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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 705079, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484201

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that elevated CXCL13 serum levels in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) associate with minor salivary gland (MSG) histologic features, disease severity, as well as high-risk status for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) development and NHL itself. In contrast, limited discriminative value of CXCL13 saliva levels has been reported. Prompt by these reports, we sought to validate the clinical utility of CXCL13 by investigating potential correlations of serum and saliva levels with MSG histopathologic [including CXCL13+-cell number, severity of infiltrates and germinal center (GC) formation], serologic and clinical parameters, as well as NHL. CXCL13 levels were evaluated in paired serum and saliva specimens of 45 pSS patients (15 with NHL; pSS-associated NHL: SSL), 11 sicca-controls (sicca-complaining individuals with negative MSG biopsy and negative autoantibody profile), 10 healthy individuals (healthy-controls) and 6 non-SS-NHLs. CXCL13+-cells were measured in paired MSG-tissues of 22 of pSS patients studied (including 7 SSLs) and all sicca-controls. CXCL13 serum levels were significantly increased in pSS and SSL patients compared to sicca- and healthy-controls and were positively correlated with the CXCL13+-cell number and biopsy focus-score. Serum CXCL13 was significantly higher in pSS patients with GCs, rheumatoid factor, hypocomplementemia, high disease activity, NHL and in high-risk patients for NHL development. CXCL13 saliva levels were significantly increased in SSL patients (compared to non-SS-NHLs), patients with GCs and in high-risk for NHL patients. Univariate analysis revealed that CXCL13 serum, but not saliva, levels were associated with lymphoma, an association that did not survive multivariate analysis. Conclusively, our findings confirm that serum, but not saliva, levels of CXCL13 are associated with histologic, serologic and clinical features indicative of more severe pSS.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445246

RESUMO

The hematopoietic system relies on regulation of both metabolism and autophagy to maintain its homeostasis, ensuring the self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs display a distinct metabolic profile from that of their differentiated progeny, while metabolic rewiring from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has been shown to be crucial for effective hematopoietic differentiation. Autophagy-mediated regulation of metabolism modulates the distinct characteristics of quiescent and differentiating hematopoietic cells. In particular, mitophagy determines the cellular mitochondrial content, thus modifying the level of OXPHOS at the different differentiation stages of hematopoietic cells, while, at the same time, it ensures the building blocks and energy for differentiation. Aberrations in both the metabolic status and regulation of the autophagic machinery are implicated in the development of hematologic malignancies, especially in leukemogenesis. In this review, we aim to investigate the role of metabolism and autophagy, as well as their interconnections, in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Leucemia/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia
3.
J Autoimmun ; 123: 102687, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311142

RESUMO

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AARD) under immunomodulatory treatment has been a focus of interest during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this observational study, demographic data, disease related features and comorbidities, COVID-19 manifestations and outcome as well as antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 were recorded among 77 consecutive patients with underlying AARD infected by SARS-CoV-2. Analysis of data was performed using univariate and multivariate models. Most patients (68.8%) had a mild COVID-19 course. The predominant clinical manifestations were fatigue (58.4%), low grade fever (45.4%) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (68.8%). About a quarter of patients required hospitalization (23.3%) and the mortality rate was 1.3%. Regarding COVID-19 severity, prior treatment with corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab was more common in patients who developed a more serious disease course (60.0 vs 29.9%, p = 0.003, 40.0 vs 7.5%, p = 0.003, 10.0 vs 0.0%, p = 0.009, respectively). When disease related features and comorbidities were considered in multivariate models, older age and lung disease in the context of the AARD were found to be independent predictive factors for hospitalization (OR [95%]: 1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 6.43 [1.11-37.19]). Among COVID-19 related features, patients with shortness of breath and high-grade fever were more likely to get hospitalized (OR [95%]: 7.06 [1.36-36.57], 12.04 [2.96-48.86]), while anosmia was independently associated with lower hospitalization risk (OR [95%]: 0.09 [0.01-0.99]). Though the majority of AARD patients displayed a mild COVID-19 course, certain underlying disease features and COVID-19 related manifestations should prompt alertness for the physician to identify patients with AARD at high risk for severe COVID-19 and need for hospitalization.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Comorbidade , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921064

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem (HSCs) and/or progenitor cells disorders. The established dependence of MDS progenitors on the hypoxic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment turned scientific interests to the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 facilitates quiescence maintenance and regulates differentiation by manipulating HSCs metabolism, being thus an appealing research target. Therefore, we examine the aberrant HIF-1 stabilization in BMs from MDS patients and controls (CTRLs). Using a nitroimidazole-indocyanine conjugate, we show that HIF-1 aberrant expression and transcription activity is oxygen independent, establishing the phenomenon of pseudohypoxia in MDS BM. Next, we examine mitochondrial quality and quantity along with levels of autophagy in the differentiating myeloid lineage isolated from fresh BM MDS and CTRL aspirates given that both phenomena are HIF-1 dependent. We show that the mitophagy of abnormal mitochondria and autophagic death are prominently featured in the MDS myeloid lineage, their severity increasing with intra-BM blast counts. Finally, we use in vitro cultured CD34+ HSCs isolated from fresh human BM aspirates to manipulate HIF-1 expression and examine its potential as a therapeutic target. We find that despite being cultured under 21% FiO2, HIF-1 remained aberrantly stable in all MDS cultures. Inhibition of the HIF-1α subunit had a variable beneficial effect in all <5%-intra-BM blasts-MDS, while it had no effect in CTRLs or in ≥5%-intra-BM blasts-MDS that uniformly died within 3 days of culture. We conclude that HIF-1 and pseudohypoxia are prominently featured in MDS pathobiology, and their manipulation has some potential in the therapeutics of benign MDS.


