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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e015816, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759539

RESUMO

Background To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combination pulmonary arterial hypertension specific therapy in systemic sclerosis-related PAH. Methods and Results Health outcomes and costs were captured through data linkage. Health utility was derived from Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 scores. A probabilistic discrete-time model was developed to simulate lifetime changes in costs and health utility. Mortality was predicted using a Gompertz parametric survival model. For both treatment arms, the simulations were started using the same cohort of 10 000 patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using the Monte Carlo simulation with 1000 sets of sampled parameter values. Of 143 patients with systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension, 89 were on monotherapy and 54 on combination therapy. Mean simulated costs per patient per year in monotherapy and combination therapy groups were AU$23 411 (US$16 080) and AU$29 129 (US$19 982), respectively. Mean life years and quality-adjusted life years from pulmonary arterial hypertension diagnosis to death of patients receiving monotherapy were 7.1 and 3.0, respectively, and of those receiving combination therapy were 9.2 and 3.9, respectively. Incremental costs per life year and quality-adjusted life year gained of combination therapy compared with monotherapy were AU$47 989 (US$32 920) and AU$113 823 (US$78 082), respectively. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of AU$102 000 (US$69 972) per life year gained, and of AU$177 222 (US$121 574) per quality-adjusted life year gained, the probability of combination therapy being cost-effective was 0.95. Conclusions The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of combination therapy compared with monotherapy was substantial in the base case analysis. Given the fatal prognosis of systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension and the incremental cost per life year of AU$47 989 (US$32 920), combination therapy could be considered cost-effective in systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension.

2.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of household contact investigations is limited by low referral uptake for clinic-based TB testing by symptomatic household contacts. We qualitatively investigated the acceptability and perceived benefits of home-based TB testing using a portable GeneXpert-I instrument (GX-I) in an urban South African township. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with household contacts tested and those that observed testing. Semi-structured interviews explored household contact's understanding of TB, perceptions of the GX-I device and testing procedures, confidentiality, willingness to refer others, and views on home- versus clinic-based testing. Focus group discussions with home-based TB testing implementing staff assessed operational considerations for scale-up. Data were analysed using a constant comparison approach to qualitatively evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of home-based TB testing. RESULTS: Thirty in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted. Observing one's own sputum being tested resulted in an emergent trust in home-based TB testing, the GX-I device and one's test results. home-based TB testing was considered convenient, helped to overcome apathy towards testing and mitigated barriers to clinic-based testing. Perceptions that home-based TB testing contributes to improved household and community health resulted in an emergent theme of alleviation of health insecurities. Operational concerns regarding inadvertent disclosure of one's diagnosis to household members and time spent in people's homes were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Home-based TB testing was acceptable and feasible. Individuals expressed belief in the machine by being able to witness the testing process. Though most themes mirrored qualitative studies of home-based HIV testing, the alleviation of health insecurities theme is unique to home-based TB testing. Future research must evaluate the impact of home-based TB testing on case finding yield, time-to-treatment initiation, and household outcomes.

3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 28: 100607, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294817

RESUMO

Background: Viral load (VL) testing is recommended for monitoring people on ART. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) in South Africa conducts >5million laboratory-based VL tests but faces challenges with specimen integrity and results delivery. Point-of-care (POC) VL monitoring may improve VL suppression (VLS). We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different strategies for POC testing in South Africa. Methods: We developed a cost-outcome model utilizing NHLS data, including facility-level annual VL volumes, proportion with VLS, specimen rejection rates, turn-around-time, and the cost/test. We assessed the impact of adopting POC VL technology under 4 strategies: (1) status-quo; (2) targeted POC testing at facilities with high levels of viral failure; (3) targeted POC testing at low-performing facilities; (4) complete POC adoption. For each strategy, we determined the total cost, effectiveness (expected number of virally suppressed people) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) based on expected (>10%) VLS improvement. Findings: Existing laboratory-based VL testing costs $126 m annually and achieves 85.2% VLS. Strategy 2 was the most cost-effective approach, with 88.5% VLS and $40/additional person suppressed, compared to the status-quo. Should resources allow, complete POC adoption may be cost-effective (ICER: $136/additional person suppressed), requiring an additional $49 m annually and achieving 94.5% VLS. All other strategies were dominated in the incremental analysis. Interpretation: Assuming POC VL monitoring confers clinical benefits, the most cost-effective strategy for POC adoption in South Africa is a targeted approach with POC VL technologies placed at facilities with high level of viral failure. Funding: Funding support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260693

