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1.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(2): 24, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111817

RESUMO

The B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is currently being evaluated as promising tumor-associated surface antigen for T-cell-based immunotherapy approaches, such as CAR T cells and bispecific antibodies, in multiple myeloma (MM). Cytotoxic T cells bearing BCMA-specific T-cell receptors might further allow targeting HLA-presented antigens derived from the intracellular domain of BCMA. By analyzing a mass spectrometry-acquired immunopeptidome dataset of primary MM samples and MM cell lines for BCMA-derived HLA ligands, we identified the naturally presented HLA-B*18-restricted ligand P(BCMA)B*18. Additionally, P(BCMA)B*18 was identified on primary CLL samples, thereby expanding the range for possible applications. P(BCMA)B*18 induced multifunctional BCMA-specific cells de novo from naïve CD8+ T cells of healthy volunteers. These T cells exhibited antigen-specific lysis of autologous peptide-loaded cells. Even in the immunosuppressive context of MM, we detected spontaneous memory T-cell responses against P(BCMA)B*18 in patients. By applying CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibition in vitro we induced multifunctional P(BCMA)B*18-specific CD8+ T cells in MM patients lacking preexisting BCMA-directed immune responses. Finally, we could show antigen-specific lysis of autologous peptide-loaded target cells and even MM.1S cells naturally presenting P(BCMA)B*18 using patient-derived P(BCMA)B*18-specific T cells. Hence, this BCMA-derived T-cell epitope represents a promising target for T-cell-based immunotherapy and monitoring following immunotherapy in B-cell malignancy patients.

2.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(3): 432-443, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937595

RESUMO

For more than two decades naturally presented, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted peptides (immunopeptidome) have been eluted and sequenced using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Since, identified disease-associated HLA ligands have been characterized and evaluated as potential active substances. Treatments based on HLA-presented peptides have shown promising results in clinical application as personalized T cell-based immunotherapy. Peptide vaccination cocktails are produced as investigational medicinal products under GMP conditions. To support clinical trials based on HLA-presented tumor-associated antigens, in this study the sensitive LC-MS/MS HLA class I antigen identification pipeline was fully validated for our technical equipment according to the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines.The immunopeptidomes of JY cells with or without spiked-in, isotope labeled peptides, of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers as well as a chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a bladder cancer sample were reliably identified using a data-dependent acquisition method. As the LC-MS/MS pipeline is used for identification purposes, the validation parameters include accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection and robustness.

3.
J Exp Med ; 217(3)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869419

RESUMO

In healthy individuals, immune control of persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is effectively mediated by virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, identifying the repertoire of T cell specificities for HCMV is hampered by the immense protein coding capacity of this betaherpesvirus. Here, we present a novel approach that employs HCMV deletion mutant viruses lacking HLA class I immunoevasins and allows direct identification of naturally presented HCMV-derived HLA ligands by mass spectrometry. We identified 368 unique HCMV-derived HLA class I ligands representing an unexpectedly broad panel of 123 HCMV antigens. Functional characterization revealed memory T cell responses in seropositive individuals for a substantial proportion (28%) of these novel peptides. Multiple HCMV-directed specificities in the memory T cell pool of single individuals indicate that physiologic anti-HCMV T cell responses are directed against a broad range of antigens. Thus, the unbiased identification of naturally presented viral epitopes enabled a comprehensive and systematic assessment of the physiological repertoire of anti-HCMV T cell specificities in seropositive individuals.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2526, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803175

