposed to yield a MUAPsize and RT for each MU. For each subject, the MUs recruited between 10% and 50% MVC were linearly regressed as a function of RT to calculate an individual APslope . FDI cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) were quantified via ultrasonography. The mean APslope was lower for OG (0·033 ± 0·010 mV %MVC-1 ) than YG (0·056 ± 0·019 mV %MVC-1 ). OG and YG possessed similar CSAs (OG: 2·09 ± 0·31 cm2 ; YG: 2·08 ± 0·41 cm2 ); however, OG (53·25 ± 7·56 AU) had greater EI than YG (43·87 ± 7·59 AU). The lower OG mean APslope was due to smaller MUAPsizes of higher-threshold MUs, likely due to atrophy of muscle fibres that comprise those MUs. In support, similar CSA with greater EI indicated increased adipose and fibrous tissue and reduced contractile tissue in OG. Thus, MUAPsize versus RT relationship may provide a non-invasive measure of MU atrophy.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Envelhecimento , Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/patologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Exp Physiol ; 102(8): 950-961, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544046

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The influences of motor unit recruitment threshold and twitch force potentiation on the changes in firing rates during steady-force muscular contractions are not well understood. What is the main finding and its importance? The behaviour of motor units during steady force was influenced by recruitment threshold, such that firing rates decreased for lower-threshold motor units but increased for higher-threshold motor units. In addition, individuals with greater changes in firing rates possessed greater twitch force potentiation. There are contradictory reports regarding changes in motor unit firing rates during steady-force contractions. Inconsistencies are likely to be the result of previous studies disregarding motor unit recruitment thresholds and not examining firing rates on a subject-by-subject basis. It is hypothesized that firing rates are manipulated by twitch force potentiation during contractions. Therefore, in this study we examined time-related changes in firing rates at steady force in relationship to motor unit recruitment threshold in the first dorsal interosseous and the influence of twitch force potentiation on such changes in young versus aged individuals. Subjects performed a 12 s steady-force contraction at 50% maximal voluntary contraction, with evoked twitches before and after the contraction to quantify potentiation. Firing rates, in relationship to recruitment thresholds, were determined at the beginning, middle and end of the steady force. There were no firing rate changes for aged individuals. For the young, firing rates decreased slightly for lower-threshold motor units but increased for higher-threshold motor units. Twitch force potentiation was greater for young than aged subjects, and changes in firing rates were correlated with twitch force potentiation. Thus, individuals with greater increases in firing rates of higher-threshold motor units and decreases in lower-threshold motor units possessed greater twitch force potentiation. Overall, changes in firing rates during brief steady-force contractions are dependent on recruitment threshold and explained in part by twitch force potentiation. Given that firing rate changes were measured in relationship to recruitment threshold, this study illustrates a more complete view of firing rate changes during steady-force contractions.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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