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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests the association between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk is weaker among current smokers than among never smokers. METHODS: We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among adults who reported smoking status at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982, including 420,543 never smokers, 282,244 former cigarette smokers, and 219,885 current cigarette smokers. After excluding the first 3 years of follow-up to reduce reverse causation, we calculated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: During the full follow-up period from 1985 to 2014, 7,904 participants died of pancreatic cancer. The HR per 5 BMI units was lower among current smokers [HR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.20] than never smokers (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.27), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). BMI was significantly less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers reporting ≥20 cigarettes/day (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18) than among never smokers. During follow-up within 10 years of enrollment, when current smokers at enrollment were the most likely to have still been smoking, BMI was not associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.16, P = 0.03 for difference between current and never smokers). BMI HRs were similar among former and never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a weaker association between BMI and pancreatic cancer among current smokers than among never smokers. IMPACT: In populations with low smoking prevalence, the pancreatic cancer burden due to BMI is likely to be higher than that predicted by risk estimates from studies including substantial numbers of smokers.

2.
Front Med ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889700

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3110-3118, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506449

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead are persistent environmental toxins that are known or probable carcinogens, based on evidence for causality for nonhematologic cancers. Associations of these metals with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are unknown but biologically plausible. To examine the associations of circulating levels of lead and cadmium exposure with risk of B-cell NHL (B-NHL) and multiple myeloma, we conducted a nested case-control study among 299 incident B-cell NHLs and 76 MM cases within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II NC). Each case was incidence-density matched to two eligible controls on age, race, sex and blood draw date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lymphoid malignancies overall and stratified by subtype. We observed a significant positive association between high erythrocyte lead concentration and risk of lymphoid malignancies overall (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33 per 17.6 µg/L (1 standard deviation [SD])) and follicular lymphoma in particular (RR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.80 per SD). In contrast, there was no association between erythrocyte cadmium and risk of B-NHL (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.75-1.06 per 0.37 µg/L [1 SD]), or any B-NHL subtypes; but a strong inverse association with MM risk (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, per SD). Results from our study suggest a positive association between erythrocyte lead level and risk of lymphoid malignancies and a possible inverse association between cadmium and myeloma. Additional research is needed to confirm and further explore these findings.

4.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1423-1429, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of cancer driver genes (CDG) are also cancer predisposition genes. However, the associations between genetic variants in lung CDGs and the susceptibility to lung cancer have rarely been investigated. METHODS: We selected expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNP) and nonsynonymous variants of lung CDGs, and tested their associations with lung cancer risk in two large-scale genome-wide association studies (20,871 cases and 15,971 controls of European descent). Conditional and joint association analysis was performed to identify independent risk variants. The associations of independent risk variants with somatic alterations in lung CDGs or recurrently altered pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. RESULTS: We identified seven independent SNPs in five lung CDGs that were consistently associated with lung cancer risk in discovery (P < 0.001) and validation (P < 0.05) stages. Among these loci, rs78062588 in TPM3 (1q21.3) was a new lung cancer susceptibility locus (OR = 0.86, P = 1.65 × 10-6). Subgroup analysis by histologic types further identified nine lung CDGs. Analysis of somatic alterations found that in lung adenocarcinomas, rs78062588[C] allele (TPM3 in 1q21.3) was associated with elevated somatic copy number of TPM3 (OR = 1.16, P = 0.02). In lung adenocarcinomas, rs1611182 (HLA-A in 6p22.1) was associated with truncation mutations of the transcriptional misregulation in cancer pathway (OR = 0.66, P = 1.76 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can regulate functions of lung CDGs and influence lung cancer susceptibility. IMPACT: Our findings might help unravel biological mechanisms underlying lung cancer susceptibility.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(18): 2018-2027, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of postdiagnosis body mass index (BMI) and weight change with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVDM), and all-cause mortality among survivors of nonmetastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: Men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 1992 and 2013 were followed for mortality through December 2016. Current weight was self-reported on follow-up questionnaires approximately every 2 years. Postdiagnosis BMI was obtained from the first survey completed 1 to < 6 years after diagnosis. Weight change was the difference in weight between the first and second postdiagnosis surveys. Deaths occurring within 4 years of the follow-up were excluded to reduce bias from reverse causation. Analyses of BMI and weight change included 8,330 and 6,942 participants, respectively. RESULTS: Postdiagnosis BMI analyses included 3,855 deaths from all causes (PCSM, n = 500; CVDM, n = 1,155). Using Cox proportional hazards models, hazard ratios (HRs) associated with postdiagnosis obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) compared with healthy weight (BMI 18.5 to < 25.0 kg/m2) were 1.28 for PCSM (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.67), 1.24 for CVDM (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.49), and 1.23 for all-cause mortality (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.35). Weight gain analyses included 2,973 deaths (PCSM, n = 375; CVDM, n = 881). Postdiagnosis weight gain (> 5% of body weight), compared with stable weight (± < 3%), was associated with a higher risk of PCSM (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.25) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.45) but not CVDM. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that among survivors of nonmetastatic prostate cancer with largely localized disease, postdiagnosis obesity is associated with higher CVDM and all-cause mortality, and possibly higher PCSM, and that postdiagnosis weight gain may be associated with a higher mortality as a result of all causes and prostate cancer.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2075-2090, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285447

