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1.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102458, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927087

RESUMO

Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive and safe tool which allows the evaluation of the morphology of the microcirculation. Since its recent incorporation in the 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria for systemic sclerosis together with its assessed role to monitor disease progression, capillaroscopy became a 'mainstream' investigation for rheumatologists. Given its increasing use by a variety of physicians internationally both in daily practice to differentiate primary from secondary Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as in research context to predict disease progression and monitor treatment effects, standardisation in capillaroscopic image acquisition and analysis seems paramount. To step forward to this need, experts in the field of capillaroscopy/microcirculation provide in this very consensus paper their view on image acquisition and analysis, different capillaroscopic techniques, normal and abnormal capillaroscopic characteristics and their meaning, scoring systems and reliability of image acquisition and interpretation.

2.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 299, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of systemic sclerosis-related digital ulcers, and associated direct health care costs, quality of life, and survival. METHODS: Digital ulcers (DUs) were defined as an area with a visually discernible depth and a loss of continuity of epithelial coverage. DU severity was calculated based on the physician reported highest number of new DUs at clinical review (mild = 1-5 DUs, moderate 6-10 DUs, severe > 10 DUs). Healthcare use was captured through data linkage, wherein SSc clinical data captured prospectively in a dedicated clinical database were linked with health services databases to capture hospital admissions, emergency department (ED) presentations and ambulatory care (MBS) utilization and cost for the period 2008-2015. Healthcare cost determinants were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 1085 SSc patients, 48.6% experienced a DU over a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 2.5 years. Those who developed DUs were more likely to have diffuse disease subtype (34.9% vs 18.2%, p < 0.001), anti-Scl-70 antibody (18.9% vs 9.3%, p < 0.001), and a younger age at SSc onset (43.6 ± 13.9 vs 48.8 ± 14.0 years, p < 0.001) in addition to reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured by the SF-36 but without a significant impact on survival. SSc patients with a history of a DU utilized significantly more healthcare resources per annum than those without a DU, including hospitalizations, ED presentation, and ambulatory care services. Total healthcare services, excluding medications, were associated with an annual excess cost per DU patient of AUD$12,474 (8574-25,677), p < 0.001, driven by hospital admission and ED presentation costs. CONCLUSION: DUs place a large burden on the patient and healthcare system through reduced HRQoL and increased healthcare resource utilization and associated cost.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in SSc. METHODS: Clinical data for SSc patients enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study were linked with healthcare databases for the period 2008-2015. ILD was defined by characteristic fibrotic changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) lung, while severity was defined by the extent lung involvement on HRCT (mild <10%, moderate 10-30%, severe >30%). Determinants of healthcare cost were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: SSc-ILD patients utilized more healthcare resources, including hospitalization, emergency department presentation and ambulatory care services, than those without ILD with a total cost per patient of AUD$48 368 (26 230-93 615) vs AUD$33 657 (15 144-66 905), P<0.001) between 2008-2015. Healthcare utilization was associated with an annual median (25th-75th) excess cost per SSc-ILD patient compared with those without ILD of AUD$1192 (807-1212), P<0.001. Increasing ILD severity was associated with significantly more healthcare utilization and costs with an annual excess cost per patient with severe ILD compared with mild ILD of AUD$2321 (645-1846), P<0.001. ILD severity and the presence of coexistent PAH were the main determinants of overall healthcare cost above median for this SSc-ILD cohort (OR 5.1, P<0.001, and OR 2.6, P=0.01, respectively). Furthermore, SSc-ILD patients reported worse physical HRQoL compared with those without ILD [34.3 (10.5) vs 39.1 (10.8), P<0.001], with a progressive decline with increasing ILD severity (P=0.002). CONCLUSION: SSc-ILD places a large burden on the healthcare system and the patient through poor HRQoL in addition to incremental healthcare resource utilization and associated direct cost.

