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1.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(9): 1144-1150, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474137

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to report the results of custom-made endoprostheses with extracortical plates plus or minus a short, intramedullary stem aimed at preserving the physis after resection of bone sarcomas in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, 18 children aged less than 16 years old who underwent resection of bone sarcomas, leaving ≤ 5 cm of bone from the physis, and reconstruction with a custom-made endoprosthesis were reviewed. Median follow-up was 67 months (interquartile range 45 to 91). The tumours were located in the femur in 11 patients, proximal humerus in six, and proximal tibia in one. RESULTS: The five-year overall survival rate was 78%. No patient developed local recurrence. The five-year implant survival rate was 79%. In all, 11 patients (61%) developed a complication. Seven patients (39%) required further surgery to treat the complications. Implant failures occurred in three patients (17%) including one patient with aseptic loosening and two patients with implant or periprosthetic fracture. The preserved physis continued to grow at mean 3.3 cm (0 to 14). The mean Musculoskeletal Society score was 88% (67% to 97%). CONCLUSION: Custom-made endoprostheses that aim to preserve the physis are a safe and effective option for preserving physeal growth, limb length, and joint function with an acceptable rate of complications. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1144-1150.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Lâmina de Crescimento/cirurgia , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Humanos , Úmero/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/instrumentação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação , Tíbia/cirurgia
2.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(6): 739-744, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154835

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify factors that determine outcomes of treatment for patients with chondroblastic osteosarcomas (COS) of the limbs and pelvis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors carried out a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 256 patients diagnosed between 1979 and 2015. Of the 256 patients diagnosed with COS of the pelvis and the limbs, 147 patients (57%) were male and 109 patients (43%) were female. The mean age at presentation was 20 years (0 to 90). RESULTS: In all, 82% of the patients had a poor response to chemotherapy, which was associated with the presence of a predominantly chondroblastic component (more than 50% of tumour volume). The incidence of local recurrence was 15%. Synchronous or metachronous metastasis was diagnosed in 60% of patients. Overall survival was 51% and 42% after five and ten years, respectively. Limb localization and wide surgical margins were associated with a lower risk of local recurrence after multivariable analysis, while the response to chemotherapy was not. Local recurrence, advanced patient age, pelvic tumours, and large volume negatively influenced survival. Resection of pulmonary metastases was associated with a survival benefit in the limited number of patients in whom this was undertaken. CONCLUSION: COS demonstrates a poor response to chemotherapy and a high incidence of metastases. Wide resection is associated with improved local control and overall survival, while excision of pulmonary metastases is associated with improved survival in selected patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:739-744.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Condrossarcoma/cirurgia , Extremidades/cirurgia , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(6): 405-410, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to report the presenting characteristics and identify how best to distinguish bone and soft-tissue infections that mimic sarcomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 238 (211 osteomyelitis and 27 soft-tissue infections) patients referred to a tertiary sarcoma multidisciplinary team with suspected sarcoma who were ultimately diagnosed with a bone or soft tissue infection were included. Data from a prospectively collated database was analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of all possible bone and soft-tissue sarcoma referrals, a diagnosis of infection was made in 2.1% and 0.7%, respectively. Median age was 18 years in the osteomyelitis group and 46 years in the soft-tissue infection group. In the osteomyelitis group, the most common presenting features were pain (85.8%) and swelling (32.7%). In the soft-tissue infection group, the most common clinical features were swelling (96.3%) and pain (70.4%). Those in the soft-tissue group were more likely to have raised inflammatory markers. Radiological investigations were unable to discern between tumour or infection in 59.7% of osteomyelitis and 81.5% of soft-tissue infection cases. No organism was identified in 64.9% of those who had a percutaneous biopsy culture. CONCLUSIONS: This study has highlighted that infection is frequently clinically indistinguishable from sarcoma and remains a principle non-neoplastic differential diagnosis. When patients are investigated for suspected sarcoma, infections can be missed due to falsely negative radiological investigations and percutaneous biopsy. As no single clinical, biochemical or radiological feature or investigation can be relied upon for diagnosis, clinicians should have a low threshold for tissue biopsy and discussion in a sarcoma multidisciplinary team meeting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
4.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(5): 522-528, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038993

