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1.
Am J Bot ; 107(1): 91-115, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814117

RESUMO

PREMISE: Phylogenetic trees of bryophytes provide important evolutionary context for land plants. However, published inferences of overall embryophyte relationships vary considerably. We performed phylogenomic analyses of bryophytes and relatives using both mitochondrial and plastid gene sets, and investigated bryophyte plastome evolution. METHODS: We employed diverse likelihood-based analyses to infer large-scale bryophyte phylogeny for mitochondrial and plastid data sets. We tested for changes in purifying selection in plastid genes of a mycoheterotrophic liverwort (Aneura mirabilis) and a putatively mycoheterotrophic moss (Buxbaumia), and compared 15 bryophyte plastomes for major structural rearrangements. RESULTS: Overall land-plant relationships conflict across analyses, generally weakly. However, an underlying (unrooted) four-taxon tree is consistent across most analyses and published studies. Despite gene coverage patchiness, relationships within mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are largely congruent with previous studies, with plastid results generally better supported. Exclusion of RNA edit sites restores cases of unexpected non-monophyly to monophyly for Takakia and two hornwort genera. Relaxed purifying selection affects multiple plastid genes in mycoheterotrophic Aneura but not Buxbaumia. Plastid genome structure is nearly invariant across bryophytes, but the tufA locus, presumed lost in embryophytes, is unexpectedly retained in several mosses. CONCLUSIONS: A common unrooted tree underlies embryophyte phylogeny, [(liverworts, mosses), (hornworts, vascular plants)]; rooting inconsistency across studies likely reflects substantial distance to algal outgroups. Analyses combining genomic and transcriptomic data may be misled locally for heavily RNA-edited taxa. The Buxbaumia plastome lacks hallmarks of relaxed selection found in mycoheterotrophic Aneura. Autotrophic bryophyte plastomes, including Buxbaumia, hardly vary in overall structure.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Evolução Molecular , Consenso , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia
2.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 631, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214208

RESUMO

The Plant Ontology (PO) is a community resource consisting of standardized terms, definitions, and logical relations describing plant structures and development stages, augmented by a large database of annotations from genomic and phenomic studies. This paper describes the structure of the ontology and the design principles we used in constructing PO terms for plant development stages. It also provides details of the methodology and rationale behind our revision and expansion of the PO to cover development stages for all plants, particularly the land plants (bryophytes through angiosperms). As a case study to illustrate the general approach, we examine variation in gene expression across embryo development stages in Arabidopsis and maize, demonstrating how the PO can be used to compare patterns of expression across stages and in developmentally different species. Although many genes appear to be active throughout embryo development, we identified a small set of uniquely expressed genes for each stage of embryo development and also between the two species. Evaluating the different sets of genes expressed during embryo development in Arabidopsis or maize may inform future studies of the divergent developmental pathways observed in monocotyledonous versus dicotyledonous species. The PO and its annotation database (http://www.planteome.org) make plant data for any species more discoverable and accessible through common formats, thus providing support for applications in plant pathology, image analysis, and comparative development and evolution.

3.
Plant Reprod ; 32(2): 153-166, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430247

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Complex protein-containing reproductive secretions are a conserved trait amongst all extant gymnosperms; the pollination drops of most groups include carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and defence proteins. Pollination drops are aqueous secretions that receive pollen and transport it to the ovule interior in gymnosperms (Coniferales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales). Proteins are well established as components of pollination drops in conifers (Coniferales) and Ephedra spp. (Gnetales), but it is unknown whether proteins are also present in the pollination drops of cycads (Cycadales), Ginkgo (Ginkgoales), Gnetum (Gnetales), or in the pollination drops produced by sterile ovules occurring on pollen plants in the Gnetales. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry followed by database-derived protein identification to conduct proteomic surveys of pollination drops collected from: Ceratozamia hildae, Zamia furfuracea and Cycas rumphii (Cycadales); Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoales); Gnetum gnemon and Welwitschia mirabilis, including pollination drops from both microsporangiate and ovulate plants (Gnetales). We identified proteins in all samples: C. hildae (61), Z. furfuracea (40), C. rumphii (9), G. biloba (57), G. gnemon ovulate (17) and sterile ovules from microsporangiate plants (25) and W. mirabilis fertile ovules (1) and sterile ovules from microsporangiate plants (138). Proteins involved in defence and carbohydrate modification occurred in the drops of most groups, indicating conserved functions for proteins in pollination drops. Our study demonstrates that all extant gymnosperm groups produce complex reproductive secretions containing proteins, an ancient trait that likely contributed to the evolutionary success of seed plants.