RESUMO

Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment option for malignancies located in the liver. RFA-induced irreversible coagulation necrosis leads to the release of danger signals and cellular content. Hence, RFA may constitute an endogenous in situ tumor vaccination, stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses, including tumor-antigen specific T cells. This may explain a phenomenon termed abscopal effect, namely tumor regression in untreated lesions evidenced after distant thermal ablation or irradiation. In this study, we therefore assessed systemic and local immune responses in individual patients treated with RFA. Methods: For this prospective clinical trial, patients with liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) receiving RFA and undergoing metachronous liver surgery for another lesion were recruited (n = 9) during a 5-year period. Tumor and non-malignant liver tissue samples from six patients were investigated by whole transcriptome sequencing and tandem-mass spectrometry, characterizing naturally presented HLA ligands. Tumor antigen-derived HLA-restricted peptides were selected by different predefined approaches. Further, candidate HLA ligands were manually curated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with epitope candidate peptides, and functional T cell responses were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. Immunohistochemical markers were additionally investigated in surgically resected mCRC from patients treated with (n = 9) or without RFA (n = 7). Results: In all six investigated patients, either induced immune responses and/or pre-existing T cell immunity against the selected targets were observed. Multi-cytokine responses were inter alia directed against known tumor antigens such as cyclin D1 but also against a (predicted) mutation contained in ERBB3. Immunohistochemistry did not show a relevant influx of immune cells into distant malignant lesions after RFA treatment (n = 9) as compared to the surgery only mCRC group (n = 7). Conclusions: Using an individualized approach for target selection, RFA induced and/or boosted T cell responses specific for individual tumor antigens were more frequently detectable as compared to previously published observations with well-characterized tumor antigens. However, the witnessed modest RFA-induced immunological effects alone may not be sufficient for the rejection of established tumors. Therefore, these findings warrant further clinical investigation including the assessment of RFA combination therapies e.g., with immune stimulatory agents, cancer vaccination, and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors.

5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 307, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the bacterial lipopeptide Pam3Cys-Ser-Ser, meanwhile established as a toll-like receptor (TLR) 1/2 ligand, acts as a strong adjuvant for the induction of virus specific CD8+ T cells in mice, when covalently coupled to a synthetic peptide. CASE PRESENTATION: We now designed a new water-soluble synthetic Pam3Cys-derivative, named XS15 and characterized it in vitro by a TLR2 NF-κB luciferase reporter assay. Further, the capacity of XS15 to activate immune cells and stimulate peptide-specific CD8+ T and NK cells by 6-sulfo LacNAc+ monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry as well as cytokine induction using immunoassays. The induction of a functional immune response after vaccination of a volunteer with viral peptides was assessed by ELISpot assay and flow cytometry in peripheral blood cells and infiltrating cells at the vaccination site, as well as by immunohistochemistry and imaging. XS15 induced strong ex vivo CD8+ and TH1 CD4+ responses in a human volunteer upon a single injection of XS15 mixed to uncoupled peptides in a water-in-oil emulsion (Montanide™ ISA51 VG). A granuloma formed locally at the injection site containing highly activated functional CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory T cells. The total number of vaccine peptide-specific functional T cells was experimentally assessed and estimated to be 3.0 × 105 in the granuloma and 20.5 × 106 in peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: Thus, in one volunteer we show a granuloma forming by peptides combined with an efficient adjuvant in a water-in-oil-emulsion, inducing antigen specific T cells detectable in circulation and at the vaccination site, after one single vaccination only. The ex vivo T cell responses in peripheral blood were detectable for more than one year and could be strongly boosted by a second vaccination. Hence, XS15 is a promising adjuvant candidate for peptide vaccination, in particular for tumor peptide vaccines in a personalized setting.

6.
J Proteome Res ; 18(11): 3876-3884, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589052

RESUMO

Personalized multipeptide vaccines are currently being discussed intensively for tumor immunotherapy. In order to identify epitopes-short, immunogenic peptides-suitable for eliciting a tumor-specific immune response, human leukocyte antigen-presented peptides are isolated by immunoaffinity purification from cancer tissue samples and analyzed by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we present MHCquant, a fully automated, portable computational pipeline able to process LC-MS/MS data automatically and generate annotated, false discovery rate-controlled lists of (neo-)epitopes with associated relative quantification information. We could show that MHCquant achieves higher sensitivity than established methods. While obtaining the highest number of unique peptides, the rate of predicted MHC binders remains still comparable to other tools. Reprocessing of the data from a previously published study resulted in the identification of several neoepitopes not detected by previously applied methods. MHCquant integrates tailor-made pipeline components with existing open-source software into a coherent processing workflow. Container-based virtualization permits execution of this workflow without complex software installation, execution on cluster/cloud infrastructures, and full reproducibility of the results. Integration with the data analysis workbench KNIME enables easy mining of large-scale immunopeptidomics data sets. MHCquant is available as open-source software along with accompanying documentation on our website at https://www.openms.de/mhcquant/ .