RESUMO

The majority of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be treated successfully with a combination of chemotherapy and the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. Nonetheless, approximately one-third of the patients with DLBCL still experience relapse or refractory (R/R) disease after first-line immunochemotherapy. Whole-exome sequencing on large cohorts of primary DLBCL has revealed the mutational landscape of DLBCL, which has provided a framework to define novel prognostic subtypes in DLBCL. Several studies have investigated the genetic alterations specifically associated with R/R DLBCL, thereby uncovering molecular pathways linked to therapy resistance. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the genetic alterations that are enriched in R/R DLBCL, and the corresponding pathways affected by these gene mutations. Furthermore, we elaborate on their potential role in mediating therapy resistance, also in connection with findings in other B-cell malignancies, and discuss alternative treatment options. Hence, this review provides a comprehensive overview on the gene lesions and molecular mechanisms underlying R/R DLBCL, which are considered valuable parameters to guide treatment.

5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268535

RESUMO

Failure to rapidly identify drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) increases the risk of patient mismanagement, the amplification of drug resistance and ongoing transmission. We generated comparative analytical data for four automated assays for detection of TB and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB: Abbott RealTime MTB and MTB RIF/INH (Abbott), Hain Lifescience FluoroType® MTBDR (Hain), BD MAX™ MDR-TB (BD) and Roche cobas® MTB and MTB-RIF/INH (Roche). We included Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and GenoType MTBDRplus as comparators for TB and drug resistance detection, respectively.We assessed analytical sensitivity for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using inactivated strains (M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis) spiked into TB-negative sputa and computed the 95% limit of detection (LOD95). We assessed the accuracy for rifampicin and isoniazid resistance detection using well characterized M. tuberculosis strains with high-confidence mutations accounting for >85% of first-line resistance mechanisms globally.For H37Rv and M. bovis, respectively, we measured LOD95 values of 3,781 and 2,926 (Xpert); 322 and 2,182 (Abbott); 826 and 4,301 (BD); 10,398 and 23,139 (Hain); 2,416 and 2,136 (Roche) genomes/mL. Assays targeting multi-copy genes or targets (Abbott, BD and Roche) showed increased analytical sensitivity compared to Xpert. Quantification of the panel by quantitative real-time PCR prevents the determination of absolute values and results reported here can only be interpreted for comparison purposes. All assays showed accuracy comparable to Genotype MTBDRplus for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance.The data from this analytical study suggest that the assays may have similar clinical performance to WHO-recommended molecular TB and MDR-TB assays.

6.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 3301-3308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061477