RESUMO

Deficient intake of micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (eg, choline, methionine, vitamin B12 and folic acid) leads to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in rodents, but is under-investigated in humans. We investigated the association between one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrient intake and HCC risk in a prospective cohort of 494 860 participants with 16 years of follow-up in the NIH-AARP study. Dietary intakes and supplement use were ascertained at baseline using a food-frequency questionnaire. Total intake (diet plus supplements) of the following one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrients were calculated: folate, methionine and vitamins B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 and B12 . These micronutrients were examined both individually and simultaneously, with adjustment for covariates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over the 16-year follow-up period, 647 incident HCC cases were diagnosed. When examined individually, higher total vitamin B3 intake was associated with a lower HCC risk (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.85; Ptrend = .008), and the association remained significant when all six micronutrients were examined simultaneously (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.18-0.55; Ptrend < .0001). Among participants with >3 years of follow-up, higher total vitamin B3 intake was again associated with lower risk (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.20-0.68; Ptrend = .001), whereas higher total vitamin B6 intake was associated with higher risk (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.02-4.07; Ptrend = .04). Restricted cubic spline analyses showed a dose-response inverse association between total vitamin B3 intake and HCC risk, and dose-response positive association between total vitamin B6 intake and HCC risk. The study suggests that higher vitamin B3 intake is associated with lower HCC risk, whereas higher vitamin B6 intake is associated with increased risk.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1029-1038, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the relationship of meat, fish, and egg consumption and mortality among prostate cancer survivors is limited. METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between baseline in 1992/1993 and 2015 were followed for mortality until 2016. Analyses of pre- and postdiagnosis intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, fish, and eggs included 9,286 and 4,882 survivors, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 4,682 and 2,768 deaths occurred during follow-up in pre- and postdiagnosis analyses, respectively. Both pre- and postdiagnosis intakes of total red and processed meat were positively associated with all-cause mortality (quartile 4 vs. 1: RR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25; P trend = 0.02; RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.39; P trend = 0.03, respectively), and both pre- and postdiagnosis poultry intakes were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (quartile 4 vs. 1 RR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; P trend = 0.04; RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P trend = 0.01, respectively). No associations were seen for prostate cancer-specific mortality, except that higher postdiagnosis unprocessed red meat intake was associated with lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher red and processed meat, and lower poultry, intakes either before or after prostate cancer diagnosis were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. IMPACT: Our findings provide additional evidence that prostate cancer survivors should follow the nutrition guidelines limiting red and processed meat consumption to improve overall survival. Additional research on the relationship of specific meat types and mortality is needed.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2394-2405, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