4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 226, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To quantify the financial cost of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Healthcare use was captured through data linkage, wherein clinical data for SSc patients enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study were linked with hospital, emergency department (ED) and ambulatory care databases (MBS) for the period 2008-2015. PAH was diagnosed on right heart catheter according to international criteria. Determinants of healthcare cost were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Total median (25th-75th) healthcare cost per patient (including hospital, ED and MBS cost but excluding medication cost) for our cohort during 2008-2015 was AUD$37,685 (18,144-78,811) with an annual per patient healthcare cost of AUD$7506 (5273-10,654). Total healthcare cost was higher for SSc-PAH patients compared with those without PAH with a total cost per patient of AUD$70,034 (37,222-110,814) vs AUD$34,325 (16,093 - 69,957), p < 0.001 respectively with an annual excess healthcare cost per PAH patient of AUD$2463 (1973-1885), p < 0.001. The cost of SSc-PAH occurs early post PAH diagnosis with 89.4% utilizing a healthcare service within the first 12 months post PAH diagnosis with an associated cost per patient of AUD$4125 (0-15,666). PAH severity was the main significant determinant of increased healthcare cost (OR 2.5, p = 0.03) in our PAH cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Despite SSc-PAH being a low prevalence disease, it is associated with significant healthcare resource utilization and associated economic burden, predominantly driven by the severity of PAH.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 25: 1076029619883944, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686546

RESUMO

People with HIV (PWH) have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to uninfected patients. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) catalyzes the synthesis of pro-inflammatory lipids that recruit monocytes. Current guidelines for assessing cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients suggest that Lp-PLA2 may be a useful surrogate marker for CVD health in this patient population. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, lipids, glucose, physical parameters, and carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) were measured in 98 participants (49 HIV-uninfected, 27 antiretroviral therapy [ART]-naive PWH, and 22 ART-treated PWH). HIV viral load (VL) and CD4+ T-cell count were measured in HIV-infected participants. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 was increased in participants on protease inhibitor (PI) ART (median 50.5 vs 127.0 nmol/mL, P = .05) and correlated with age, body mass index, and cholesterol. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 was not related to Framingham risk score or CIMT but correlated directly with VL (r = .323, P = .025) and inversely with CD4+ T-cell count (r = -.727, P < .001). Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 was increased in HIV-infected participants on PIs and correlated strongly with VL and CD4+ T-cell count suggesting that HIV-associated inflammation is linked to increased Lp-PLA2, providing a mechanistic link between HIV and CVD.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14834, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619697

RESUMO

Fibrosis across different organs and tissues is likely to share common pathophysiological mechanisms and pathways. Recently, a polymorphism (rs12979860) near the interferon lambda gene (IFNL3) was shown to be associated with fibrosis in liver across multiple disease etiologies. We determined whether this variant is a risk factor for pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and worsening cutaneous fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Caucasian patients with SSc (n = 733) were genotyped to test for association with the presence of PF and worsening of skin fibrosis. Serum IFN-λ3 levels from 200 SSc cases were evaluated. An association of the IFNL3 polymorphism with PF was demonstrated (OR: 1.66 (95% CI: 1.142-2.416, p = 0.008). The IFNL3 variant was not a risk factor for worsening of skin fibrosis. Functionally, IFN-λ3 serum levels were higher among subjects with PF compared to those unaffected (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, IFNL3 serum levels and the genetic variant known to be associated with liver fibrosis are similarly linked to PF, but not to worsening of skin fibrosis in SSc. These data highlight both common fibrosis pathways operating between organs, as well as differential effects within the same disease.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 220(Supplement_3): S99-S107, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593597

RESUMO

Tests that can replace sputum smear microscopy have been identified as a top priority diagnostic need for tuberculosis by the World Health Organization. High-quality evidence on diagnostic accuracy for tests that may meet this need is an essential requirement to inform decisions about policy and scale-up. However, test accuracy studies are often of low and inconsistent quality and poorly reported, leading to uncertainty about true test performance. Here we provide guidance for the design of diagnostic test accuracy studies of sputum smear-replacement tests. Such studies should have a cross-sectional or cohort design, enrolling either a consecutive series or a random sample of patients who require evaluation for tuberculosis. Adults with respiratory symptoms are the target population. The reference standard should at a minimum be a single, automated, liquid culture, but additional cultures, follow-up, clinical case definition, and specific measures to understand discordant results should also be included. Inclusion of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (or MTB/RIF Ultra) as comparators is critical to allow broader comparability and generalizability of results, because disease spectrum can vary between studies and affects relative test performance. Given the complex nature of sputum (the primary specimen type used for pulmonary TB), careful design and reporting of the specimen flow is essential. Test characteristics other than accuracy (such as feasibility, implementation considerations, and data on impact on patient, population and health systems outcomes) are also important aspects.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of cancer in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and mortality ratios (SMR) relative to the general Australian population were derived. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate survival in SSc patients with cancer compared to those without. Determinants of cancer were identified using logistic regression. Healthcare cost was quantified through cross-jurisicational data linkage. RESULTS: This SSc cohort of 1,727 had cancer incidence of 1.3% per annum and prevalence of 14.2%, with SIR of 2.15 (93%CI 1.84-2.49). The most common cancers were breast, melanoma, hematological and lung. RNAP III antibody was associated with increased risk of cancer (OR 2.9. p=0.044), diagnosed within five years of SSc disease onset. Calcium channel blockers were associated with a higher risk of overall cancer (OR 1.47,p=0.016), breast cancer (OR 1.61, p=0.051) and melanoma (OR 2.01, p=0.042). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) was associated with lung cancer (OR 2.83, p=0.031). Incident SSc cancer patients had more than a two-fold increased mortality compared to SSc patients without cancer [HR 2.85 (95%CI 1.51-5.37), p=0.001). SSc cancer patients utilized more healthcare than those without cancer with an excess annual healthcare cost of AUD$1,496 (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: SSc carries an increased risk of developing cancer, particularly lung cancer associated with ILD, and breast cancer and melanoma occurring close to SSc disease onset in association with RNAP III antibodies. Compared to those without cancer, SSc cancer patients had higher mortality and increased healthcare cost with an annual excess per patient cost of AUD$1,496 (p<0.001).