Assuntos
Cycadopsida/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polinização/fisiologia , Proteômica , Evolução Biológica , Óvulo Vegetal/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Pólen/fisiologia , Reprodução
4.
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1888-1910, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368769

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We present the first plastome phylogeny encompassing all 77 monocot families, estimate branch support, and infer monocot-wide divergence times and rates of species diversification. METHODS: We conducted maximum likelihood analyses of phylogeny and BAMM studies of diversification rates based on 77 plastid genes across 545 monocots and 22 outgroups. We quantified how branch support and ascertainment vary with gene number, branch length, and branch depth. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenomic analyses shift the placement of 16 families in relation to earlier studies based on four plastid genes, add seven families, date the divergence between monocots and eudicots+Ceratophyllum at 136 Mya, successfully place all mycoheterotrophic taxa examined, and support recognizing Taccaceae and Thismiaceae as separate families and Arecales and Dasypogonales as separate orders. Only 45% of interfamilial divergences occurred after the Cretaceous. Net species diversification underwent four large-scale accelerations in PACMAD-BOP Poaceae, Asparagales sister to Doryanthaceae, Orchidoideae-Epidendroideae, and Araceae sister to Lemnoideae, each associated with specific ecological/morphological shifts. Branch ascertainment and support across monocots increase with gene number and branch length, and decrease with relative branch depth. Analysis of entire plastomes in Zingiberales quantifies the importance of non-coding regions in identifying and supporting short, deep branches. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first resolved, well-supported monocot phylogeny and timeline spanning all families, and quantify the significant contribution of plastome-scale data to resolving short, deep branches. We outline a new functional model for the evolution of monocots and their diagnostic morphological traits from submersed aquatic ancestors, supported by convergent evolution of many of these traits in aquatic Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales).


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , DNA Intergênico , Zingiberales/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6053, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662101

RESUMO

Driven by limited resources and a sense of urgency, the prioritization of species for conservation has been a persistent concern in conservation science. Gymnosperms (comprising ginkgo, conifers, cycads, and gnetophytes) are one of the most threatened groups of living organisms, with 40% of the species at high risk of extinction, about twice as many as the most recent estimates for all plants (i.e. 21.4%). This high proportion of species facing extinction highlights the urgent action required to secure their future through an objective prioritization approach. The Evolutionary Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) method rapidly ranks species based on their evolutionary distinctiveness and the extinction risks they face. EDGE is applied to gymnosperms using a phylogenetic tree comprising DNA sequence data for 85% of gymnosperm species (923 out of 1090 species), to which the 167 missing species were added, and IUCN Red List assessments available for 92% of species. The effect of different extinction probability transformations and the handling of IUCN data deficient species on the resulting rankings is investigated. Although top entries in our ranking comprise species that were expected to score well (e.g. Wollemia nobilis, Ginkgo biloba), many were unexpected (e.g. Araucaria araucana). These results highlight the necessity of using approaches that integrate evolutionary information in conservation science.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Cycadopsida/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Biodiversidade , DNA de Plantas/genética , Extinção Biológica , Filogenia , Probabilidade
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(D1): D1168-D1180, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186578

RESUMO

The Planteome project (http://www.planteome.org) provides a suite of reference and species-specific ontologies for plants and annotations to genes and phenotypes. Ontologies serve as common standards for semantic integration of a large and growing corpus of plant genomics, phenomics and genetics data. The reference ontologies include the Plant Ontology, Plant Trait Ontology and the Plant Experimental Conditions Ontology developed by the Planteome project, along with the Gene Ontology, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, Phenotype and Attribute Ontology, and others. The project also provides access to species-specific Crop Ontologies developed by various plant breeding and research communities from around the world. We provide integrated data on plant traits, phenotypes, and gene function and expression from 95 plant taxa, annotated with reference ontology terms. The Planteome project is developing a plant gene annotation platform; Planteome Noctua, to facilitate community engagement. All the Planteome ontologies are publicly available and are maintained at the Planteome GitHub site (https://github.com/Planteome) for sharing, tracking revisions and new requests. The annotated data are freely accessible from the ontology browser (http://browser.planteome.org/amigo) and our data repository.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma de Planta , Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Curadoria de Dados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
7.
Plant J ; 93(3): 515-533, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237241