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prosthesis characteristics and associated conditions that may modify the survival of total femoral endoprosthetic replacements (TFEPR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 81 patients treated with TFEPR from 1976 to 2017 were retrospectively evaluated and failures were categorized according to the Henderson classification. There were 38 female patients (47%) and 43 male patients (53%) with a mean age at diagnosis of 43 years (12 to 86). The mean follow-up time was 10.3 years (0 to 31.7). A survival analysis was performed followed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression to identify independent implant survival factors. RESULTS: The revision-free survival of the implant was 71% at five years and 63.3% at ten years. Three prostheses reached 15 years without revision. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score in the group was 26 (23 to 28). The mechanisms of failure were infection in 18%, structural failures in 6%, tumour progression in 5%, aseptic loosening in 2%, and soft-tissue failures in 1%. Prostheses used for primary reconstruction after oncological resections had lower infection rates than revision implants (8% vs 25%; p = 0.001). The rates of infection in silver-coated and non-silver-coated prosthesis were similar (17.4% vs 19.%; p = 0.869). The incidence of hip dislocation was 10%. Rotating hinge prosthesis had a lower failure rate than fixed hinge prosthesis (5.3% vs 11%). After Cox regression, the independent factors associated with failures were the history of previous operations (hazard ratio (HR) 3.7; p = 0.041), and the associated arthroplasty of the proximal tibia (HR 3.8; p = 0.034). At last follow-up, 11 patients (13%) required amputation. CONCLUSION: TFEPR offers a reliable reconstruction option for massive bone loss of the femur, with a good survival when the prosthesis is used as a primary implant. The use of a rotating hinge at the knee and dual mobility bearing at the hip may be adequate to reduce the risk of mechanical and soft-tissue failures. Infection remains the main concern and there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of silver-coated endoprosthesis. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:522-528.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(5): 582-588, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039037

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to report the efficacy of revision surgery for patients with co-infective bacterial and fungal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) presenting to a single institution, and to identify prognostic factors that would guide management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1189 patients with a PJI were managed in our bone infection service between 2006 and 2015; 22 (1.85%) with co-infective bacterial and fungal PJI were included in the study. There were nine women and 13 men, with a mean age at the time of diagnosis of 64.5 years (47 to 83). Their mean BMI was 30.9 kg/m2 (24 to 42). We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of these PJIs, after eight total hip arthroplasties and 14 total knee arthroplasties. The mean clinical follow-up was 4.1 years (1.4 to 8.8). RESULTS: The median number of risk factors for PJI was 5.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.25 to 7.25). All seven patients who initially underwent debridement and implant retention (DAIR) had a recurrent infection that led to a staged revision. All 22 patients underwent the first of a two-stage revision. None of the nine patients with negative tissue cultures at the second stage had a recurrent infection. The rate of recurrent infection was significantly higher in the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria (p = 0.007), a higher C-reactive protein (CRP) at the time of presentation (p = 0.032), and a higher number of co-infective bacterial organisms (p = 0.041). The overall rate of eradication of infection after two and five years was 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.9 to 75.9) and 38.9% (95% CI 22.6 to 67), respectively. CONCLUSION: The risk of failure to eradicate infection with the requirement of amputation associated with this diagnosis is much higher than in patients with PJI without bacterial and fungal co-infection, and this risk is heightened when the fungal organism is joined by polymicrobial and multidrug-resistant bacterial organisms. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:582-588.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Micoses/complicações , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Infecções Bacterianas/cirurgia , Coinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(3): 266-271, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813783

