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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360758

RESUMO

The current study describes the experimental design guided development of PEGylated nanoemulsions as parenteral delivery systems for curcumin, a powerful antioxidant, as well as the evaluation of their physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity during the two years of storage. Experimental design setup helped development of nanoemulsion templates with critical quality attributes in line with parenteral application route. Curcumin-loaded nanoemulsions showed mean droplet size about 105 nm, polydispersity index <0.15, zeta potential of -40 mV, and acceptable osmolality of about 550 mOsm/kg. After two years of storage at room temperature, all formulations remained stable. Moreover, antioxidant activity remained intact, as demonstrated by DPPH (IC50 values 0.078-0.075 mg/mL after two years) and FRAPS assays. In vitro release testing proved that PEGylated phospholipids slowed down the curcumin release from nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsion carrier has been proven safe by the MTT test conducted with MRC-5 cell line, and effective on LS cell line. Results from the pharmacokinetic pilot study implied the PEGylated nanoemulsions improved plasma residence of curcumin 20 min after intravenous administration, compared to the non-PEGylated nanoemulsion (two-fold higher) or curcumin solution (three-fold higher). Overall, conclusion suggests that developed PEGylated nanoemulsions present an acceptable delivery system for parenteral administration of curcumin, being effective in preserving its stability and antioxidant capacity at the level highly comparable to the initial findings.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Curcumina , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Curcumina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Emulsões , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452296

RESUMO

Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(3)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449731

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most widely distributed (re-)emerging arboviruses. In Croatia, acute WNV infections as well as seropositivity were detected in humans, horses, birds and poultry. Although serologic evidence of WNV human infections dates back to the 1970s, no clinical cases were reported until 2012. WNV outbreaks, as well as sporadic infections, were continuously recorded in continental Croatian counties from 2012 to 2018. In addition, acute asymptomatic infections (IgM antibodies) in horses have been regularly notified in continental regions since 2012, while seropositive horses (seroprevalence rates 3.7-21.4%) were detected in both continental and coastal regions. Moreover, WNV seropositivity in poultry (1.8-22.9%) was reported from 2013 to 2020. During the largest WNV outbreak in 2018, WNV RNA was detected for the first time in two dead goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from the same aviary in North-West Croatia, while WNV antibodies were found in one buzzard (Butteo butteo) from the same region. In addition, WNV RNA was detected in a dead blackbird (Turdus merula) at the Croatian littoral. The phylogenetic analysis of 11 strains detected in urine samples of patients with neuroinvasive disease and 1 strain detected in a goshawk showed circulation of WNV lineage 2. Thus far, WNV has not been detected in mosquitoes in Croatia.

4.
J Proteomics ; 244: 104277, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044168

RESUMO

Bovine mastitis causes changes in the milk and serum proteomes. Here changes in both proteomes caused by naturally occurring subclinical and clinical mastitis have been characterised and quantified. Milk and serum samples from healthy dairy cows (n = 10) were compared to those of cows with subclinical (n = 12) and clinical mastitis (n = 10) using tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomics. Proteins that significantly increased or decreased in milk (n = 237) or serum (n = 117) were quantified and classified by the type of change in subclinical and clinical mastitis. A group of the proteins (n = 38) showed changes in both milk and serum a number of which decreased in the serum but increased in milk, suggesting a particular role in host defence for maintaining and restoring homeostasis during the disease. Proteins affected by bovine mastitis included proteins in host defence and coagulation pathways. Investigation of the modified proteomes in milk and serum was assessed by assays for haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and α1 acid glycoprotein validating the results obtained by quantitative proteomics. Alteration of abundance patterns of milk and serum proteins, together with pathway analysis reveal multiple interactions related to proteins affected by mastitis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD022595. SIGNIFICANCE: Mastitis is the most serious condition to affect dairy cows and leads to reduced animal welfare as well as having a negative economic effect for the dairy industry. Proteomics has previously identified changes in abundance of milk proteins during mastitis, but there have been few investigations addressing changes that may affect proteins in the blood during the infection. In this study, changes in the abundance of proteins of milk and serum, caused by naturally occurring mastitis have been characterised by proteomics using a quantitative approach and both subclinical and clinical cases of mastitis have been investigated. In both milk and serum, change in individual proteins was determined and classified into varying types of altering abundance, such as increasing in subclinical mastitis, but showing no further increase in clinical mastitis. Of special interest were the proteins that altered in abundance in both milk and serum which either showed similar trends - increasing or decreasing in both biological fluids or showed reciprocal change decreasing in serum but increasing in milk. As well as characterising proteins as potential markers of mastitis and the severity of the disease, these results provide insight into the pathophysiology of the host response to bovine mastitis.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina , Mastite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Leite , Proteínas do Leite , Proteoma
5.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(2): 020706, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927556