RESUMO

The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene- and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes. However, the chromosomes are mono-centric with peaks of a class of Copia elements potentially coinciding with centromeres. Gene body methylation is evident in 5.7% of the protein-coding genes, typically coinciding with low GC and low expression. Some giant virus insertions are transcriptionally active and might protect gametes from viral infection via siRNA mediated silencing. Structure-based detection methods show that the genome evolved via two rounds of whole genome duplications (WGDs), apparently common in mosses but not in liverworts and hornworts. Several hundred genes are present in colinear regions conserved since the last common ancestor of plants. These syntenic regions are enriched for functions related to plant-specific cell growth and tissue organization. The P. patens genome lacks the TE-rich pericentromeric and gene-rich distal regions typical for most flowering plant genomes. More non-seed plant genomes are needed to unravel how plant genomes evolve, and to understand whether the P. patens genome structure is typical for mosses or bryophytes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Bryopsida/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Centrômero , Cromatina/genética , Metilação de DNA , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Variação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recombinação Genética , Sintenia
8.
Syst Biol ; 67(1): 49-60, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253296

RESUMO

Scientists building the Tree of Life face an overwhelming challenge to categorize phenotypes (e.g., anatomy, physiology) from millions of living and fossil species. This biodiversity challenge far outstrips the capacities of trained scientific experts. Here we explore whether crowdsourcing can be used to collect matrix data on a large scale with the participation of nonexpert students, or "citizen scientists." Crowdsourcing, or data collection by nonexperts, frequently via the internet, has enabled scientists to tackle some large-scale data collection challenges too massive for individuals or scientific teams alone. The quality of work by nonexpert crowds is, however, often questioned and little data have been collected on how such crowds perform on complex tasks such as phylogenetic character coding. We studied a crowd of over 600 nonexperts and found that they could use images to identify anatomical similarity (hypotheses of homology) with an average accuracy of 82% compared with scores provided by experts in the field. This performance pattern held across the Tree of Life, from protists to vertebrates. We introduce a procedure that predicts the difficulty of each character and that can be used to assign harder characters to experts and easier characters to a nonexpert crowd for scoring. We test this procedure in a controlled experiment comparing crowd scores to those of experts and show that crowds can produce matrices with over 90% of cells scored correctly while reducing the number of cells to be scored by experts by 50%. Preparation time, including image collection and processing, for a crowdsourcing experiment is significant, and does not currently save time of scientific experts overall. However, if innovations in automation or robotics can reduce such effort, then large-scale implementation of our method could greatly increase the collective scientific knowledge of species phenotypes for phylogenetic tree building. For the field of crowdsourcing, we provide a rare study with ground truth, or an experimental control that many studies lack, and contribute new methods on how to coordinate the work of experts and nonexperts. We show that there are important instances in which crowd consensus is not a good proxy for correctness.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Crowdsourcing/normas , Filogenia , Animais , Fenótipo , Competência Profissional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
BMC Biol ; 15(1): 52, 2017 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that control many aspects of plant growth. The SL signalling mechanism is homologous to that of karrikins (KARs), smoke-derived compounds that stimulate seed germination. In angiosperms, the SL receptor is an α/ß-hydrolase known as DWARF14 (D14); its close homologue, KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), functions as a KAR receptor and likely recognizes an uncharacterized, endogenous signal ('KL'). Previous phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the KAI2 lineage is ancestral in land plants, and that canonical D14-type SL receptors only arose in seed plants; this is paradoxical, however, as non-vascular plants synthesize and respond to SLs. RESULTS: We have used a combination of phylogenetic and structural approaches to re-assess the evolution of the D14/KAI2 family in land plants. We analysed 339 members of the D14/KAI2 family from land plants and charophyte algae. Our phylogenetic analyses show that the divergence between the eu-KAI2 lineage and the DDK (D14/DLK2/KAI2) lineage that includes D14 occurred very early in land plant evolution. We show that eu-KAI2 proteins are highly conserved, and have unique features not found in DDK proteins. Conversely, we show that DDK proteins show considerable sequence and structural variation to each other, and lack clearly definable characteristics. We use homology modelling to show that the earliest members of the DDK lineage structurally resemble KAI2 and that SL receptors in non-seed plants likely do not have D14-like structure. We also show that certain groups of DDK proteins lack the otherwise conserved MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) interface, and may thus function independently of MAX2, which we show is highly conserved throughout land plant evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that D14-like structure is not required for SL perception, and that SL perception has relatively relaxed structural requirements compared to KAI2-mediated signalling. We suggest that SL perception gradually evolved by neo-functionalization within the DDK lineage, and that the transition from KAI2-like to D14-like protein may have been driven by interactions with protein partners, rather than being required for SL perception per se.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Hidrolases/genética , Lactonas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Carofíceas , Embriófitas , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol ; 174(2): 904-921, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446636