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for achieving local and systemic control after local recurrence of a chondrosarcoma of bone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 126 patients with local recurrence (LR) of chondrosarcoma (CS) of the pelvis or a limb bone were identified from a prospectively maintained database, between 1990 and 2015 at the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. There were 44 female patients (35%) and 82 male patients (65%) with a mean age at the time of LR of 56 years (13 to 96). The 126 patients represented 24.3% of the total number of patients with a primary CS (519) who had been treated during this period. Clinical data collected at the time of primary tumour and LR included the site (appendicular, extremity, or pelvis); primary and LR tumour size (in centimetres); type of operation at the time of primary or LR (limb-salvage or amputation); surgical margin achieved at resection of the primary tumour and the LR; grade of the primary tumour and the LR; gender; age; and oncological outcomes, including local recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival. A minimum two years' follow-up and complete histopathology records were available for all patients included in the study. RESULTS: For patients without metastases prior to or at the time of local recurrence, the disease-specific survival after local recurrence was 62.5% and 45.5% at one and five years, respectively. After univariable analysis, significant factors predicting disease-specific survival were grade (p < 0.001) and surgical margin (p = 0.044). After multivariable analysis, grade, increasing age at the time of diagnosis of local recurrence, and a greater time interval from primary surgery to local recurrence were significant factors for disease-specific survival. A secondary local recurrence was seen in 26% of patients. Wide margins were a good predictor of local recurrence-free survival for subsequent recurrences after univariable analysis when compared with intralesional margins (p = 0.002) but marginal margins did not reach statistical significance when compared with intralesional margins (p = 0.084). CONCLUSION: In cases of local recurrence of a chondrosarcoma of bone, we have shown that if the tumour is non-metastatic at re-staging, an increase in disease-specific survival and in local recurrence-free survival is achievable, but only by resection of the local recurrence with a wide margin. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:266-271.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Condrossarcoma/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Condrossarcoma/mortalidade , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Extremidades/patologia , Extremidades/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ossos Pélvicos/patologia , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
7.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(12): 1626-1632, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499317

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this paper was to investigate the prognostic factors for local recurrence in patients with pathological fracture through giant cell tumours of bone (GCTB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 107 patients presenting with fractures through GCTB treated at our institution (Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom) between 1995 and 2016 were retrospectively studied. Of these patients, 57 were female (53%) and 50 were male (47%).The mean age at diagnosis was 33 years (14 to 86). A univariate analysis was performed, followed by multivariate analysis to identify risk factors based on the treatment and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The initial surgical treatment was curettage with or without adjuvants in 55 patients (51%), en bloc resection with or without reconstruction in 45 patients (42%), and neoadjuvant denosumab, followed by resection (n = 3, 3%) or curettage (n = 4, 4%). The choice of treatment depended on tumour location, Campanacci tumour staging, intra-articular involvement, and fracture displacement. Neoadjuvant denosumab was used only in fractures through Campanacci stage 3 tumours. Local recurrence occurred in 28 patients (25%). Surgery more than six weeks after the fracture did not affect the risk of recurrence in any of the groups. In Campanacci stage 3 tumours not treated with denosumab, en bloc resection had lower local recurrences (13%), compared with curettage (39%). In tumours classified as Campanacci 2, intralesional curettage and en bloc resections had similar recurrence rates (21% and 24%, respectively). After univariate analysis, the type of surgical intervention, location, and the use of denosumab were independent factors predicting local recurrence. Further surgery was required 33% more often after intralesional curettage in comparison with resections (mean 1.59, 0 to 5 vs 1.06, 0 to 3 operations). All patients treated with denosumab followed by intralesional curettage developed local recurrence. CONCLUSION: In patients with pathological fractures through GCTB not treated with denosumab, en bloc resection offers lower risks of local recurrence in tumours classified as Campanacci stage 3. Curettage or resections are both similar options in terms of the risk of local recurrence for tumours classified as Campanacci stage 2. The benefits of denosumab followed by intralesional curettage in these patients still remains unclear.

8.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(5): 662-666, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701096

RESUMO

Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of histological grade on disease-specific survival in patients with chondrosarcoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 343 patients with a chondrosarcoma were included. The histological grade was assessed on the initial biopsy and on the resection specimen. Where the histology showed a mixed grade, the highest grade was taken as the definitive grade. When only small focal areas showed higher grade, the final grade was considered as both. Results: The concordance between the highest preoperative biopsy grading and the highest final grading of the resection specimen in total was only 43% (146/343). In 102 specimens (30%), a small number of cells or focal areas of higher grade were observed in contrast to the main histology. The disease-specific survival, stratified according to the predominant histological grade, showed greater variation than when stratified according to the highest grade seen in the resection specimen. Conclusion: The diagnostic biopsy in chondrosarcoma is unreliable in assessing the definitive grade and the malignant potential of the tumour. When categorizing the grade of the resection specimen, the prognosis for local recurrence and disease-specific survival should be based on the highest grade seen, even when seen in only a few cells. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:662-6.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Criança , Condrossarcoma/mortalidade , Condrossarcoma/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(4): 535-541, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629581