RESUMO

Background: The GenoType MTBDRplus V2 line-probe assay (LPA) is routinely used in clinical patient management to characterise the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to rifampicin (Rif) and isoniazid (INH) directly from sputum and cultured isolates. The laboratory workflow requires skill and three separate areas to minimize contamination and banding pattern interpretation requires experienced laboratory personnel. We explored the use of the RT MTB RIF/INH assay performed on the Abbott m2000 platform as an alternative laboratory platform. Methods: Isolates (n=93) consisting of fully susceptible, Rif- or INH-mono-resistant and multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains were tested on both MTBDRplus v2 and RT MTB RIF/INH assays. Both assays target the rpoB, katG and inhA genes for resistance-detection mutations. Concordance was assessed using percent agreement and the kappa statistic. Those specimens with discordant results were further assessed using Sanger sequencing. Results: A total of 89% (83/93) of cultured isolates generated successful results on the RT MTB/RIF-INH assay and MTBDRplus assays. Of the 10 discordant results, where sequencing was used as the reference method, the RT MTB RIF/INH assays misclassified six resistance isolates, while the LPA misclassified seven. Discussion: Overall, the RT MTB RIF/INH demonstrated good agreement with the LPA, and a better correlation with sequencing on discrepant isolates specifically with mutations occurring in codon 511 of the rpoB gene. The RT MTB RIF/INH therefore can be used to complement existing laboratory algorithms determining Rif and INH resistance profiles, with less emphasis on manual laboratory processing.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of self-reported occupational exposure to silica in SSc patients enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study, and to compare the disease characteristics of the silica-exposed patients with those of the non-exposed patients. METHOD: Data collected over a 12-year period from 1670 SSc patients were analysed. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics of those who reported occupational silica exposure with those who did not. A subgroup analysis of male patients was performed, as well as a multivariable analysis of correlates of silica exposure. RESULTS: Overall, 126 (7.5%) of the cohort reported occupational silica exposure. These individuals were more likely to be male (73 of 231, i.e. 31.6% males exposed) and to have worked in mining and construction industries. Those who reported silica exposure were younger at the onset of SSc skin involvement [odds ratio (OR) 0.9, P = 0.02], of male gender (OR 14.9, P < 0.001), have joint contractures (OR 1.8, P = 0.05) and have higher physical disability as defined by scleroderma HAQ (OR 1.4, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The highest percentage of silica exposure was found in males. These patients were more likely to have the presence of certain clinical manifestations and Scl-70 antibody, which is known to confer a poor prognosis. These findings support the association between occupational silica exposure and the subsequent development of SSc. Further investigation is required to describe the range of clinical manifestations and disease course, including prognosis and treatment response, in those diagnosed with occupationally induced SSc compared with idiopathic SSc.

8.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(10): 1225-1237, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745613

RESUMO

Increased access to and improved sensitivities of methods for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance are needed. Herein, the performance of the new cobas MTB assay for use on cobas 6800/8800 Systems (Roche) was assessed and compared with two other commercial assays: RealTime MTB (Abbott), and Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid). Molecular PCR-based assays were conducted on sputum specimens from individuals with presumptive and confirmed tuberculosis (n = 294) from two clinical facilities in South Africa between December 2016 and October 2017. Liquid mycobacterial culture was the reference. Test sensitivities were 94.7% (95% CI, 88%-98%), 92.6% (95% CI, 85%-97%), and 91.6% (95% CI, 84%-96%) for cobas MTB, RealTime MTB, and Xpert MTB/RIF assays, respectively. cobas MTB sensitivity was unaffected by HIV coinfection (95.7%; 95% CI, 88%-99%; n = 176) and sediment testing (94.7%; 95% CI, 88%-98%). Sensitivities were 81.8% (95% CI, 60%-95%), 72.7% (95% CI, 50%-89%), and 72.7% (95% CI, 50%-89%) among smear-negative, culture-positive individuals (n = 221) for cobas MTB, RealTime MTB, and Xpert MTB/RIF assays, respectively. cobas MTB specificity was 95.7% (95% CI, 89%-99%) and 99% (95% CI, 94%-100%) among HIV coinfected and uninfected individuals, respectively. The cobas 6800/8800 system is already implemented in South Africa for high-throughput HIV viral load testing, making it suitable for integrated HIV/tuberculosis diagnostics.