RESUMO

The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins. Using motif and amino acid bias, a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline, we identified HRGPs in sequences from the 1000 Plants transcriptome project (www.onekp.com). Our analyses provide new insights into the evolution of HRGPs across major evolutionary milestones, including the transition to land and the early radiation of angiosperms. Significantly, data mining reveals the origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored AGPs in green algae and a 3- to 4-fold increase in GPI-AGPs in liverworts and mosses. The first detection of cross-linking (CL)-EXTs is observed in bryophytes, which suggests that CL-EXTs arose though the juxtaposition of preexisting SPn EXT glycomotifs with refined Y-based motifs. We also detected the loss of CL-EXT in a few lineages, including the grass family (Poaceae), that have a cell wall composition distinct from other monocots and eudicots. A key challenge in HRGP research is tracking individual HRGPs throughout evolution. Using the 1000 Plants output, we were able to find putative orthologs of Arabidopsis pollen-specific GPI-AGPs in basal eudicots.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis , Funções Verossimilhança , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(43): 12328-12333, 2016 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27791023

RESUMO

The vast abundance of terpene natural products in nature is due to enzymes known as terpene synthases (TPSs) that convert acyclic prenyl diphosphate precursors into a multitude of cyclic and acyclic carbon skeletons. Yet the evolution of TPSs is not well understood at higher levels of classification. Microbial TPSs from bacteria and fungi are only distantly related to typical plant TPSs, whereas genes similar to microbial TPS genes have been recently identified in the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii The goal of this study was to investigate the distribution, evolution, and biochemical functions of microbial terpene synthase-like (MTPSL) genes in other plants. By analyzing the transcriptomes of 1,103 plant species ranging from green algae to flowering plants, putative MTPSL genes were identified predominantly from nonseed plants, including liverworts, mosses, hornworts, lycophytes, and monilophytes. Directed searching for MTPSL genes in the sequenced genomes of a wide range of seed plants confirmed their general absence in this group. Among themselves, MTPSL proteins from nonseed plants form four major groups, with two of these more closely related to bacterial TPSs and the other two to fungal TPSs. Two of the four groups contain a canonical aspartate-rich "DDxxD" motif. The third group has a "DDxxxD" motif, and the fourth group has only the first two "DD" conserved in this motif. Upon heterologous expression, representative members from each of the four groups displayed diverse catalytic functions as monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases, suggesting these are important for terpene formation in nonseed plants.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/genética , Clorófitas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Embriófitas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética
12.
New Phytol ; 212(3): 745-758, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385116

RESUMO

Despite the extraordinary significance leaves have for life on Earth, their origin and development remain vigorously debated. More than a century of paleobotanical, morphological, and phylogenetic research has still not resolved fundamental questions about leaves. Developmental genetic data are sparse in ferns, and comparative studies of lycophytes and seed plants have reached opposing conclusions on the conservation of a leaf developmental program. We performed phylogenetic and expression analyses of a leaf developmental regulator (Class III HD-Zip genes; C3HDZs) spanning lycophytes and ferns. We show that a duplication and neofunctionalization of C3HDZs probably occurred in the ancestor of euphyllophytes, and that there is a common leaf developmental mechanism conserved between ferns and seed plants. We show C3HDZ expression in lycophyte and fern sporangia and show that C3HDZs have conserved expression patterns during initiation of lateral primordia (leaves or sporangia). This expression is maintained throughout sporangium development in lycophytes and ferns and indicates an ancestral role of C3HDZs in sporangium development. We hypothesize that there is a deep homology of all leaves and that a sporangium-specific developmental program was coopted independently for the development of lycophyte and euphyllophyte leaves. This provides molecular genetic support for a paradigm shift in theories of lycophyte leaf evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Gleiquênias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Gleiquênias/citologia , Gleiquênias/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Modelos Biológicos , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/citologia
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 100: 1-20, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27060423