RESUMO

Aims: Preserving growth following limb-salvage surgery of the upper limb in children remains a challenge. Vascularized autografts may provide rapid biological incorporation with the potential for growth and longevity. In this study, we aimed to describe the outcomes following proximal humeral reconstruction with a vascularized fibular epiphyseal transfer in children with a primary sarcoma of bone. We also aimed to quantify the hypertrophy of the graft and the annual growth, and to determine the functional outcomes of the neoglenofibular joint. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 11 patients who underwent this procedure for a primary bone tumour of the proximal humerus between 2004 and 2015. Six had Ewing's sarcoma and five had osteosarcoma. Their mean age at the time of surgery was five years (two to eight). The mean follow-up was 5.2 years (1 to 12.2). Results: The overall survival at five and ten years was 91% (confidence interval (CI) 95% 75% to 100%). At the time of the final review, ten patients were alive. One with local recurrence and metastasis died one-year post-operatively. Complications included seven fractures, four transient nerve palsies, and two patients developed avascular necrosis of the graft. All the fractures presented within the first postoperative year and united with conservative management. One patient had two further operations for a slipped fibular epiphysis of the autograft, and a hemi-epiphysiodesis for lateral tibial physeal arrest. Hypertrophy and axial growth were evident in nine patients who did not have avascular necrosis of the graft. The mean hypertrophy index was 65% (55% to 82%), and the mean growth was 4.6 mm per annum (2.4 to 7.6) in these nine grafts. At final follow-up, the mean modified functional Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was 77% (63% to 83%) and the mean Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) was 84% (65% to 94%). Conclusion: Vascularized fibular epiphyseal transfer preserves function and growth in young children following excision of the proximal humerus for a malignant bone tumour. Function compares favourably to other limb-salvage procedures in children. Longer term analysis is required to determine if this technique proves to be durable into adulthood. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:535-41.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Fíbula/transplante , Úmero/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fíbula/irrigação sanguínea , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma de Ewing/mortalidade , Sarcoma de Ewing/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(3): 370-377, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589498

RESUMO

Aims: The use of a noninvasive growing endoprosthesis in the management of primary bone tumours in children is well established. However, the efficacy of such a prosthesis in those requiring a revision procedure has yet to be established. The aim of this series was to present our results using extendable prostheses for the revision of previous endoprostheses. Patients and Methods: All patients who had a noninvasive growing endoprosthesis inserted at the time of a revision procedure were identified from our database. A total of 21 patients (seven female patients, 14 male) with a mean age of 20.4 years (10 to 41) at the time of revision were included. The indications for revision were mechanical failure, trauma or infection with a residual leg-length discrepancy. The mean follow-up was 70 months (17 to 128). The mean shortening prior to revision was 44 mm (10 to 100). Lengthening was performed in all but one patient with a mean lengthening of 51 mm (5 to 140). Results: The mean residual leg length discrepancy at final follow-up of 15 mm (1 to 35). Two patients developed a deep periprosthetic infection, of whom one required amputation to eradicate the infection; the other required two-stage revision. Implant survival according to Henderson criteria was 86% at two years and 72% at five years. When considering revision for any cause (including revision of the growing prosthesis to a non-growing prosthesis), revision-free implant survival was 75% at two years, but reduced to 55% at five years. Conclusion: Our experience indicates that revision surgery using a noninvasive growing endoprosthesis is a successful option for improving leg length discrepancy and should be considered in patients with significant leg-length discrepancy requiring a revision procedure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:370-7.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Perna (Membro) , Próteses e Implantes , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Amputação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Desigualdade de Membros Inferiores , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Reoperação , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Bone Joint J ; 100-B(1): 101-108, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305458

