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1.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(4): 293-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319924

RESUMO

COVID-19 necessitated significant care redesign, including new ambulatory workflows to handle surge volumes, protect patients and staff, and ensure timely reliable care. Opportunities also exist to harvest lessons from workflow innovations to benefit routine care. We describe a dedicated COVID-19 ambulatory unit for closing testing and follow-up loops characterized by standardized workflows and electronic communication, documentation, and order placement. More than 85% of follow-ups were completed within 24 hours, with no observed staff, nor patient infections associated with unit operations. Identified issues include role confusion, staffing and gatekeeping bottlenecks, and patient reluctance to visit in person or discuss concerns with phone screeners.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , COVID-19/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Unidades de Cuidados Respiratórios/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sistemas , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(3): 343-354, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828322

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Guidelines recommend individualized breast cancer screening and prevention interventions for women in their 40s. Yet, few primary care clinicians assess breast cancer risk. STUDY DESIGN: Pretest-Posttest trial. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 40-49 years were recruited from one large Boston-based academic primary care practice between July 2017 and April 2019. INTERVENTION: Participants completed a pretest, received a personalized breast cancer risk report, saw their primary care clinician, and completed a posttest. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Using mixed effects models, changes in screening intentions (0-100 scale [0=will not screen to 100=will screen]), mammography knowledge, decisional conflict, and receipt of screening were examined. Analyses were conducted from June 2019 to February 2020. RESULTS: Patient (n=337) mean age was 44.1 (SD=2.9) years, 61.4% were non-Hispanic white, and 76.6% were college graduates; 306 (90.5%) completed follow-up (203 with 5-year breast cancer risk <1.1%). Screening intentions declined from pre- to post-visit (79.3 to 68.0, p<0.0001), especially for women with 5-year risk <1.1% (77.2 to 63.3, p<0.0001), but still favored screening. In the 2 years prior, 37.6% had screening mammography compared with 41.8% over a mean 16 months follow-up (p=0.17). Mammography knowledge increased and decisional conflict declined. Eleven (3.3%) women met criteria for breast cancer prevention medications (ten discussed medications with their clinicians), 22 (6.5%) for MRI (19 discussed MRI with their clinician), and 67 (19.8%) for genetic counseling (47 discussed with the clinician). CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of a personalized breast cancer report was associated with women in their 40s making more-informed and less-conflicted mammography screening decisions and with high-risk women discussing breast cancer prevention interventions with clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.govNCT03180086.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamografia , Adulto , Boston , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Thyroid ; 30(7): 992-998, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950884

RESUMO

Background: Nondiagnostic results are common following fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules, but recommendations for the management of these patients vary. We sought to determine the outcomes and predictors of nondiagnostic FNABs in a single-center cohort of patients undergoing thyroid nodule evaluation. Methodology: We identified all first time ultrasound-guided FNABs performed between May 2007 and June 2013 at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Thyroid Nodule Clinic and examined demographic data, follow-up ultrasounds, repeated FNABs, and histopathologic findings. We examined the likelihood of diagnostic findings and of cancer with increasing numbers of nondiagnostic evaluations with their exact binomial confidence intervals [CIs] and potential predictors of nondiagnostic status using generalized estimating equations. Results: During the six-year period, 2234 unique individuals underwent ultrasound-guided FNAB of a thyroid nodule. The probability of obtaining a diagnostic biopsy declined from 84.4% [95% CI 82.8-85.8%] for initial FNABs to 57.6% [CI 50.8-64.2%] for the first re-FNAB and further to 42.4% [CI 25.5-60.8%] for second re-FNABs. Adjusted risk of nondiagnostic FNAB strongly increased with increasing numbers of previous biopsies and was also higher among whites. The overall rate of diagnosis of malignancy after a nondiagnostic FNAB was 8.1% [CI 4.2-13.7%] and was similar regardless of the number of previous nondiagnostic aspirations. Conclusion: Following an initial nondiagnostic FNAB, the probability of yielding a diagnostic result declines with each sequential repeat FNAB. Nonetheless, a tangible possibility of malignancy remains even after repeated nondiagnostic FNABs.