RESUMO

The tank-epiphytic clade of berry-fruited bromeliads, also known as the Core Bromelioideae, represents a remarkable event of adaptive radiation within the Bromeliaceae; however, the details of this radiation have been difficult to study because this lineage is plagued with generic delimitation problems. In this study, we used a phylogenetic approach to investigate a well supported, albeit poorly understood, lineage nested within the Core Bromelioideae, here called the "Ronnbergia Alliance". In order to assess the monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of this group, we used three plastid and three nuclear DNA sequence markers combined with a broad sampling across three taxonomic groups and allied species of Aechmea expected to comprise the Ronnbergia Alliance. We combined the datasets to produce a well-supported and resolved phylogenetic hypothesis. Our main results indicated that the Ronnbergia Alliance was a well-supported monophyletic group, sister to the remaining Core Bromelioideae, and it was composed by species of the polyphyletic genera Aechmea, Hohenbergia and Ronnbergia. We identified two major internal lineages with high geographic structure within the Ronnbergia Alliance. The first of these lineages, called the Pacific Clade, contained species of Aechmea and Ronnbergia that occur exclusively from southern Central America to northwestern South America. The second clade, called the Atlantic Clade, contained species of Aechmea, Hohenbergia and Ronnbergia mostly limited to the Atlantic Forest and the Caribbean. We also explored the diagnostic and evolutionary importance of 13 selected characters using ancestral character reconstructions on the phylogenetic hypothesis. We found that the combination of tubular corollas apically spreading and unappendaged ovules had diagnostic value for the Ronnbergia Alliance, whereas flower size, length of the corolla tube, and petal pigmentation and apex were important characters to differentiate the Pacific and Atlantic clades. This study opens new perspectives for future taxonomic reorganizations and provides a framework for evolutionary and biogeographic studies.


Assuntos
Bromeliaceae/anatomia & histologia , Bromeliaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Oceano Atlântico , Teorema de Bayes , Bromeliaceae/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Geografia , Funções Verossimilhança , Oceano Pacífico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Am J Bot ; 102(11): 1757-79, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26507114

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: An anatomical and developmental study of distantly related fleshy fruits in the monocots was undertaken to better understand the evolution of baccate fruits in the monocot clade as a whole. We studied 14 species with fleshy fruits spanning the Alismatales, Arecales, Asparagales, Commelinales, Dioscoreales, Liliales, and Poales to determine various mechanisms through which baccate fruits attain fleshiness at maturity. METHODS: Flowers and fruits of various stages were collected, sectioned, stained, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Three basic pathways for attaining fleshiness were identified within the species examined (true berries, with a uniform pericarp; typical drupes, with an endocarp differentiated by the presence of stony pyrenes; and specialized drupes, involving mesocarp and endocarp differentiated by stone pyrenes). Furthermore, developmental characters differentiating basic fruit types were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Fleshy fruits in the monocots do not develop through a single shared pathway, indicating that fleshiness has evolved multiple times within the clade.


Assuntos
Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(43): 13390-5, 2015 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26438870

RESUMO

Colonization of land by plants was a major transition on Earth, but the developmental and genetic innovations required for this transition remain unknown. Physiological studies and the fossil record strongly suggest that the ability of the first land plants to form symbiotic associations with beneficial fungi was one of these critical innovations. In angiosperms, genes required for the perception and transduction of diffusible fungal signals for root colonization and for nutrient exchange have been characterized. However, the origin of these genes and their potential correlation with land colonization remain elusive. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 259 transcriptomes and 10 green algal and basal land plant genomes, coupled with the characterization of the evolutionary path leading to the appearance of a key regulator, a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, showed that the symbiotic signaling pathway predated the first land plants. In contrast, downstream genes required for root colonization and their specific expression pattern probably appeared subsequent to the colonization of land. We conclude that the most recent common ancestor of extant land plants and green algae was preadapted for symbiotic associations. Subsequent improvement of this precursor stage in early land plants through rounds of gene duplication led to the acquisition of additional pathways and the ability to form a fully functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Evolução Biológica , Clorófitas/genética , Embriófitas/genética , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética , Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Clorófitas/fisiologia , Closterium/genética , Closterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Primers do DNA/genética , Embriófitas/fisiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Hepatófitas/genética , Hepatófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Funções Verossimilhança , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Spirogyra/genética , Spirogyra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose/fisiologia
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 6: 637, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26322073