RESUMO

Introduction: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in children treated at the Children's Hospital Zagreb in the first and the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Statistical significance of difference at two time points was done to determine how restrictive epidemiological measures and exposure of children to COVID-19 infection affect this prevalence in different age groups. Materials and methods: At the first time point (13th to 29th May 2020), 240 samples and in second time point (24th October to 23rd November 2020), 308 serum samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Confirmation of results and titre determination was done using virus micro-neutralization test. Subjects were divided according to gender, age and epidemiological history. Results: Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies differs significantly in two time points (P = 0.010). In first time point 2.9% of seropositive children were determined and in second time point 8.4%. Statistically significant difference (P = 0.007) of seroprevalence between two time points was found only in a group of children aged 11-19 years. At the first time point, all seropositive children were asymptomatic with titre < 8. At the second time point, 69.2% seropositive children were asymptomatic with titre ≥ 8. Conclusions: The prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was significantly lower at the first time point than at the second time point. Values of virus micro-neutralization test showed that low titre in asymptomatic children was not protective at the first time point but in second time point all seropositive children had protective titre of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Croácia/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
6.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671821

RESUMO

Data on the immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) are limited. We analyzed the antiviral cytokine response in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with WNV fever and WNV neuroinvasive disease using a multiplex bead-based assay for the simultaneous quantification of 13 human cytokines. The panel included cytokines associated with innate and early pro-inflammatory immune responses (TNF-α/IL-6), Th1 (IL-2/IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4/IL-5/IL-9/IL-13), Th17 immune response (IL-17A/IL-17F/IL-21/IL-22) and the key anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Elevated levels of IFN-γ were detected in 71.7% of CSF and 22.7% of serum samples (p = 0.003). Expression of IL-2/IL-4/TNF-α and Th1 17 cytokines (IL-17A/IL-17F/IL-21) was detected in the serum but not in the CSF (except one positive CSF sample for IL-17F/IL-4). While IL-6 levels were markedly higher in the CSF compared to serum (CSF median 2036.71, IQR 213.82-6190.50; serum median 24.48, IQR 11.93-49.81; p < 0.001), no difference in the IL-13/IL-9/IL-10/IFN-γ/IL-22 levels in serum/CSF was found. In conclusion, increased concentrations of the key cytokines associated with innate and early acute phase responses (IL-6) and Th1 type immune responses (IFN-γ) were found in the CNS of patients with WNV infection. In contrast, expression of the key T-cell growth factor IL-2, Th17 cytokines, a Th2 cytokine IL-4 and the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α appear to be concentrated mainly in the periphery.


Assuntos
Citocinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite/imunologia , Meningoencefalite/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Idoso , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-17/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-4/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Masculino , Meningite/sangue , Meningite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite/virologia , Meningoencefalite/sangue , Meningoencefalite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningoencefalite/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Th17/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia
7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191649