10.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(9): e25337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515967

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine viral load testing is the WHO-recommended method for monitoring HIV-infected patients on ART, and many countries are rapidly scaling up testing capacity at centralized laboratories. Providing testing access to the most remote populations and facilities (the "last mile") is especially challenging. Using a geospatial optimization model, we estimated the incremental costs of accessing the most remote 20% of patients in Zambia by expanding the transportation network required to bring blood samples from ART clinics to centralized laboratories and return results to clinics. METHODS: The model first optimized a sample transportation network (STN) that can transport 80% of anticipated sample volumes to centralized viral load testing laboratories on a daily or weekly basis, in line with Zambia's 2020 targets. Data incorporated into the model included the location and infrastructure of all health facilities providing ART, location of laboratories, measured distances and drive times between the two, expected future viral load demand by health facility, and local cost estimates. We then continued to expand the modelled STN in 5% increments until 100% of all samples could be collected. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The cost per viral load test when reaching 80% patient volumes using centralized viral load testing was a median of $18.99. With an expanded STN, the incremental cost per test rose to $20.29 for 80% to 85% and $20.52 for 85% to 90%. Above 90% coverage, the incremental cost per test increased substantially to $31.57 for 90% to 95% and $51.95 for 95% to 100%. The high numbers of kilometres driven per sample transported and large number of vehicles needed increase costs dramatically for reaching the clinics that serve the last 5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Providing sample transport services to the most remote clinics in low- and middle-income countries is likely to be cost-prohibitive. Other strategies are needed to reduce the cost and increase the feasibility of making viral load monitoring available to the last 10% of patients. The cost of alternative methods, such as optimal point-of-care viral load equipment placement and usage, dried blood/plasma spot specimen utilization, or use of drones in geographically remote facilities, should be evaluated.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(35): 3359-3368, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) occurs in approximately 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and has been associated with poor prognosis in many studies. The impact of MYC-R on prognosis may be influenced by the MYC partner gene (immunoglobulin [IG] or a non-IG gene). We evaluated a large cohort of patients through the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium to validate the prognostic significance of MYC-R (single-, double-, and triple-hit status) in DLBCL within the context of the MYC partner gene. METHODS: The study cohort included patients with histologically confirmed DLBCL morphology derived from large prospective trials and patient registries in Europe and North America who were uniformly treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy or the like. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and IG heavy and light chain loci was used, and results were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5,117 patients were identified of whom 2,383 (47%) had biopsy material available to assess for MYC-R. MYC-R was present in 264 (11%) of 2,383 patients and was associated with a significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival, with a strong time-dependent effect within the first 24 months after diagnosis. The adverse prognostic impact of MYC-R was only evident in patients with a concurrent rearrangement of BCL2 and/or BCL6 and an IG partner (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.6; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The negative prognostic impact of MYC-R in DLBCL is largely observed in patients with MYC double hit/triple-hit disease in which MYC is translocated to an IG partner, and this effect is restricted to the first 2 years after diagnosis. Our results suggest that diagnostic strategies should be adopted to identify this high-risk cohort, and risk-adjusted therapeutic approaches should be refined further.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between patient-reported symptoms and changes in disease activity over time in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Using data from 1,636 patients enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study, we used generalised estimating equations to determine the relationship between patient-reported worsening of Raynaud phenomenon (RP), skin involvement and breathlessness in the month preceding each study visit and features of disease activity in the corresponding organ systems. The associations between the following parameters were analysed: patient-reported worsening RP and the presence of new-onset digital pitting and digital ulcers; patient-reported worsening skin involvement and increasing modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS), new areas of skin involvement and new-onset joint contractures; patient-reported worsening breathlessness and deteriorating respiratory functions tests (RFTs), indicated by 10% decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 15% decrease in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO), new-onset interstitial lung disease (ILD) and new-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). RESULTS: We found a significant association between patient-reported worsening RP and the presence of digital ulcers (OR 1.53; 95%CI:0.60-0.93); patient-reported worsening skin involvement and increasing mRSS (OR 2.10; 95%CI:1.54-2.86); and worsening patient breathlessness and deteriorating RFTs (FVC OR 2.12; 95%CI:1.70-2.65; DLCO OR 1.97; 95%CI:1.34-2.02), new-onset ILD (OR 1.91; 95%CI:1.40-2.61) and new-onset PAH (OR 5.08; 95%CI:3.59-7.19). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that patient-reported symptoms are associated with clinically meaningful changes in disease activity in SSc patients. This suggests that when objective measures of change in disease status are unavailable, patient-reported symptoms could be used to indicate a change in SSc-disease activity.