RESUMO

Plant phototropism, the ability to bend toward or away from light, is predominantly controlled by blue-light photoreceptors, the phototropins. Although phototropins have been well-characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, their evolutionary history is largely unknown. In this study, we complete an in-depth survey of phototropin homologs across land plants and algae using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data. We show that phototropins originated in an ancestor of Viridiplantae (land plants + green algae). Phototropins repeatedly underwent independent duplications in most major land-plant lineages (mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and seed plants), but remained single-copy genes in liverworts and hornworts-an evolutionary pattern shared with another family of photoreceptors, the phytochromes. Following each major duplication event, the phototropins differentiated in parallel, resulting in two specialized, yet partially overlapping, functional forms that primarily mediate either low- or high-light responses. Our detailed phylogeny enables us to not only uncover new phototropin lineages, but also link our understanding of phototropin function in Arabidopsis with what is known in Adiantum and Physcomitrella (the major model organisms outside of flowering plants). We propose that the convergent functional divergences of phototropin paralogs likely contributed to the success of plants through time in adapting to habitats with diverse and heterogeneous light conditions.

17.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7852, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26215968

RESUMO

Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that play essential roles in diverse plant morphogenetic and physiological responses to light. Despite their functional significance, phytochrome diversity and evolution across photosynthetic eukaryotes remain poorly understood. Using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data we show that canonical plant phytochromes originated in a common ancestor of streptophytes (charophyte algae and land plants). Phytochromes in charophyte algae are structurally diverse, including canonical and non-canonical forms, whereas in land plants, phytochrome structure is highly conserved. Liverworts, hornworts and Selaginella apparently possess a single phytochrome, whereas independent gene duplications occurred within mosses, lycopods, ferns and seed plants, leading to diverse phytochrome families in these clades. Surprisingly, the phytochrome portions of algal and land plant neochromes, a chimera of phytochrome and phototropin, appear to share a common origin. Our results reveal novel phytochrome clades and establish the basis for understanding phytochrome functional evolution in land plants and their algal relatives.


Assuntos
Carofíceas/genética , Variação Genética , Fitocromo/genética , Viridiplantae/genética , Anthocerotophyta/genética , Sequência de Bases , Briófitas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Gleiquênias/genética , Hepatófitas/genética , Lycopodium/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Selaginellaceae/genética
18.
Am J Bot ; 102(7): 1089-107, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26199366

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: • PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding fern (monilophyte) phylogeny and its evolutionary timescale is critical for broad investigations of the evolution of land plants, and for providing the point of comparison necessary for studying the evolution of the fern sister group, seed plants. Molecular phylogenetic investigations have revolutionized our understanding of fern phylogeny, however, to date, these studies have relied almost exclusively on plastid data.• METHODS: Here we take a curated phylogenomics approach to infer the first broad fern phylogeny from multiple nuclear loci, by combining broad taxon sampling (73 ferns and 12 outgroup species) with focused character sampling (25 loci comprising 35877 bp), along with rigorous alignment, orthology inference and model selection.• KEY RESULTS: Our phylogeny corroborates some earlier inferences and provides novel insights; in particular, we find strong support for Equisetales as sister to the rest of ferns, Marattiales as sister to leptosporangiate ferns, and Dennstaedtiaceae as sister to the eupolypods. Our divergence-time analyses reveal that divergences among the extant fern orders all occurred prior to ∼200 MYA. Finally, our species-tree inferences are congruent with analyses of concatenated data, but generally with lower support. Those cases where species-tree support values are higher than expected involve relationships that have been supported by smaller plastid datasets, suggesting that deep coalescence may be reducing support from the concatenated nuclear data.• CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the utility of a curated phylogenomics approach to inferring fern phylogeny, and highlights the need to consider underlying data characteristics, along with data quantity, in phylogenetic studies.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Gleiquênias/classificação , Dosagem de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(45): E4859-68, 2014 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25355905

RESUMO

Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/fisiologia , Filogenia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estreptófitas/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estreptófitas/classificação
20.
Gigascience ; 3: 15, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25324969

RESUMO

Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to have their nuclear genomes sequenced. They differ dramatically in genome size, life history, and habit, and thus represent the immense diversity of extant ferns. Together, this pair of genomes will facilitate myriad large-scale comparative analyses across ferns and all land plants. Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes. We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves.

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