9.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(12): 3701-3705, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696281

RESUMO

Assessment of disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is limited by the absence of a fully validated, multisystem measure of disease activity. The European Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) SSc activity index (EScSG-AI) was recently revised, and a validation study within the EUSTAR cohort was performed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the revised EScSG-AI in an external Australian cohort. The association between the EScSG-AI and the physician global assessment of disease activity (PhGA), both collected prospectively at each annual visit over up to 12 years follow-up, was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Cohen's kappa coefficient. Generalized linear modelling and time-dependent Cox regression analysis were performed to determine the association of disease activity measured by the EScSG-AI and the summed Medsger Severity Scale (MSS) and death, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between EScSG-AI and PhGA scores (r 0.42, p < 0.001) and moderate association between rising EScSG-AI and summed MSS (r 0.60, p < 0.001). High disease activity, measured by the EScSG-AI at any time during follow-up, was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.51-2.79) for mortality. The EScSG-AI has a moderate correlation with physician-assessed SSc disease activity. This suggests that the criterion and construct validity of the EScSG-AI are yet to be demonstrated in an external cohort of SSc patients. Key Points •There remains no gold standard measure of SSc disease activity. •The revised 2017 EUSTAR SSc disease activity index shows moderate correlation with physician-rated global disease activity. •Significant work remains to develop a validated multisystem measure of disease activity in SSc.