13.
Blood ; 134(12): 946-950, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366619

RESUMO

Tetraspanin CD37 is predominantly expressed on the cell surface of mature B lymphocytes and is currently being studied as novel therapeutic target for B-cell lymphoma. Recently, we demonstrated that loss of CD37 induces spontaneous B-cell lymphoma in Cd37-knockout mice and correlates with inferior survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, CD37 mutation analysis was performed in a cohort of 137 primary DLBCL samples, including 44 primary immune-privileged site-associated DLBCL (IP-DLBCL) samples originating in the testis or central nervous system. CD37 mutations were exclusively identified in IP-DLBCL cases (10/44, 23%) but absent in non-IP-DLBCL cases. The aberrations included 10 missense mutations, 1 deletion, and 3 splice-site CD37 mutations. Modeling and functional analysis of CD37 missense mutations revealed loss of function by impaired CD37 protein expression at the plasma membrane of human lymphoma B cells. This study provides novel insight into the molecular pathogenesis of IP-DLBCL and indicates that anti-CD37 therapies will be more beneficial for DLBCL patients without CD37 mutations.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine plasma viral load (VL) testing is recommended for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. In Zambia, VL scale-up is limited due to logistical obstacles around plasma specimen collection, storage, and transport to centralized laboratories. Dried blood spots (DBSs) could circumvent many logistical challenges at the cost of increased misclassification. Recently, plasma separation cards (PSCs) have become available and, though more expensive, have lower total misclassification than DBSs. METHODS: Using a geospatial model created for optimizing VL utilization in Zambia, we estimated the short-term cost of uptake/correct VL result using either DBSs or PSCs to increase VL access on equipment available in-country. Five scenarios were modeled: (1) plasma only (status quo); (2) plasma at high-volume sites, DBS at low-volume sites; (3) plasma at high-volume sites, PSC at low-volume sites; (4) PSC only; (5) DBS only. RESULTS: Scenario 1 resulted in 795 342 correct results due to limited patient access. When allowing for full and partial adoption of dried specimens, access increases by 19%, with scenario 3 producing the greatest number of correct results expected (929 857). The average cost per correct VL result was lowest in the plasma + DBS scenario at $30.90 compared to $31.62 in our plasma + PSC scenario. The cost per correct result of using dried specimens only was dominated in the incremental analysis, due primarily to fewer correct results. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting the partial use of dried specimens will help achieve improved VL access for patients at the lowest cost per correct result.

15.
Intern Med J ; 49(6): 781-785, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185523

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is an important cause of death and disability in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Yearly screening of all SSc patients with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is recommended in international guidelines and currently utilised by the Australian Scleroderma Interest Group (ASIGSTANDARD ). Owing to the limitations of TTE, the ASIG developed a new screening algorithm (ASIGPROPOSED ) utilising a serum biomarker, NT-proBNP, in place of TTE, which has been shown to be equally accurate as the current algorithm. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these two algorithms using different scenarios. The new algorithm resulted in significant yearly cost savings of between AU$42 913.35 and AU$84 570 in screening and diagnosis of an Australian cohort which, if extrapolated to the Australian population, would result in a yearly cost saving of between AU$367 066 and AU$725 564. There was no scenario in which the proposed algorithm did not result in a cost saving.

