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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(8): 1423-1435, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237281

RESUMO

Somatic structural variants (SVs) are important drivers of cancer development and progression. In a diagnostic set-up, especially for hematological malignancies, the comprehensive analysis of all SVs in a given sample still requires a combination of cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, FISH, and CNV microarrays. We hypothesize that the combination of these classical approaches could be replaced by optical genome mapping (OGM). Samples from 52 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of a hematological malignancy, divided into simple (<5 aberrations, n = 36) and complex (≥5 aberrations, n = 16) cases, were processed for OGM, reaching on average: 283-fold genome coverage. OGM called a total of 918 high-confidence SVs per sample, of which, on average, 13 were rare and >100 kb. In addition, on average, 73 CNVs were called per sample, of which six were >5 Mb. For the 36 simple cases, all clinically reported aberrations were detected, including deletions, insertions, inversions, aneuploidies, and translocations. For the 16 complex cases, results were largely concordant between standard-of-care and OGM, but OGM often revealed higher complexity than previously recognized. Detailed technical comparison with standard-of-care tests showed high analytical validity of OGM, resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and a positive predictive value of >80%. Importantly, OGM resulted in a more complete assessment than any previous single test and most likely reported the most accurate underlying genomic architecture (e.g., for complex translocations, chromoanagenesis, and marker chromosomes). In conclusion, the excellent concordance of OGM with diagnostic standard assays demonstrates its potential to replace classical cytogenetic tests as well as to rapidly map novel leukemia drivers.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Cariotipagem
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187229

RESUMO

We report the outcomes of secondary acute myeloid leukemia (s-AML) patients included in one of 13 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) collaborative AML trials using intensive remission-induction chemotherapy. Among 8858 patients treated between May 1986 and January 2008, 960 were identified as having s-AML, either after MDS (cohort A; n = 508), occurring after primary solid tumors or hematologic malignancies other than MDS (cohort B; n = 361), or after non-malignant conditions or with a history of toxic exposure (cohort C; n = 91). Median age was 64 years, 60 years and 61 years in cohort A, B and C, respectively. Among patients ≤60 years and classified in the cohorts A or B (n = 367), the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 28%. There was a systematic improvement in the 5-year OS rate over three time periods (p < 0.001): 7.7% (95% CI: 1.3-21.7%) for patients treated before 1990 (period 1: n = 26), 23.3% (95% CI: 17.1-30.0%) for those treated between 1990 and 2000 (period 2: n = 188) and 36.5% (95% CI: 28.7-44.3%) for those treated in 2000 or later (period 3: n = 153). In multivariate analysis, male gender (HR = 1.39; p = 0.01), WBC ≥ 25 × 109/L (HR = 2.00; p < 0.0001), age 46-60 years (HR = 1.65; p < 0.001) and poor-risk cytogenetics (HR = 2.17; p < 0.0001) were independently associated with shorter OS, while being treated during period 2 (HR = 0.50, p = 0.003) or period 3 (HR = 0.43; p = 0.0008). Having received high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) (n = 48) in the induction chemotherapy (HR = 0.54, p = 0.012) was associated with a longer OS. In contrast, among patients >60 years of age (n = 502), the OS was dismal, and there was no improvement over time.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11679, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406196

RESUMO

Breast cancer treatment depends on human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, which is often determined using dual probe fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Hereby, also loss and gain of the centromere of chromosome 17 (CEP17) can be observed (HER2 is located on chromosome 17). CEP17 gain can lead to difficulty in interpretation of HER2 status, since this might represent true polysomy. With this study we investigated whether isolated polysomy is present and how this effects HER2 status in six breast cancer cell lines and 97 breast cancer cases, using HER2 FISH and immunohistochemistry, DNA ploidy assessment and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification. We observed no isolated polysomy of chromosome 17 in any cell line. However, FISH analysis did show CEP17 gain in five of six cell lines, which reflected gains of the whole chromosome in metaphase spreads and aneuploidy with gain of multiple chromosomes in all these cases. In patients' samples, gain of CEP17 indeed correlated with aneuploidy of the tumour (91.1%; p < 0.001). Our results indicate that CEP17 gain is not due to isolated polysomy, but rather due to widespread aneuploidy with gain of multiple chromosomes. As aneuploidy is associated with poor clinical outcome, irrespective of tumour grade, this could improve future therapeutic decision making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Centrômero/química , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/química , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Ploidias , Prognóstico
4.
Haematologica ; 102(2): 320-326, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658438

RESUMO

Flow cytometric analysis is a recommended tool in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Current flow cytometric approaches evaluate the (im)mature myelo-/monocytic lineage with a median sensitivity and specificity of ~71% and ~93%, respectively. We hypothesized that the addition of erythroid lineage analysis could increase the sensitivity of flow cytometry. Hereto, we validated the analysis of erythroid lineage parameters recommended by the International/European LeukemiaNet Working Group for Flow Cytometry in Myelodysplastic Syndromes, and incorporated this evaluation in currently applied flow cytometric models. One hundred and sixty-seven bone marrow aspirates were analyzed; 106 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, and 61 cytopenic controls. There was a strong correlation between presence of erythroid aberrancies assessed by flow cytometry and the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes when validating the previously described erythroid evaluation. Furthermore, addition of erythroid aberrancies to two different flow cytometric models led to an increased sensitivity in detecting myelodysplastic syndromes: from 74% to 86% for the addition to the diagnostic score designed by Ogata and colleagues, and from 69% to 80% for the addition to the integrated flow cytometric score for myelodysplastic syndromes, designed by our group. In both models the specificity was unaffected. The high sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometry in the detection of myelodysplastic syndromes illustrates the important value of flow cytometry in a standardized diagnostic approach. The trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR1825; EudraCT n.: 2008-002195-10.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Células Eritroides/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Blood ; 127(9): 1109-16, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26802176

RESUMO

The combination of melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT) is considered standard therapy for newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation. Long-term treatment with thalidomide is hampered by neurotoxicity. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide, followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy, showed promising results without severe neuropathy emerging. We randomly assigned 668 patients between nine 4-week cycles of MPT followed by thalidomide maintenance until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (MPT-T) and the same MP regimen with thalidomide being replaced by lenalidomide (MPR-R). This multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial was undertaken by Dutch-Belgium Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology Oncology and the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (the HOVON87/NMSG18 trial). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 318 patients were randomly assigned to receive MPT-T, and 319 received MPR-R. After a median follow-up of 36 months, PFS with MPT-T was 20 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 18-23 months) vs 23 months (95% CI, 19-27 months) with MPR-R (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.72-1.04; P = .12). Response rates were similar, with at least a very good partial response of 47% and 45%, respectively. Hematologic toxicity was more pronounced with MPR-R, especially grades 3 and 4 neutropenia: 64% vs 27%. Neuropathy of at least grade 3 was significantly higher in the MPT-T arm: 16% vs 2% in MPR-R, resulting in a significant shorter duration of maintenance therapy (5 vs 17 months in MPR-R), irrespective of age. MPR-R has no advantage over MPT-T concerning efficacy. The toxicity profile differed with clinically significant neuropathy during thalidomide maintenance vs myelosuppression with MPR.


Assuntos
Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento
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