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1008040, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527904

RESUMO

To escape CD8+ T-cell immunity, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US11 redirects MHC-I for rapid ER-associated proteolytic degradation (ERAD). In humans, classical MHC-I molecules are encoded by the highly polymorphic HLA-A, -B and -C gene loci. While HLA-C resists US11 degradation, the specificity for HLA-A and HLA-B products has not been systematically studied. In this study we analyzed the MHC-I peptide ligands in HCMV-infected cells. A US11-dependent loss of HLA-A ligands was observed, but not of HLA-B. We revealed a general ability of HLA-B to assemble with ß2m and exit from the ER in the presence of US11. Surprisingly, a low-complexity region between the signal peptide sequence and the Ig-like domain of US11, was necessary to form a stable interaction with assembled MHC-I and, moreover, this region was also responsible for changing the pool of HLA-B ligands. Our data suggest a two-pronged strategy by US11 to escape CD8+ T-cell immunity, firstly, by degrading HLA-A molecules, and secondly, by manipulating the HLA-B ligandome.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Apresentação do Antígeno , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/genética , Degradação Associada com o Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-A/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA-B/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Ligantes , Modelos Imunológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316521

RESUMO

Adoptive transfer of T cells transgenic for tumor-reactive T-cell receptors (TCR) is an attractive immunotherapeutic approach. However, clinical translation is so far limited due to challenges in the identification of suitable target antigens as well as TCRs that are concurrent safe and efficient. Definition of key characteristics relevant for effective and specific tumor rejection is essential to improve current TCR-based adoptive T-cell immunotherapies. We here characterized in-depth two TCRs derived from the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic repertoire targeting two different myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived peptides presented by the same HLA-restriction element side by side comprising state of the art biochemical and cellular in vitro, in vivo, and in silico experiments. In vitro experiments reveal comparable functional avidities, off-rates, and cytotoxic activities for both TCRs. However, we observed differences especially with respect to cytokine secretion and cross-reactivity as well as in vivo activity. Biochemical and in silico analyses demonstrate different binding qualities of MPO-peptides to the HLA-complex determining TCR qualities. We conclude from our biochemical and in silico analyses of peptide-HLA-binding that rigid and high-affinity binding of peptides is one of the most important factors for isolation of TCRs with high specificity and tumor rejection capacity from the MHC-mismatched repertoire. Based on our results, we developed a workflow for selection of such TCRs with high potency and safety profile suitable for clinical translation.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1988: 123-136, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147937

RESUMO

The large-scale and in-depth identification of MHC class I- and II-presented peptides is indispensable for gaining insight into the fundamental rules of immune recognition as well as for developing innovative immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer and other diseases. In this chapter we briefly review the existing strategies for the isolation of MHC-restricted peptides and provide a detailed protocol for the immunoaffinity purification of MHC class I- and II-presented peptides from primary tissues or cells.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Ligantes , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1988: 137-147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147938

RESUMO

MHC class I peptide motifs are used on a regular basis to identify and predict MHC class I ligands and CD8+ T cell epitopes. This approach is above all an invaluable tool for the identification of disease-associated epitopes ranging from pathogen associated epitopes, tumor associated natural and neoepitopes to autoimmune disease associated epitopes. As a matter of fact, the vast majority of T cell epitopes discovered during the past two decades was identified by means of epitope prediction and MHC ligand identification. Here we describe the steps which are necessary to identify MHC epitopes from monoallelic and multiallelic cells and establish MHC class I peptide motifs to compose a reliable scoring matrix for epitope prediction. As an example, the ligands of monoallelic C1R cells and multiallelic peripheral blood mononuclear cell tissue will be identified and a scoring matrix for the prediction of HLA-C*01:02-presented T cell epitopes will be developed.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Humanos , Ligantes , Curva ROC
11.
J Proteome Res ; 18(6): 2666-2675, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095916