16.
J Virol ; 93(13)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996101

RESUMO

To better understand the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the genetic characteristics of blood and genital viruses from males were compared to those of the imputed founding virus population in their female partners. Initially serodiscordant heterosexual African couples with sequence-confirmed male-to-female HIV-1 transmission and blood and genital specimens collected near the time of transmission were studied. Single viral templates from blood plasma and genital tract RNA and DNA were sequenced across HIV-1 env gp160. Eight of 29 couples examined yielded viral sequences from both tissues. Analysis of these couples' sequences demonstrated, with one exception, that the women's founding viral populations arose from a single viral variant and were CCR5 tropic, even though CXCR4 variants were detected within four males. The median genetic distance of the imputed most recent common ancestor of the women's founder viruses showed that they were closer to the semen viruses than to the blood viruses of their transmitting male partner, but this finding was biased by detection of a greater number of viral clades in the blood. Using multiple assays, the blood and genital viruses were consistently found to be compartmentalized in only two of eight men. No distinct amino acid signatures in the men's viruses were found to link to the women's founders, nor did the women's env sequences have shorter variable loops or fewer N-linked glycosylation sites. The lack of selective factors, except for coreceptor tropism, is consistent with others' findings in male-to-female and high-risk transmissions. The infrequent compartmentalization between the transmitters' blood and semen viruses suggests that cell-free blood virus likely includes HIV-1 sequences representative of those of viruses in semen.IMPORTANCE Mucosal transmissions account for the majority of HIV-1 infections. Identification of the viral characteristics associated with transmission would facilitate vaccine design. This study of HIV strains from transmitting males and their seroconverting female partners found that the males' genital tract viruses were rarely distinct from the blood variants. The imputed founder viruses in women were genetically similar to both the blood and genital tract variants of their male partners, indicating a lack of evidence for genital tract-specific lineages. These findings suggest that targeting vaccine responses to variants found in blood are likely to also protect from genital tract variants.

17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 807-816, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop the first Damage Index (DI) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: The conceptual definition of 'damage' in SSc was determined through consensus by a working group of the Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium (SCTC). Systematic literature review and consultation with patient partners and non-rheumatologist experts produced a list of potential items for inclusion in the DI. These steps were used to reduce the items: (1) Expert members of the SCTC (n=331) were invited to rate the appropriateness of each item for inclusion, using a web-based survey. Items with >60% consensus were retained; (2) Using a prospectively acquired Australian cohort data set of 1568 patients, the univariable relationships between the remaining items and the endpoints of mortality and morbidity (Physical Component Summary score of the Short Form 36) were analysed, and items with p<0.10 were retained; (3) using multivariable regression analysis, coefficients were used to determine a weighted score for each item. The DI was externally validated in a Canadian cohort. RESULTS: Ninety-three (28.1%) complete survey responses were analysed; 58 of 83 items were retained. The univariable relationships with death and/or morbidity endpoints were statistically significant for 22 items, with one additional item forced into the multivariable model by experts due to clinical importance, to create a 23-item weighted SCTC DI (SCTC-DI). The SCTC-DI was predictive of morbidity and mortality in the external cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Through the combined use of consensus and data-driven methods, a 23-item SCTC-DI was developed and retrospectively validated.