Assuntos
Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Ultrassonografia
4.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 27(6): 492-497, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic errors result in preventable morbidity and mortality. The outpatient setting may be at increased risk, where time constraints, the indolent nature of outpatient complaints and single decision-maker practice models predominate. METHODS: We developed a self-administered diagnostic pause to address diagnostic error. Clinicians (physicians and nurse practitioners) in an academic primary care setting received the tool if they were seeing urgent care patients who had previously been seen in the past two weeks in urgent care. We used pre-post-intervention surveys, focus groups and chart audits 6 months after the urgent care visit to assess the impact of the intervention on participant perceptions and actions. RESULTS: We piloted diagnostic pauses in two phases (3 months and 6 months, respectively); 9 physicians participated in the first phase, and 16 physicians and 2 nurse practitioners in the second phase. Subjects received 135 alerts for diagnostic pauses and responded to 82 (61% response). Thirteen per cent of alerts resulted in clinicians reporting new actions as a result of the diagnostic pauses. Thirteen per cent of cases at a 6-month chart audit resulted in diagnostic discrepancies, defined as differences in diagnosis from the initial working diagnosis. Focus groups reported that the diagnostic pauses were brief and fairly well integrated into the overall workflow for evaluation but would have benefited as a real-time application for patients at higher risk for diagnostic error. CONCLUSION: This pilot represents the first known examination of diagnostic pauses in the outpatient setting, and this work potentially paves the way for more broad-based systems and/or electronic interventions to address diagnostic error.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Thyroid ; 26(6): 825-30, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few published quality metrics relevant to fine-needle aspirations (FNA) of the thyroid and endocrinology. With the development of a Thyroid Nodule Clinic within an academic practice, the Division of Endocrinology, in collaboration with the Department of Medicine Quality Improvement Team, established a system to monitor the results and follow-up of thyroid biopsies to ensure patient safety and to prevent adverse clinical outcomes attributable to delayed or incomplete follow-up. METHODS: All FNA performed are identified using billing data from the Thyroid Nodule Clinic. Results were followed using the Beth Israel Deaconess Online Medical Record (OMR) system, and information is collected on documented follow-up plan and actions taken. Missing data are flagged for review. Over the reporting period, the monitoring process and categories were modified to account for adoption of the Bethesda reporting criteria and implementation of gene expression classifier testing. Specific workflow plans were developed for each cytopathologic classification. RESULTS: Between July 2007 and June 2014, 3895 FNAs were performed. The quality improvement tracking process found that 3856/3895 (99%) biopsy cases had documented follow-up since initiation of the project. CONCLUSION: This monitoring process has ensured quality patient care, with confidence that patients having FNAs are receiving documented necessary follow-up for treatment of their nodular conditions. This system serves as a potential model for others to use in their endocrine practice in managing the results of thyroid nodule biopsies.