10.
AIDS ; 34(10): 1559-1566, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675566

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To achieve viral suppression among more than 90% of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), improved understanding is warranted of the modifiable causes of HIV viremic episodes. We assessed the relative contributions of drug-resistance, nonadherence and low-level viremia (LLV) (viral load 50-999 cps/ml) on viremic episodes in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In a multicountry adult cohort initiating nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based first-line ART, viremic episodes (viral load ≥1000 cps/ml) were classified as first, viral nonsuppression at 12 months; second, virological rebound at 24 months (after initial viral suppression at 12 months); third, failure to achieve viral resuppression at 24 months (after viremic episode at 12 months). We used adjusted odds ratios from multivariable logistic regression to estimate attributable fractions for each risk factor. RESULTS: Of 2737 cohort participants, 1935 had data on pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) and at least 1 viral load outcome. Viral nonsuppression episodes [173/1935 (8.9%)] were attributable to nonadherence in 30% (35% in men vs. 24% in women) and to PDR to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 10% (15% in women vs. 6% in men). Notably, at contemporary PDR prevalences of 10-25%, PDR would explain 13-30% of viral nonsuppression. Virological rebound episodes [96/1515 (6.3%)] were mostly attributable to LLV (29%) and nonadherence (14%), and only rarely to PDR (1.1%). Failures to achieve viral resuppression [66/81 (81.5%)] were mostly attributable to the presence of acquired drug resistance (34%) and only rarely to nonadherence (2.4%). CONCLUSION: Effective adherence interventions could substantially reduce viral nonsuppression (especially in men) and virological rebound (especially during LLV), but would have limited effect on improving viral resuppression. Alternative ART regimens could circumvent PDR and acquired resistance.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 320, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are a cornerstone of HIV diagnosis and rely on good quality processing and interpretation, particularly in the era of test and treat. The Deki Reader (Fio Corporation®, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a portable device designed specifically for analysing RDTs and was selected for evaluation in South Africa in the context of HIV RDT analysis. METHODS: This study consisted of a laboratory evaluation and two-part field evaluation of the Deki Reader v100, covering two RDT testing algorithms, and an evaluation of the continuous quality monitoring through the Fionet™ web portal. Based on user feedback from the field evaluation, the device underwent hardware and software redesign, and the Deki Reader v200 was evaluated in the laboratory. Ethics approval for this evaluation was obtained from the University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee: M150160. RESULTS: The intra- and inter-device laboratory precision of the Deki Reader v100 were 98.3 and 99.2% respectively, and 99.3 and 100% for the Deki Reader v200. The laboratory concordances compared to standard-of-care reporting were 99.5 and 98.0% for the two respective models, while sensitivity and specificity were 99.5 and 99.4% for the Deki Reader V100 and 100 and 93.1% for the Deki Reader V200 respectively. Screening and confirmatory concordances in the field were 99.3 and 96.5% under algorithm 1 and 99.7 and 100% under algorithm 2. Sensitivity and specificity for the field evaluation were 99.8 and 97.7%. Overall robustness of the device was acceptable and continuous quality monitoring through Fionet™ was feasible. CONCLUSIONS: The Deki Reader provides an option for improved and reliable quality assessment for rapid diagnosis of HIV using RDTs to enhance the quality of healthcare at the point-of-care. However, the introduction of new RDTs and modification of current algorithms necessitates ongoing and agile RDT reader adjustments, which will require cost modelling to ensure sustainability of devices implemented into national HIV programs.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/instrumentação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/instrumentação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/métodos , Algoritmos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(5): 618-625, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Riociguat is approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension and has antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in animal models of tissue fibrosis. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of riociguat in patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) at high risk of skin fibrosis progression. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase IIb trial, adults with dcSSc of <18 months' duration and a modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) 10-22 units received riociguat 0.5 mg to 2.5 mg orally three times daily (n=60) or placebo (n=61). The primary endpoint was change in mRSS from baseline to week 52. RESULTS: At week 52, change from baseline in mRSS units was -2.09±5.66 (n=57) with riociguat and -0.77±8.24 (n=52) with placebo (difference of least squares means -2.34 (95% CI -4.99 to 0.30; p=0.08)). In patients with interstitial lung disease, forced vital capacity declined by 2.7% with riociguat and 7.6% with placebo. At week 14, average Raynaud's condition score had improved ≥50% in 19 (41.3%)/46 patients with riociguat and 13 (26.0%)/50 patients with placebo. Safety assessments showed no new signals with riociguat and no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Riociguat did not significantly benefit mRSS versus placebo at the predefined p<0.05. Secondary and exploratory analyses showed potential efficacy signals that should be tested in further trials. Riociguat was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Ativadores de Enzimas/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Esclerodermia Difusa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Esclerodermia Difusa/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Falha de Tratamento
14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(5): 1123-1129, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular assays are endorsed for detection and confirmation of rifampicin-resistant TB. The frequency, causal mechanisms and impact of discordant results between molecular tests are not well understood. METHODS: The prevalence of discordant results was determined by pairwise comparison of molecular test results in a cohort of 749 rifampicin-resistant TB patients in three South African provinces. Culture isolates were sent to a research laboratory for WGS and rifampicin MIC determination. Clinical information was collected through medical file review. RESULTS: The prevalence of discordances between Xpert MTB/RIF and MTBDRplus was 14.5% (95% CI 10.9%-18.9%), 5.6% (95% CI 2.2%-13.4%) between two consecutive Xpert assays and 4.2% (95% CI 2.2%-7.8%) between two consecutive MTBDRplus assays. Likely mechanisms of discordances were false rifampicin susceptibility on MTBDRplus (due to variants not included in mutant probes or heteroresistance with loss of minor variants in culture), false resistance on molecular assay in rifampicin-susceptible isolates, and human error. The healthcare worker changed the treatment regimen in 33% of patients with discordant results and requested 232 additional molecular tests after a first confirmatory test was performed in 460 patients. A follow-up Xpert assay would give the healthcare worker the 'true' rifampicin-resistant TB diagnosis in at least 73% of discordant cases. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of discordant results between Xpert and MTBDRplus has important implications for the laboratory, clinician and patient. While root causes for discordant result are multiple, a follow-up Xpert assay could guide healthcare workers to the correct treatment in most patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of systemic sclerosis -mixed connective tissue disease (SSc-MCTD) and SSc-overlap. METHODS: We included patients from the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study who met ACR/EULAR criteria for SSc. Three mutually exclusive groups were created: SSc-MCTD, SSc-overlap and SSc-only. Univariate comparison of clinical features was performed by ANOVA or chi-square. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves and Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 1728 patients, 97 (5.6%) had SSc-MCTD and 126 (7.3%) SSc-overlap. Those with MCTD-SSc were more commonly Asian (18.3% vs 10.1% in SSc-overlap and 3.6% in SSc-only, p<0.0001) and younger at disease onset (38.4 years versus 46.5 or 46.8 years, p<0.0001). Those with SSc-MCTD or SSc-overlap were more likely to have limited SSc. All three groups had similar frequency of interstitial lung disease (ILD), although pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was less common in SSc-overlap. Synovitis and myositis were more common in SSc-overlap and SSc-MCTD than in SSc-only. KM curves showed better survival in SSc-MCTD than SSc-overlap or SSc-only (p=0.011), but this was not significant after adjustment for sex and age at disease onset. SSc-specific antibodies were survival prognostic markers, with ANA-centromere or anti-RNP conferring better survival than anti-Scl-70 or anti-RNA polymerase 3 (p=0.005). SSc-MCTD and SSc-overlap had lower mortality following diagnosis of ILD and PAH than patients with SSc-only. CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into the clinical characteristics of patients with SSc-MCTD, SSc-overlap and SSc-only and shows that anti-RNP antibodies are associated with better survival than anti-Scl-70 and anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies.