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has since caused a global pandemic. Experimental studies and sporadic reports have confirmed susceptibility of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the importance of pet animals in the epidemiology of this infection is unclear. This study reports on a first large-scale serosurvey of SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in Europe. From 26 February 2020, just one day after the first confirmed human case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Croatia, to 15 June 2020, dog and cat serum samples were collected from animals admitted to three veterinary facilities in Croatia. Additionally, on 25 May 2020, a total of 122 serum samples from employees of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Zagreb were collected. Total of 656 dogs and 131 cat serum samples were tested using an in-house microneutralisation test (MNT). Human serum samples, as well as 172 randomly selected, dog sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA-positive human sera were subsequently tested using MNT. Neutralising antibodies were confirmed in 0.76% cats and 0.31% dogs. ELISA reactivity was recorded in 7.56% tested dog sera. On the other hand, 5.19% of administrative, basic and pre-clinical sciences department personnel and 5.13% of animal health service providers and laboratory personnel tested ELISA positive. Neutralising antibodies were not confirmed in any of the human samples. In conclusion, seropositivity among pet animals in Croatia is low, especially when compared to results from China. A small number of seropositive animals with a low titre of neutralising antibodies suggest infections are rare and are following infections in the human population. Additionally, contact with animals does not seem to be an occupational risk for veterinary practitioners.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(3)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937866

RESUMO

Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus, transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sandflies. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic, neuroinvasive disease may occur. We report three cases of neuroinvasive TOSV infection detected in Croatia. Two patients aged 21 and 54 years presented with meningitis, while a 22-year old patient presented with meningoencephalitis and right-sided brachial plexitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and urine samples were collected and tested for neuroinvasive arboviruses: tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, TOSV, Tahyna, and Bhanja virus. In addition, CSF and serum samples were tested for the anti-viral cytokine response. High titers of TOSV IgM (1000-3200) and IgG (3200-10,000) antibodies in serum samples confirmed TOSV infection. Antibodies to other phleboviruses (sandfly fever Sicilian/Naples/Cyprus virus) were negative. CSF samples showed high concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6; range 162.32-2683.90 pg/mL), interferon gamma (IFN-γ; range 110.12-1568.07 pg/mL), and IL-10 (range 28.08-858.91 pg/mL), while significantly lower cytokine production was observed in serum. Two patients recovered fully. The patient with a brachial plexitis improved significantly at discharge. The presented cases highlight the need of increasing awareness of a TOSV as a possible cause of aseptic meningitis/meningoencephalitis during summer months. Association of TOSV and brachial plexitis with long-term sequelae detected in one patient indicates the possibility of more severe disease, even in young patients.

9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 11(6): 101513, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993933

RESUMO

In June 2019, the Croatian Institute of Public Health was informed of a cluster of patients with laboratory confirmed tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) from the Gorski Kotar region. Five of the six patients with TBE reported consuming raw (unpasteurized) goat milk in the two week period before symptom onset, and one reported a recent tick bite. To assess risk factors for infection, we selected six control individuals from among healthy family and community members, and conducted a case-control analysis. None of the cases or controls were vaccinated against TBE. Individuals with TBE (cases) had 25 (95 % CI 0.8-1410.2, p = 0.021) times higher odds of raw goat milk consumption compared to healthy controls. Milk samples from 12 goats from the implicated farm were tested for the TBE virus (TBEV) using RT-PCR. TBEV RNA was not detected in the milk, but serological testing of goats and other farm animals yielded evidence of exposure to the virus: Six goats from the flock had TBEV neutralizing antibodies. Our findings suggest that the vehicle for the outbreak was raw goat milk from a single farm. Following public health advice to cease consumption of raw dairy products, no further cases have been reported.

11.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(17): 3797-3803, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the neuroradiology features of the West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNV NID) is rather scarce. To contribute to the knowledge of the WNV NID, we present a patient with a combination of encephalitis and acute flaccid paresis, with cauda equina arachnoiditis as the main magnetic resonance (MR) finding. CASE SUMMARY: A 72-year-old female patient was admitted due to fever, headache and gait instability. During the first several days she developed somnolence, aphasia, urinary incontinence, constipation, and asymmetric lower extremities weakness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis indicated encephalitis. Native brain computed tomography and MR were unremarkable, while spinal MR demonstrated cauda equina enhancement without cord lesions. Virology testing revealed WNV IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, which confirmed acute WNV NID. The treatment was supportive. After two months only a slight improvement was noticed but cognitive impairment, loss of sphincter control and asymmetric inferior extremities weakness remained. The patient died after a month on chronic rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Cauda equina arachnoiditis is a rare, but possible neuroradiological feature in acute flaccid paresis form of WNV NID.