RESUMO

Oncolytic viruses (OVs), known for their cancer-killing characteristics, also overturn tumor-associated defects in antigen presentation through the MHC class I pathway and induce protective neo-antitumor CD8 T cell responses. Nonetheless, whether OVs shape the tumor MHC-I ligandome remains unknown. Here, we investigated if an OV induces the presentation of novel MHC I-bound tumor antigens (termed tumor MHC-I ligands). Using comparative mass spectrometry (MS)-based MHC-I ligandomics, we determined differential tumor MHC-I ligand expression following treatment with oncolytic reovirus in a murine ovarian cancer model. In vitro, we found that reovirus changes the tumor ligandome of cancer cells. Concurrent multiplexed quantitative proteomics revealed that the reovirus-induced changes in tumor MHC-I ligand presentation were mostly independent of their source proteins. In an in vivo model, tumor MHC-I ligands induced by reovirus were detectable not only in tumor tissues but also the spleens (a source of antigen-presenting cells) of tumor-bearing mice. Most importantly, therapy-induced MHC-I ligands stimulated antigen-specific IFNγ responses in antitumor CD8 T cells from mice treated with reovirus. These data show that therapy-induced MHC-I ligands may shape underlying neo-antitumor CD8 T cell responses. As such, they should be considered in strategies promoting the efficacy of OV-based cancer immunotherapies.

12.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 28, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mutated HLA ligands are considered ideal cancer-specific immunotherapy targets, evidence for their presentation is lacking in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Employing a unique multi-omics approach comprising a neoepitope identification pipeline, we assessed exome-derived mutations naturally presented as HLA class I ligands in HCCs. METHODS: In-depth multi-omics analyses included whole exome and transcriptome sequencing to define individual patient-specific search spaces of neoepitope candidates. Evidence for the natural presentation of mutated HLA ligands was investigated through an in silico pipeline integrating proteome and HLA ligandome profiling data. RESULTS: The approach was successfully validated in a state-of-the-art dataset from malignant melanoma, and despite multi-omics evidence for somatic mutations, mutated naturally presented HLA ligands remained elusive in HCCs. An analysis of extensive cancer datasets confirmed fundamental differences of tumor mutational burden in HCC and malignant melanoma, challenging the notion that exome-derived mutations contribute relevantly to the expectable neoepitope pool in malignancies with only few mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that exome-derived mutated HLA ligands appear to be rarely presented in HCCs, inter alia resulting from a low mutational burden as compared to other malignancies such as malignant melanoma. Our results therefore demand widening the target scope for personalized immunotherapy beyond this limited range of mutated neoepitopes, particularly for malignancies with similar or lower mutational burden.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Exoma , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação
13.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013258

RESUMO

Induction of a potent CD4 and CD8 T-cell response against tumor-specific and tumor-associated antigen is critical for eliminating tumor cells. Recent vaccination strategies have been hampered by an inefficacious and low amplitude immune response. Here we describe a self-adjuvanted chimeric protein vaccine platform to address these challenges, characterized by a multidomain construction incorporating (i) a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) allowing internalization of several multiantigenic Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)-restricted peptides within (ii) the multiantigenic domain (Mad) and (iii) a TLR2/4 agonist domain (TLRag). Functionality of the resulting chimeric protein is based on the combined effect of the above-mentioned three different domains for simultaneous activation of antigen presenting cells and antigen cross-presentation, leading to an efficacious multiantigenic and multiallelic cellular immune response. Helper and cytotoxic T-cell responses were observed against model-, neo- and self-antigens, and were highly potent in several murine tumor models. The safety and the immunogenicity of a human vaccine candidate designed for colorectal cancer treatment was demonstrated in a non-human primate model. This newly engineered therapeutic vaccine approach is promising for the treatment of poorly infiltrated tumors that do not respond to currently marketed immunotherapies.