16.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(3): 102458, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927087

RESUMO

Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive and safe tool which allows the evaluation of the morphology of the microcirculation. Since its recent incorporation in the 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria for systemic sclerosis together with its assessed role to monitor disease progression, capillaroscopy became a 'mainstream' investigation for rheumatologists. Given its increasing use by a variety of physicians internationally both in daily practice to differentiate primary from secondary Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as in research context to predict disease progression and monitor treatment effects, standardisation in capillaroscopic image acquisition and analysis seems paramount. To step forward to this need, experts in the field of capillaroscopy/microcirculation provide in this very consensus paper their view on image acquisition and analysis, different capillaroscopic techniques, normal and abnormal capillaroscopic characteristics and their meaning, scoring systems and reliability of image acquisition and interpretation.


Assuntos
Angioscopia Microscópica , Unhas/irrigação sanguínea , Doença de Raynaud/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(8): 1878-1888, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in SSc. METHODS: Clinical data for SSc patients enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study were linked with healthcare databases for the period 2008-2015. ILD was defined by characteristic fibrotic changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT) lung, while severity was defined by the extent lung involvement on HRCT (mild <10%, moderate 10-30%, severe >30%). Determinants of healthcare cost were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: SSc-ILD patients utilized more healthcare resources, including hospitalization, emergency department presentation and ambulatory care services, than those without ILD with a total cost per patient of AUD$48 368 (26 230-93 615) vs AUD$33 657 (15 144-66 905), P<0.001) between 2008-2015. Healthcare utilization was associated with an annual median (25th-75th) excess cost per SSc-ILD patient compared with those without ILD of AUD$1192 (807-1212), P<0.001. Increasing ILD severity was associated with significantly more healthcare utilization and costs with an annual excess cost per patient with severe ILD compared with mild ILD of AUD$2321 (645-1846), P<0.001. ILD severity and the presence of coexistent PAH were the main determinants of overall healthcare cost above median for this SSc-ILD cohort (OR 5.1, P<0.001, and OR 2.6, P=0.01, respectively). Furthermore, SSc-ILD patients reported worse physical HRQoL compared with those without ILD [34.3 (10.5) vs 39.1 (10.8), P<0.001], with a progressive decline with increasing ILD severity (P=0.002). CONCLUSION: SSc-ILD places a large burden on the healthcare system and the patient through poor HRQoL in addition to incremental healthcare resource utilization and associated direct cost.