12.
Pathogens ; 9(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858963

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging arbovirus isolated in 1959 (Usutu River, Swaziland). Previously restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, the virus was introduced in Europe in 1996. While the USUV has received little attention in Africa, the virus emergence has prompted numerous studies with robust epidemiological surveillance programs in Europe. The natural transmission cycle of USUV involves mosquitoes (vectors) and birds (amplifying hosts) with humans and other mammals considered incidental ("dead-end") hosts. In Africa, the virus was isolated in mosquitoes, rodents and birds and serologically detected in horses and dogs. In Europe, USUV was detected in bats, whereas antibodies were found in different animal species (horses, dogs, squirrels, wild boar, deer and lizards). While bird mortalities were not reported in Africa, in Europe USUV was shown to be highly pathogenic for several bird species, especially blackbirds (Turdus merula) and great gray owls (Strix nebulosa). Furthermore, neurotropism of USUV for humans was reported for the first time in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Epizootics and genetic diversity of USUV in different bird species as well as detection of the virus in mosquitoes suggest repeated USUV introductions into Europe with endemization in some countries. The zoonotic potential of USUV has been reported in a growing number of human cases. Clinical cases of neuroinvasive disease and USUV fever, as well as seroconversion in blood donors were reported in Europe since 2009. While most USUV strains detected in humans, birds and mosquitoes belong to European USUV lineages, several reports indicate the presence of African lineages as well. Since spreading trends of USUV are likely to continue, continuous multidisciplinary interventions ("One Health" concept) should be conducted for monitoring and prevention of this emerging arboviral infection.

14.
World J Transplant ; 10(3): 47-63, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257849

RESUMO

Zoonoses represent a problem of rising importance in the transplant population. A close relationship and changes between human, animal and environmental health ("One Health" concept) significantly influence the transmission and distribution of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to perform a narrative review of the published literature on emerging and neglected zoonoses in the transplant population. Many reports on donor-derived or naturally acquired (re-)emerging arboviral infections such as dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis and Zika virus infection have demonstrated atypical or more complicated clinical course in immunocompromised hosts. Hepatitis E virus has emerged as a serious problem after solid organ transplantation (SOT), leading to diverse extrahepatic manifestations and chronic hepatitis with unfavorable outcomes. Some neglected pathogens such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus can cause severe infection with multi-organ failure and high mortality. In addition, ehrlichiosis may be more severe with higher case-fatality rates in SOT recipients. Some unusual or severe presentations of borreliosis, anaplasmosis and rickettsioses were also reported among transplant patients. Moreover, toxoplasmosis as infectious complication is a well-recognized zoonosis in this population. Although rabies transmission through SOT transplantation has rarely been reported, it has become a notable problem in some countries. Since the spreading trends of zoonoses are likely to continue, the awareness, recognition and treatment of zoonotic infections among transplant professionals should be imperative.

15.
New Microbiol ; 43(1): 51-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334492

RESUMO

Cardiac involvement has rarely been reported in West Nile (WNV) infection. We report a fatal case of WNV encephalitis associated with an acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient was hospitalized with a fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. The physical examination revealed positive meningeal signs and an altered level of consciousness. High levels of cardiac enzymes (creatine phosphokinase/MB fraction, lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin and cardiac troponin I) and ST elevation on electrocardiogram were found. Both CSF and urine samples were positive for WNV RNA. This case highlights the need of awareness of the possibility of a WNV-related myocardial infection, including myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Idoso , Croácia , Eletrocardiografia , Enzimas/sangue , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/enzimologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/complicações , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/enzimologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia
17.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 437, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867347