11.
Neurology ; 94(8): e811-e819, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prediagnostic plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids levels (PUFA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We identified 275 individuals who developed ALS while enrolled in 5 US prospective cohorts, and randomly selected 2 controls, alive at the time of the case diagnosis, matched on cohort, birth year, sex, ethnicity, fasting status, and time of blood draw. We measured PUFA, expressed as percentages of total fatty acids, using gas liquid chromatography and used conditional logistic regression to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between PUFA and ALS. RESULTS: There was no association between total, n-3, and n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosapentaenoic acid levels and ALS. Higher plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) in men was associated with lower risk of ALS in age- and matching factor-adjusted analyses (top vs bottom quartile: RR = 0.21 [95% CI 0.07, 0.58], p for trend = 0.004). In women, higher plasma arachidonic acid was associated with higher risk (top vs bottom quartile: RR = 1.65 [95% CI 0.99, 2.76], p for trend = 0.052). Multivariable adjustment, including correlated PUFA, did not change the findings for ALA and arachidonic acid. In men and women combined, higher plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was associated with higher risk of ALS (top vs bottom quartile: RR = 1.56 [95% CI 1.01, 2.41], p for trend = 0.054), but in multivariable models the association was only evident in men. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of individual PUFAs were not associated with ALS. In men, ALA was inversely and DHA was positively related to risk of ALS, while in women arachidonic acid was positively related. These findings warrant confirmation in future studies.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(1): 187-196, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to identify metabolites associated with BMI and waist circumference (WC) in women and to determine whether these metabolites are associated with biomarkers of metabolic health. METHODS: Untargeted metabolomic analysis was done on serum from 1,534 women. Metabolites associated with BMI and WC were identified using linear regression with a Bonferroni-corrected P value. Clustered blocks of these metabolites were then defined whose association with the anthropometric measures could be represented by a single metabolite. The association of these representative metabolites with biomarkers for diabetes and inflammation was then determined. RESULTS: About one-third of 781 metabolites included in the analyses were associated with BMI and/or WC. Associations were found for some novel metabolites, including several sphingolipids, nucleotides, and modified fatty acids. Among metabolites most strongly inversely associated with BMI, the choline-containing plasmalogen (O-16:0/18:1) (ß = -0.30, P = 6.62 × 10-32 ) was also inversely associated with c-peptide and positively associated with adiponectin. Adjustment for BMI attenuated the metabolite-biomarker associations more for hemoglobin A1c (> 100%) and c-peptide (58.8% to > 100%) than for C-reactive protein (10.5%-40.0%) and adiponectin (7.0%-30.4%). CONCLUSIONS: These results add to the list of metabolites associated with adiposity and indicate that some may influence processes that contribute to the development of obesity-related diseases.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1862-1878, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696517

RESUMO

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of our study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n = 1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (pTWAS = 1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (pTWAS = 3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (pTWAS = 6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influences lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Transcriptoma , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(2): 108-115, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602476

RESUMO

Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in epidemiologic studies. However, BMI has usually been assessed at older ages, potentially underestimating the full impact of excess weight. We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults who were aged 30-89 years at their enrollment in Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, a total of 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios per 5 BMI units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.33) in persons aged 30-49 years at enrollment to 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 years at enrollment (P for trend = 0.005). On the basis of a hazard ratio of 1.25 per 5 BMI units at age 45 years, we estimated that 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths among persons born in 1970-1974 will be attributable to BMI ≥25.0-nearly twice the equivalent proportion of those born in the 1930s, a birth cohort with much lower BMI in middle age. These results suggest that BMI before age 50 years is more strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk than BMI at older ages, and they underscore the importance of avoiding excess weight gain before middle age for preventing this highly fatal cancer.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647510

RESUMO

Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in epidemiologic studies but BMI has usually been assessed at older ages, potentially underestimating the full impact of excess weight. We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults aged 30-89 years at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) per 5 BMI-units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.33) in those aged 30-49 at enrollment to 1.13 (95% CI 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 (p-trend=0.005). Based on a HR of 1.25 per 5 BMI-units at age 45, we estimate 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths in those born from 1970-74 will be attributable to BMI>25, nearly twice the equivalent proportion in those born in the 1930s, a birth cohort with much lower BMI in middle age. These results suggest BMI before age 50 is more strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk than BMI at older ages and underscore the importance of avoiding excess weight gain before middle age for preventing this highly fatal cancer.