Assuntos
Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/normas , Humanos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde
6.
Acad Med ; 91(5): 717-22, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26535864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Performing and teaching appropriate follow-up of outpatient laboratory results (LRs) is a challenge. The authors tested peer-review among residents as a potentially valuable intervention. METHOD: Investigators assigned residents to perform self-review (n = 27), peer-review (n = 21), or self- + peer-review (n = 30) of outpatient charts. They also compared residence performance with that of historical controls (n = 20). In September 2012, residents examined 10 LRs from April 2012 onward. A second review in November 2012 ascertained whether performing chart review improved residents' practice behaviors. RESULTS: Initially, the least-square (LS) mean number of LRs without documentation of follow-up per resident in the self-, peer-, and self- + peer-review group was, respectively, 0.5 (SD 1.0), 1.0 (SD 1.7), and 0.9 (SD 1.3), and post intervention, this was 1.0 (SD 0.2), 0.3 (SD 0.2), and 0.6 (SD 0.2) (self- versus peer-review P = .03). Initially the LS mean follow-up time per resident in the self-, peer-, and self- + peer-review group was, respectively, 4.2 (SD 1.2), 6.9 (SD 1.4), and 5.9 (SD 1.2) days, and after the intervention, LS mean time was 5.0 (SD 0.5), 2.5 (SD 0.6), and 3.9 (SD 0.5) days (self- versus peer-review P < .01). Self-review was not associated with significant improvements in practice. CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison of self- and peer-review, only residents who performed peer-review demonstrated significant improvements in their documentation practices. These findings support the use of resident peer-review in improving LR follow-up, and potentially, in other, broader resident quality improvement initiatives.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Internato e Residência/normas , Revisão dos Cuidados de Saúde por Pares , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Boston , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Interna/educação , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
7.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 38(1): 89-95, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24424558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine adherence to incidentally detected lung nodule computed tomographic (CT) surveillance recommendations and identify demographic and clinical factors that increase the likelihood of CT surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 419 patients with incidentally detected lung nodules were included. Recorded data included patient demographic, radiologic, and clinical characteristics and outcomes at a 4-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models determined the factors associated with likelihood of recommended CT surveillance. RESULTS: At least 1 recommended surveillance chest CT was performed on 48% of the patients (148/310). Computed tomographic result communication to the patient (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; P = 0.006; confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0) or to the referring physician (OR, 2.8; P = 0.001; CI, 1.7-4.5) and recommendation of a specific surveillance time interval (OR, 1.7; P = 0.023; CI, 1.08-2.72) increased the likelihood of surveillance. Other demographic, radiologic, and clinical factors did not influence surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Documented physician and patient result communication as well as the recommendation of a specific surveillance time interval increased the likelihood of CT surveillance of incidentally detected lung nodules.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vigilância da População , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Acad Pediatr ; 11(3 Suppl): S59-67, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21570018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine considers patient centeredness a core dimension of quality. Several patient/family surveys exist to assess pediatric health care. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act mandates strengthening quality measurement for children, including for patient/family experience of care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine what instruments exist for measuring patient/family experience of pediatric health care and which should be included in the core measurement set for assessing Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) programs; to identify gaps in measurement; and to provide recommendations for measure development. METHODS: We developed a conceptual framework for measuring patient/family experience of care. We conducted a review of national measure clearinghouses and of the literature to assess validity, reliability, and feasibility of existing measures, and how these measures address the conceptual framework. RESULTS: We found valid and reliable instruments for measuring patient/family experience of care include the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) instruments, Promoting Healthy Development Survey (PHDS), Young Adult Health Care Survey (YAHCS), and the National Research Corporation Picker Pediatric Inpatient Survey (NRC Picker). We identified the need for matching patients with providers and groups as a barrier for widespread use of the CAHPS® pediatric clinician & group instrument. CONCLUSIONS: We recommended to the National Advisory Council for Healthcare Research and Quality Subcommittee on Children's Healthcare Quality Measures for Medicaid and Child Health Insurance Programs (SNAC) the CAHPS® Child Medicaid 4.0 and pediatric Clinician & Group Survey for inclusion in the initial recommended list of core measures for voluntary use by Medicaid and CHIP. The Clinician and Group Survey was not included in the list posted for public comment due to concerns at that time (December 2009) about feasibility. We also recommended that development of a child version of the CAHPS® behavioral and mental health survey now used in the adult population and of a pediatric hospital CAHPS® measure be considered high priorities for development in the next phase of Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act measurement activity. This phase should also explore methods to increase response rates and lower costs of obtaining consumer feedback.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Legislação Médica , Medicaid , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
Acad Pediatr ; 11(3 Suppl): S49-S58.e3, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21570017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify, assess, and make recommendations for inclusion of measures that assess the domain of "most integrated health care setting," with a specific focus on measures of the medical home, one particular mechanism for integrating care, to identify gaps in measurement; and to make recommendations for new measure development. METHODS: We developed a conceptual framework for care integration and reviewed literature on measures assessing the presence and quality of the medical home to determine their validity, reliability, and feasibility as a proxy for care integration. RESULTS: We identified 2 broad approaches to assessing the extent to which patients receive care that fulfills the aims of the medical home: 1) organizational assessment of practice systems and processes thought associated with achieving these desired aims (viz, the National Committee for Quality Assurance Physician Practice Connections-Patient Centered Medical Home measure and the Medical Home Index, and 2) direct assessment by patients/families of their experience of care in targeted dimensions. Based on concerns about the absence of reliability data and the feasibility of applying the practice audit/self-assessment approach on a population level for the purpose of state reporting, as well as the limited data linking performance on the specific measures with important child outcomes, we did not recommend any of the measures of organizational assessments of practice systems for inclusion in the core set as an indicator of care integration. In contrast, measures of the medical home based on items from the National Survey of Child Health on a population level of or the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems for practice- and state-level assessment are more feasible, have known reliability and performance characteristics, and more closely reflect the aims of the medical home, including care integration. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of health care integration as captured by the experience of care in a medical home can best be assessed for state-level performance through patient/family experience surveys. Better measures of care integration, care coordination, and integration of mental, developmental, and physical health into a comprehensive care system are high-priority topics for measure development.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Legislação Médica , Medicaid/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
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