18.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(11): 1625-1635, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of cancer in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios relative to the general Australian population were derived. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate survival in patients with SSc with cancer compared to patients without. Determinants of cancer were identified using logistic regression. Health care cost was quantified through cross-jurisdictional data linkage. RESULTS: This SSc cohort of 1,727 had a cancer incidence of 1.3% per year and a prevalence of 14.2%, with a SIR of 2.15 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.84-2.49). The most common cancers were breast, melanoma, hematologic, and lung. Anti-RNA polymerase III (RNAP) antibody was associated with an increased risk of cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.9, P = 0.044), diagnosed within 5 years of SSc disease onset. Calcium channel blockers were associated with a higher risk of overall cancer (OR 1.47, P = 0.016), breast cancer (OR 1.61, P = 0.051), and melanoma (OR 2.01, P = 0.042). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) was associated with lung cancer (OR 2.83, P = 0.031). Incident SSc cancer patients had >2-fold increased mortality compared to patients with SSc without cancer (hazard ratio 2.85 [95% CI 1.51-5.37], P = 0.001). Patients with SSc and cancer utilized more health care than those without cancer, with an excess annual health care cost of $1,496 Australian (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: SSc carries an increased risk of developing cancer, particularly lung cancer associated with ILD, and breast cancer and melanoma occurring close to SSc disease onset in association with RNAP antibodies. Compared to those patients without cancer, patients with SSc and cancer had higher mortality and an increased health care cost, with an annual excess per patient cost of $1,496 Australian (P < 0.001).

19.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(10): 1459-1465, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between patient-reported symptoms and changes in disease activity over time in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Using data from 1,636 patients enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study, we used generalized estimating equations to determine the relationship between patient-reported worsening of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), skin involvement, and breathlessness in the month preceding each study visit and features of disease activity in the corresponding organ systems. The associations between the following parameters were analyzed: patient-reported worsening RP and the presence of new-onset digital pitting and digital ulcers; patient-reported worsening skin involvement and increasing modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS); new areas of skin involvement and new-onset joint contractures; patient-reported worsening breathlessness and deteriorating respiratory functions test (RFT) results, indicated by a 10% decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) and a 15% decrease in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), new-onset interstitial lung disease (ILD), and new-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). RESULTS: We found a significant association between patient-reported worsening RP and the presence of digital ulcers (odds ratio [OR] 1.53 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.60-0.93]), patient-reported worsening skin involvement and increasing MRSS (OR 2.10 [95% CI 1.54-2.86]), and worsening patient breathlessness and deteriorating RFTs (FVC OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.70-2.65]; DLco OR 1.97 [95% CI 1.34-2.02]), new-onset ILD (OR 1.91 [95% CI 1.40-2.61]), and new-onset PAH (OR 5.08 [95% CI 3.59-7.19]). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that patient-reported symptoms are associated with clinically meaningful changes in disease activity in patients with SSc. This suggests that when objective measures of change in disease status are unavailable, patient-reported symptoms could be used to indicate a change in SSc disease activity.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(6): 1014-1020, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine plasma viral load (VL) testing is recommended for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. In Zambia, VL scale-up is limited due to logistical obstacles around plasma specimen collection, storage, and transport to centralized laboratories. Dried blood spots (DBSs) could circumvent many logistical challenges at the cost of increased misclassification. Recently, plasma separation cards (PSCs) have become available and, though more expensive, have lower total misclassification than DBSs. METHODS: Using a geospatial model created for optimizing VL utilization in Zambia, we estimated the short-term cost of uptake/correct VL result using either DBSs or PSCs to increase VL access on equipment available in-country. Five scenarios were modeled: (1) plasma only (status quo); (2) plasma at high-volume sites, DBS at low-volume sites; (3) plasma at high-volume sites, PSC at low-volume sites; (4) PSC only; (5) DBS only. RESULTS: Scenario 1 resulted in 795 342 correct results due to limited patient access. When allowing for full and partial adoption of dried specimens, access increases by 19%, with scenario 3 producing the greatest number of correct results expected (929 857). The average cost per correct VL result was lowest in the plasma + DBS scenario at $30.90 compared to $31.62 in our plasma + PSC scenario. The cost per correct result of using dried specimens only was dominated in the incremental analysis, due primarily to fewer correct results. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting the partial use of dried specimens will help achieve improved VL access for patients at the lowest cost per correct result.

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