16.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer, especially advanced and fatal prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of prediagnostic plasma metabolomic profiles with advanced and fatal prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a case-cohort study of the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, of 14 210 cancer-free men with a blood sample in 1998-2001, 129 were diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer (T3-T4 or N1 or M1) through June 2013 and 112 died from prostate cancer through December 2014. Plasma samples from advanced and fatal cases, and a randomly selected subcohort of 347 men were metabolically profiled using untargeted mass spectroscopy-based platforms. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations of 699 known metabolites with advanced and fatal prostate cancer. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Two metabolites derived from fatty acid metabolism (ethylmalonate and butyrylcarnitine), aspartate, sphingomyelin (d18:1/18:0), and two γ-glutamyl amino acids (γ-glutamylmethionine and γ-glutamylglutamine) were statistically significantly associated (false discovery rate <0.2) with fatal prostate cancer. One standard deviation (SD) increase in each γ-glutamyl amino acid was associated with 34-38% decreased risk, whereas one SD increase in each of the other metabolites was associated with 45-53% increased risk. A metabolic risk score based on four of these metabolites (excluding butyrylcarnitine and γ-glutamylglutamine, which were not independent predictors) was strongly associated with fatal prostate cancer (relative risk per SD: 2.72, 95% confidence interval: 2.05-3.60). No metabolites were statistically significantly associated with advanced prostate cancer. These results were observational and may not be causal. CONCLUSIONS: These findings identified metabolic pathways that are altered in the development of fatal prostate cancer. Further research into these pathways may provide insights into the etiology of fatal prostate cancer. PATIENT SUMMARY: In a large follow-up study of cancer-free men, those with a certain metabolomic profile had a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer.

17.
Metabolites ; 9(8)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349624

RESUMO

Metabolomics provides a comprehensive assessment of numerous small molecules in biological samples. As it integrates the effects of exogenous exposures, endogenous metabolism, and genetic variation, metabolomics is well-suited for studies examining metabolic profiles associated with a variety of chronic diseases. In this review, we summarize the studies that have characterized the effects of various pre-analytical factors on both targeted and untargeted metabolomic studies involving human plasma, serum, and urine and were published through 14 January 2019. A standardized protocol was used for extracting data from full-text articles identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE. For plasma and serum samples, metabolomic profiles were affected by fasting status, hemolysis, collection time, processing delays, particularly at room temperature, and repeated freeze/thaw cycles. For urine samples, collection time and fasting, centrifugation conditions, filtration and the use of additives, normalization procedures and multiple freeze/thaw cycles were found to alter metabolomic findings. Consideration of the effects of pre-analytical factors is a particularly important issue for epidemiological studies where samples are often collected in nonclinical settings and various locations and are subjected to time and temperature delays prior being to processed and frozen for storage.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1439-1451, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy diet patterns are associated with lower risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. Metabolomics has the potential to expand dietary biomarker development to include dietary patterns, which may provide a complement or alternative to self-reported diet. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the correlation of serum untargeted metabolomic markers with 4 diet pattern scores-the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED), alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015-and used multivariate methods to identify discriminatory metabolites for each pattern. METHODS: Among 1367 US postmenopausal women with serum metabolomic data in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, we conducted partial correlation analysis, adjusted for demographic and lifestyle variables, to examine cross-sectional correlations between serum metabolomic markers and healthy diet pattern scores. In a randomly selected "training" set (50%), we conducted orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis to identify metabolites that discriminated the top from bottom diet score quintiles. Combinations of metabolites with a variable importance in projection (VIP) score ≥2.5 were tested for predictability in the "testing" set based on the use of receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Out of 1186 metabolites, 32 unique metabolites were considered discriminatory based on a VIP score ≥2.5 in the training dataset with some overlap across scores (aMED = 16; AHEI = 17; DASH = 13; HEI = 12). Spearman partial correlation analyses, applying a cut-point (|r| ≥ 0.15) and Bonferroni correction (P < 1.05 × 10-5), identified similar key metabolites. The top 5 metabolites for each pattern mostly distinguished high compared with low scores; 4 of the 5 (fish-derived) metabolites were the same for aMED and AHEI, 2 of which were identified for HEI; 4 DASH metabolites were unique. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolomic methods that used a split-sample approach identified potential biomarkers for 4 healthy diet patterns. Similar metabolites across scores reflect fish consumption in healthy dietary patterns. These findings should be replicated in independent populations.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Comportamento Alimentar , Metabolômica/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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