14.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 7(4): 600-608, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894379

RESUMO

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) sustain immune homeostasis and may contribute to immune escape in malignant disease. As a prerequisite for developing immunologic approaches in cancer therapy, it is necessary to understand the ontogeny and the antigenic specificities of tumor-infiltrating Tregs. We addressed this question by using a λ-MYC transgenic mouse model of endogenously arising B-cell lymphoma, which mirrors key features of human Burkitt lymphoma. We show that Foxp3+ Tregs suppress antitumor responses in endogenous lymphoma. Ablation of Foxp3+ Tregs significantly delayed tumor development. The ratio of Treg to effector T cells was elevated in growing tumors, which could be ascribed to differential proliferation. The Tregs detected were mainly natural Tregs that apparently recognized self-antigens. We identified MHC class II-restricted nonmutated self-epitopes, which were more prevalent in lymphoma than in normal B cells and could be recognized by Tregs. These epitopes were derived from proteins that are associated with cellular processes related to malignancy and may be overexpressed in the tumor.

16.
Mol Ther Oncolytics ; 12: 147-161, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775418

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor with bad prognosis. On the other hand, oncolytic measles virus (MeV) therapy is an experimental glioma treatment strategy with clinical safety and first evidence of anti-tumoral efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the combination of MeV with conventional therapies by cytotoxic survival assays in long-term glioma cell lines LN229, LNZ308, and glioma stem-like GS8 cells, as well as the basal viral infectivity in primary glioblastoma cultures T81/16, T1094/17, and T708/16. We employed Chou-Talalay analysis to identify the synergistic treatment sequence chemotherapy, virotherapy, and finally radiotherapy (CT-VT-RT). RNA sequencing and immunopeptidome analyses were used to delineate treatment-induced molecular and immunological profiles. CT-VT-RT displayed synergistic anti-glioma activity and initiated a type 1 interferon response, along with canonical Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling, and downstream interferon-stimulated genes were induced, resulting in apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, antigen presentation along with immunostimulatory chemokines was increased in CT-VT-RT-treated glioma cells, indicating a treatment-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype. We identified novel treatment-induced viral and tumor-associated peptides through HLA ligandome analysis. Our data delineate an actionable treatment-induced molecular and immunological signature of CT-VT-RT, and they could be exploited for the design of novel tailored treatment strategies involving virotherapy and immunotherapy.

17.
Anal Chem ; 91(8): 5106-5115, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779550

RESUMO

MHC-I peptides are intracellular-cleaved peptides, usually 8-11 amino acids in length, which are presented on the cell surface and facilitate CD8+ T cell responses. Despite the appreciation of CD8+ T-cell antitumor immune responses toward improvement in patient outcomes, the MHC-I peptide ligands that facilitate the response are poorly described. Along these same lines, although many therapies have been recognized for their ability to reinvigorate antitumor CD8+ T-cell responses, whether these therapies alter the MHC-I peptide repertoire has not been fully assessed due to the lack of quantitative strategies. We develop a multiplexing platform for screening therapy-induced MHC-I ligands by employing tandem mass tags (TMTs). We applied this approach to measuring responses to doxorubicin, which is known to promote antitumor CD8+ T-cell responses during its therapeutic administration in cancer patients. Using both in vitro and in vivo systems, we show successful relative quantitation of MHC-I ligands using TMT-based multiplexing and demonstrate that doxorubicin induces MHC-I peptide ligands that are largely derived from mitotic progression and cell-cycle proteins. This high-throughput MHC-I ligand discovery approach may enable further explorations to understand how small molecules and other therapies alter MHC-I ligand presentation that may be harnessed for CD8+ T-cell-based immunotherapies.