18.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 57, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 12% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). However, the majority of these patients do not manifest ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and the significance of ANCA in these patients is unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ANCA in a well-characterised SSc cohort and to examine the association between ANCA and SSc clinical characteristics, other autoantibodies, treatments and mortality. METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from 5 centres in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study (ASCS). ANCA positive was defined as the presence of any one or combination of cytoplasmic ANCA (c-ANCA), perinuclear ANCA (p-ANCA), atypical ANCA, anti-myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) or anti-proteinase-3 (anti-PR3). Associations of demographic and clinical features with ANCA were investigated by logistic or linear regression. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meyer curves and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Of 1303 patients, 116 (8.9%) were ANCA positive. Anti-PR3 was more common than anti-MPO (13.8% and 11.2% of ANCA-positive patients, respectively). Only 3 ANCA-positive patients had AAV. Anti-Scl-70 was more common in ANCA positive vs ANCA negative (25% vs 12.8%, p < 0.001), anti-MPO positive vs anti-MPO negative (38.5% vs 13.6%, p = 0.006) and anti-PR3 positive vs anti-PR3 negative patients (44.4% vs 13.4%, p < 0.001). A higher prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was found in the ANCA positive (44.8% vs 21.8%, p < 0.001) and the anti-PR3 positive groups (50.0% vs 23.4%, p = 0.009). In multivariable analysis, ANCA-positive status remained associated with ILD after adjusting for anti-Scl-70 antibodies. Pulmonary embolism (PE) was more common in ANCA-positive patients (8.6% vs 3.0%, p = 0.002) and anti-PR3-positive patients (16.7% vs 3.3%, p = 0.022). ANCA-positive status remained associated with PE in a multivariable analysis adjusting for anti-phospholipid antibodies. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed increased mortality in ANCA-positive patients (p = 0.006). In Cox regression analysis, ANCA was associated with increased mortality, after adjusting for age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: ANCA is associated with increased prevalence of ILD and PE in SSc. ANCA should be tested in SSc, as it identifies individuals with worse prognosis who require close monitoring for adverse outcomes.

19.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(2): 216-228, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis for primary CNS lymphoma has improved with the use of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy, but patient outcomes remain poor. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 cell surface protein, has substantial activity in systemic CD20-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but its efficacy in primary CNS lymphoma is unknown and low penetration of the large rituximab molecule through the blood-brain barrier could limit its effect. We aimed to investigate the addition of rituximab to a high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimen in patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. METHODS: This intergroup, multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 study was done at 23 hospitals in the Netherlands, Australia, and New Zealand. Non-immunocompromised patients aged 18-70 years with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive methotrexate-based chemotherapy with or without intravenous rituximab. We used a web-based randomisation system with stratification by centre, age, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-WHO performance status, and a minimisation procedure. All group assignment was open label and neither investigators nor patients were masked to allocation. All patients were treated with two 28-day cycles of induction chemotherapy, consisting of intravenous methotrexate 3 g per m2 on days 1 and 15, intravenous carmustine 100 mg per m2 on day 4, intravenous teniposide 100 mg per m2 on days 2 and 3, and oral prednisone 60 mg per m2 on days 1-5, with (R-MBVP) or without (MBVP) intravenous rituximab 375 mg per m2 on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 in cycle one and days 0 and 14 in cycle two. Patients with response at the end of induction subsequently received high-dose cytarabine and, in patients aged 60 years or younger, low-dose whole-brain radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was event-free survival, with events defined as not reaching complete response or complete response unconfirmed at the end of treatment, or progression or death after response; analysis was adjusted for age and performance score. Patients were analysed on a modified intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the Nederlands Trial Register, number NTR2427, and the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12610000908033. The trial was closed on May 27, 2016, after achieving complete accrual, and follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 3, 2010, and May 27, 2016, we recruited 200 patients (109 men and 91 women; median age was 61 years [IQR 55-67]). We randomly assigned 100 patients to MBVP and 99 patients to R-MBVP. One patient was randomly assigned to the R-MBVP group but found to be ineligible because of an incorrect diagnosis and was excluded from all analyses. After a median follow-up of 32·9 months (IQR 23·9-51·5), 98 patients had had an event (51 in the MBVP group and 47 in the R-MBVP group), of whom 79 had died (41 in the MBVP group and 38 in the R-MBVP group). Event-free survival at 1 year was 49% (95% CI 39-58) in the MBVP group (no rituximab) and 52% (42-61) in the R-MBVP group (with rituximab; hazard ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·70-1·43, p=0·99). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 58 (58%) patients in the MBVP group and 63 (64%) patients in the R-MBVP group, with infections (24 [24%] patients receiving MBVP vs 21 [21%] patients receiving R-MBVP), haematological toxicity (15 [15%] vs 12 [12%]), and nervous system disorders (ten [10%] vs 15 [15%]) being the most common. Life-threatening or fatal serious adverse events occurred in 12 (12%) patients in the MBVP group and ten (10%) patients in the R-MBVP group, and five (5%) patients in the MBVP group and three (3%) in the R-MBVP group died from treatment-related causes. INTERPRETATION: We found no clear benefit of addition of rituximab to methotrexate, carmustine, teniposide, and prednisone chemotherapy in primary CNS lymphoma. Therefore, the results of this study do not support the use of rituximab as a component of standard treatment in primary CNS lymphoma. FUNDING: Roche, the Dutch Cancer Society, and Stichting STOPhersentumoren.

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