RESUMO

The epidemiology of West Nile (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) has changed dramatically over the past two decades. Since 1999, there have been regular reports of WNV outbreaks and the virus has expanded its area of circulation in many Southern European countries. After emerging in Italy in 1996, USUV has spread to other countries causing mortality in several bird species. In 2009, USUV seroconversion in horses was reported in Italy. Co-circulation of both viruses was detected in humans, horses and birds. The main vector of WNV and USUV in Europe is Culex pipiens, however, both viruses were found in native Culex mosquito species (Cx. modestus, Cx. perexiguus). Experimental competence to transmit the WNV was also proven for native and invasive mosquitoes of Aedes and Culex genera (Ae. albopictus, Ae. detritus, Cx. torrentium). Recently, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus naturally-infected with USUV were reported. While neuroinvasive human WNV infections are well-documented, USUV infections are sporadically detected. However, there is increasing evidence of a role of USUV in human disease. Seroepidemiological studies showed that USUV circulation is more common than WNV in some endemic regions. Recent data showed that WNV strains detected in humans, horses, birds, and mosquitoes mainly belong to lineage 2. In addition to European USUV lineages, some reports indicate the presence of African USUV lineages as well. The trends in WNV/USUV range and vector expansion are likely to continue in future years. This mini-review provides an update on the epidemiology of WNV and USUV infections in Southern Europe within a multidisciplinary "One Health" context.

18.
Curr Infect Dis Rep ; 21(12): 51, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754812

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we present the overview of emerging and neglected viruses associated with liver involvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) emerged in the last two decades, causing hepatitis in many parts of the world. Moreover, liver involvement was also described in some emerging arboviral infections. Many reports showed dengue-associated liver injury; however, chikungunya, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis, and Zika virus are rarely associated with clinically manifest liver disease. In addition, some neglected highly prevalent viruses such as adenoviruses and parvovirus B19 are capable of causing hepatitis in specific population groups. Anelloviruses (torque teno virus/torque teno mini virus/torque teno midi virus, SEN virus), human bocavirus, pegiviruses, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus have shown a little potential for causing hepatitis, but their role in the etiology of liver disease remains to be determined. In addition to the well-known hepatotropic viruses, many emerging and neglected viruses have been associated with liver diseases. The number of emerging zoonotic viruses has been increasingly recognized. While zoonotic potential of HEV is well documented, the recent identification of new hepatitis-related animal viruses such as HEV strains from rabbits and camels, non-primate hepaciviruses in domestic dogs and horses, as well as equine and porcine pegivirus highlights the possible zoonotic transmission in the context of "One Health." However, zoonotic potential and hepatotropism of animal hepatitis viruses remain to be determined.

19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(25): 3168-3182, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333309

RESUMO

The significance of hepatitis E virus (HEV) as an important public health problem is rising. Until a decade ago, cases of HEV infection in Eur-ope were mainly confined to returning travelers, but nowadays, hepatitis E represents an emerging zoonotic infection in many European countries. The aim of this manuscript is to perform a systematic review of the published literature on hepatitis E distribution in humans, animals and environmental samples ("One Health" concept) in the South-Eastern European countries. Comparison of the available data showed that the anti-HEV seroprevalence in the South-Eastern Europe varies greatly, depending on the population studied, geographical area and methods used. The IgG seroprevalence rates in different population groups were found to be 1.1%-24.5% in Croatia, up to 20.9% in Bulgaria, 5.9-%17.1% in Romania, 15% in Serbia, up to 9.7% in Greece and 2%-9.7% in Albania. Among possible risk factors, older age was the most significant predictor for HEV seropositivity in most studies. Higher seroprevalence rates were found in animals. HEV IgG antibodies in domestic pigs were detected in 20%-54.5%, 29.2%-50%, 38.94%-50% and 31.1%-91.7% in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Croatia, respectively. In wild boars seroprevalence rates were up to 10.3%, 30.3% and 31.1% in Romania, Slovenia and Croatia, respectively. A high HEV RNA prevalence in wild boars in some countries (Croatia and Romania) indicated that wild boars may have a key role in the HEV epidemiology. There are very few data on HEV prevalence in environmental samples. HEV RNA was detected in 3.3% and 16.7% surface waters in Slovenia and Serbia, respectively. There is no evidence of HEV RNA in sewage systems in this region. The available data on genetic characterization show that human, animal and environmental HEV strains mainly belong to the genotype 3.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/sangue , Sus scrofa/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia
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