RESUMO

AIMS: Dislocation rates are reportedly lower in patients requiring proximal femoral hemiarthroplasty than for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for neoplasia. Without acetabular replacement, pain due to acetabular wear necessitating revision surgery has been described. We aimed to determine whether wear of the native acetabulum following hemiarthroplasty necessitates revision surgery with secondary replacement of the acetabulum after proximal femoral replacement (PFR) for tumour reconstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 100 consecutive PFRs performed between January 2003 and January 2013 without acetabular resurfacing. The procedure was undertaken in 74 patients with metastases, for a primary bone tumour in 20 and for myeloma in six. There were 48 male and 52 female patients, with a mean age of 61.4 years (19 to 85) and median follow-up of two years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5 to 3.7 years). In total, 52 patients presented with a pathological fracture and six presented with failed fixation of a previously instrumented pathological fracture. RESULTS: All patients underwent reconstruction with either a unipolar (n = 64) or bipolar (n = 36) articulation. There were no dislocations and no acetabular resurfacings. Articular wear was graded using the criteria of Baker et al from 0 to 3, where by 0 is normal; grade 1 represents a narrowing of articular cartilage and no bone erosion; grade 2 represents acetabular bone erosion and early migration; and grade 3 represents protrusio acetabuli. Of the 49 patients with radiological follow-up greater than one year, six demonstrated grade 1 acetabular wear and two demonstrated grade 2 acetabular wear. The remainder demonstrated no radiographic evidence of wear. Median medial migration was 0.3 mm (IQR -0.2 to 0.7) and superior migration was 0.3 mm (IQR -0.2 to 0.6). No relationship between unipolar versus bipolar articulations and wear was evident. CONCLUSION: Hemiarthroplasty PFRs for tumour reconstruction eliminate joint instability and, in the short to medium term, do not lead to native acetabular wear necessitating later acetabular resurfacing. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100B:101-8.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Neoplasias Femorais/cirurgia , Hemiartroplastia/métodos , Prótese de Quadril , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Neoplasias Femorais/secundário , Seguimentos , Hemiartroplastia/efeitos adversos , Luxação do Quadril/etiologia , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese , Radiografia , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Bone Joint J ; 99-B(12): 1689-1695, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212694

RESUMO

AIMS: Following the resection of an extensive amount of bone in the treatment of a tumour, the residual segment may be insufficient to accept a standard length intramedullary cemented stem. Short-stemmed endoprostheses conceivably have an increased risk of aseptic loosening. Extra-cortical plates have been added to minimise this risk by supplementing fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate the survivorship of short-stemmed endoprostheses and extra-cortical plates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study involved 37 patients who underwent limb salvage surgery for a primary neoplasm of bone between 1998 and 2013. Endoprosthetic replacement involved the proximal humerus in nine, the proximal femur in nine, the distal femur in 13 and the proximal tibia in six patients. There were 12 primary (32%) and 25 revision procedures (68%). Implant survivorship was compared with matched controls. The amount of bone that was resected was > 70% of its length and statistically greater than the standard control group at each anatomical site. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was seven years (one to 17). The mean length of the stem was 33 mm (20 to 60) in the humerus and 79 mm (34 to 100) in the lower limb. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival of the implant according to anatomical site confirmed that there was no statistically significant difference between the short-stemmed endoprostheses and the standard stemmed controls at the proximal humeral (p = 0.84), proximal femoral (p = 0.57), distal femoral (p = 0.21) and proximal tibial (p = 0.61) sites. In the short-stemmed group, no implants with extra-cortical plate osseointegration suffered loosening at a mean of 8.5 years (range 2 to 16 years). Three of ten (30%) without osseointegration suffered aseptic loosening at a mean of 7.7 years (range 2 to 11.5 years). CONCLUSION: When extensive resections of bone are required in the surgical management of tumours, and in revision cases, the addition of extra-cortical plates to short medullary stems has shown non-inferiority to standard length medullary stems and minimises aseptic failure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1689-95.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/instrumentação , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Placas Ósseas , Criança , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Úmero/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Terapia de Salvação/instrumentação , Tíbia/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Chem Phys ; 146(12): 124103, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388104