Assuntos
Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/ultraestrutura , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255258

RESUMO

Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by focal mononuclear cell infiltrates that surround the ducts of the exocrine glands, impairing the function of their secretory units. Compared to other autoimmune disorders, SS is associated with a notably high incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and more frequently mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, leading to increased morbidity and mortality rates. High risk features of lymphoma development include systemic extraepithelial manifestations, low serum levels of complement component C4 and mixed type II cryoglobulinemia. The discrimination between reactive and neoplastic lymphoepithelial lesion (LEL) is challenging, probably reflecting a continuum in the evolution from purely inflammatory lymphoid infiltration to the clonal neoplastic evolution. Early lesions display a predominance of activated T cells, while B cells prevail in severe histologic lesions. This strong B cell infiltration is not only a morphologic phenomenon, but it is also progressively associated with the presence of ectopic germinal centers (GCs). Ectopic formation of GCs in SS represents a complex process regulated by an array of cytokines, adhesion molecules and chemokines. Chronic antigenic stimulation is the major driver of specific B cell proliferation and increases the frequency of their transformation in the ectopic GCs and marginal zone (MZ) equivalents. B cells expressing cell surface rheumatoid factor (RF) are frequently detected in the salivary glands, suggesting that clonal expansion might arise from antigen selection of RF-expressing B cells. Abnormal stimulation and incomplete control mechanisms within ectopic lymphoid structures predispose RF MZ like cells to lymphoma development. Immunoglobulin recombination, somatic mutation and isotype switching during B cell development are events that may increase the translocation of oncogenes to immunoglobulin loci or tumor suppressor gene inactivation, leading to monoclonal B cell proliferation and lymphoma development. Concerning chronic antigenic stimulation, conclusive data is so far lacking. However immune complexes containing DNA or RNA are the most likely candidates. Whether additional molecular oncogenic events contribute to the malignant overgrowth remains to be proved.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255926

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a very heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell differentiation disorders with malignant potential and an elusive pathobiology. Given the central role of metabolism in effective differentiation, we performed an untargeted metabolomic analysis of differentiating myeloid lineage cells from MDS bone marrow aspirates that exhibited <5% (G1) or ≥5% (G2) blasts, in order to delineate its role in MDS severity and malignant potential. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from 14 previously untreated MDS patients (G1, n = 10 and G2, n = 4) and age matched controls (n = 5). Following myeloid lineage cell isolation, untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analysis was performed. Data were processed and analyzed using Metabokit. Enrichment analysis was performed using Metaboanalyst v4 employing pathway-associated metabolite sets. We established a bioenergetic profile coordinated by the Warburg phenomenon in both groups, but with a massively different outcome that mainly depended upon its group mitochondrial function and redox state. G1 cells are overwhelmed by glycolytic intermediate accumulation due to failing mitochondria, while the functional electron transport chain and improved redox in G2 compensate for Warburg disruption. Both metabolomes reveal the production and abundance of epigenetic modifiers. G1 and G2 metabolomes differ and eventually determine the MDS clinical phenotype, as well as the potential for malignant transformation.

7.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 126(4): 125-129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and record lymphomas of T cell origin in a single centre cohort of 110 Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients, followed up from 1993 to June 2020. METHODS: We searched for patients diagnosed with T cell lymphoma among 110 SS-associated NHL cases. Demographic data, history of previous lymphoma, histologic subtype, lymphoma stage, treatment schedules, and response to therapy were documented. RESULTS: Among the 110 SS-associated NHL patients, we identified five NHL cases of T cell origin, all of whom were women. The median time from SS diagnosis to T cell lymphoma development was 3.25 years. They all expressed at least one adverse predictive factor for lymphoma development. Lymphoma subtypes were identified as: two peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (NOS) lymphomas, one primary cutaneous T cell lymphoma, one T large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukaemia and one angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma. All lymphomas were stage IV, apart from the latter case that was stage III, according to the Ann Arbor staging system. All lymphomas tested positive for T cell receptor (TCR) gamma clonal rearrangements in biopsy specimens, and two were also positive for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER). Two out of five patients had previously been diagnosed with B cell lymphoma, treated with combined immunochemotherapy, and one had been previously diagnosed with lymph node benign polyclonal follicular hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: SS-associated T cell lymphomas constitute a minority. Treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and viral infections may be implicated in their pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin , Linfoma de Células T , Síndrome de Sjogren , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Linfócitos T
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