18.
Blood ; 133(6): 550-565, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530751

RESUMO

Antileukemia immunity plays an important role in disease control and maintenance of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-free remission in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thus, antigen-specific immunotherapy holds promise for strengthening immune control in CML but requires the identification of CML-associated targets. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based approach to identify naturally presented HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides in primary CML samples. Comparative HLA ligandome profiling using a comprehensive dataset of different hematological benign specimens and samples from CML patients in deep molecular remission delineated a panel of novel frequently presented CML-exclusive peptides. These nonmutated target antigens are of particular relevance because our extensive data-mining approach suggests the absence of naturally presented BCR-ABL- and ABL-BCR-derived HLA-restricted peptides and the lack of frequent tumor-exclusive presentation of known cancer/testis and leukemia-associated antigens. Functional characterization revealed spontaneous T-cell responses against the newly identified CML-associated peptides in CML patient samples and their ability to induce multifunctional and cytotoxic antigen-specific T cells de novo in samples from healthy volunteers and CML patients. Thus, these antigens are prime candidates for T-cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches that may prolong TKI-free survival and even mediate cure of CML patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Ligantes
19.
Nature ; 565(7738): 240-245, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568303

RESUMO

Patients with glioblastoma currently do not sufficiently benefit from recent breakthroughs in cancer treatment that use checkpoint inhibitors1,2. For treatments using checkpoint inhibitors to be successful, a high mutational load and responses to neoepitopes are thought to be essential3. There is limited intratumoural infiltration of immune cells4 in glioblastoma and these tumours contain only 30-50 non-synonymous mutations5. Exploitation of the full repertoire of tumour antigens-that is, both unmutated antigens and neoepitopes-may offer more effective immunotherapies, especially for tumours with a low mutational load. Here, in the phase I trial GAPVAC-101 of the Glioma Actively Personalized Vaccine Consortium (GAPVAC), we integrated highly individualized vaccinations with both types of tumour antigens into standard care to optimally exploit the limited target space for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Fifteen patients with glioblastomas positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*02:01 or HLA-A*24:02 were treated with a vaccine (APVAC1) derived from a premanufactured library of unmutated antigens followed by treatment with APVAC2, which preferentially targeted neoepitopes. Personalization was based on mutations and analyses of the transcriptomes and immunopeptidomes of the individual tumours. The GAPVAC approach was feasible and vaccines that had poly-ICLC (polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as adjuvants displayed favourable safety and strong immunogenicity. Unmutated APVAC1 antigens elicited sustained responses of central memory CD8+ T cells. APVAC2 induced predominantly CD4+ T cell responses of T helper 1 type against predicted neoepitopes.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/terapia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-A/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Urol Focus ; 5(4): 604-607, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988765

RESUMO

Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma comprises metastasectomy±systemic medical treatment. Specific immunotherapy after metastasectomy could be a complementary option. In this phase 1/2 study, safety and tolerability of an adjuvant multi-peptide vaccine (UroRCC) after metastasectomy was evaluated together with immune response and efficacy, compared with a contemporary cohort of patients (n=44) treated with metastasectomy only. Nineteen metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients received UroRCC via intradermal or subcutaneous application randomized to immunoadjuvants (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or Montanide). Adverse events of UroRCC were mainly grade I and II; frequency of immune response was higher for major histocompatibility complex class II peptides (17/19, 89.5%) than for major histocompatibility complex class I peptides (8/19, 42.1%). Median overall survival was not reached in the UroRCC group (mean: 112.6 mo, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.1-133.1) and 58.0 mo (95% CI: 32.7-83.2) in the control cohort (p=0.015). UroRCC was an independent prognosticator of overall survival (hazard ratio=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.69, p=0.012). Adjuvant UroRCC multi-peptide vaccine after metastasectomy was well tolerated, immunogenic, and indicates potential clinical benefit when compared with a contemporary control cohort (NCT02429440). PATIENT SUMMARY: The application of a patient-specific peptide vaccine after complete resection of metastases in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients resulted in favorable tolerability and outcome.

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