RESUMO

The emergence of observable properties from the organisation of the underlying potential energy landscape is analysed, spanning a full range of complexity from self-organising to glassy and jammed systems. The examples include atomic and molecular clusters, a ß-barrel protein, the GNNQQNY peptide dimer, and models of condensed matter that exhibit structural glass formation and jamming. We have considered measures based on several different properties, namely, the Shannon entropy, an equilibrium thermodynamic measure that uses a sample of local minima, and indices that require additional information about the connections between local minima in the form of transition states. A frustration index is defined that correlates directly with key properties that distinguish relaxation behaviour within this diverse set. The index uses the ratio of the energy barrier to the energy difference with reference to the global minimum. The contributions for each local minimum are weighted by the equilibrium occupation probabilities. Hence we obtain fundamental insight into the connections and distinctions between systems that cover the continuum from efficient structure-seekers to landscapes that exhibit broken ergodicity and rare event dynamics.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Termodinâmica , Água/química , Vidro/química
14.
J Chem Phys ; 145(2): 024505, 2016 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27421418

RESUMO

Relaxation times and transport processes of many glass-forming supercooled liquids exhibit a super-Arrhenius temperature dependence. We examine this phenomenon by computer simulation of the Lewis-Wahnström model for ortho-terphenyl. We propose a microscopic definition for a single-molecule cage-breaking transition and show that, when correlation behaviour is taken into account, these rearrangements are sufficient to reproduce the correct translational diffusion constants over an intermediate temperature range in the supercooled regime. We show that super-Arrhenius behaviour can be attributed to increasing negative correlation in particle movement at lower temperatures and relate this to the cage-breaking description. Finally, we sample the potential energy landscape of the model and show that it displays hierarchical ordering. Substructures in the landscape, which may correspond to metabasins, have boundaries defined by cage-breaking transitions. The cage-breaking formulation provides a direct link between the potential energy landscape and macroscopic diffusion behaviour.

15.
Bone Joint J ; 98-B(2): 266-70, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26850434

RESUMO

AIMS: Surgical intervention in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer is dependent on the estimated survival of the patient. The purpose of this paper was to identify factors that would predict survival so that specific decisions could be made in terms of surgical (or non-surgical) management. METHODS: The records of 113 consecutive patients (112 women) with metastatic breast cancer were analysed for clinical, radiological, serological and surgical outcomes. Their median age was 61 years (interquartile range 29 to 90) and the median duration of follow-up was 1.6 years (standard deviation (sd) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0 to 5.9). The cumulative one- and five-year rates of survival were 68% and 16% (95% Cl 60 to 77 and 95% CI 10 to 26, respectively). RESULTS: Linear discriminant analysis identified a 'quadruple A' predictor of survival by reclassifying the sum of the albumin, adjusted calcium, alkaline phosphatase and age covariates each multiplied by a determined factor. The accuracy of this 'quadruple A' predictor was 90% with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88%. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve revealed an area under the curve of 79%. Survival analysis for this 'quadruple A' predictor (< = one or > one year survival) was statistically significant using the log rank test (p = 0.0004) and Cox proportional hazard (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed the 'quadruple A' predictor to be the only independent predictor of survival (p = 0.01). DISCUSSION: The 'quadruple A' predictor, together with other positive predictors of survival, can be used by oncologists, orthopaedic and breast surgeons to estimate survival and therefore guide management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 42(4): 574-80, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26831007

RESUMO

Myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) are a subgroup of soft-tissue sarcomas which have a propensity for extra-pulmonary metastases. Conventional radiological staging of soft-tissue sarcomas consists of chest radiographs (CXR) and thoracic computed tomography (CT) for possible chest metastases, supplemented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local disease. The optimal radiological modality to detect extra-pulmonary metastases for systemic staging has not been proven. We reviewed the efficacy of Whole-Body MRI (WBMRI) for this purpose. 33 WBMRI and simultaneous CT scans were performed in 28 patients suffering from MLS between 2007 and 2015. 38 metastases were identified in seven patients via WBMRI. Osseous lesions predominated (spine, pelvis, chest-wall and long bones), followed by soft-tissue and abdominal lesions. Of the 29 soft-tissue or osseous metastases that were within the field-of-view of the simultaneous CT scans, five soft-tissue and zero osseous metastases were identified using CT. Metastatic disease was detected in three patients solely using WBMRI, which directly influenced their management. WBMRI is a useful adjunct in the detection of extra-pulmonary metastatic disease, which directly alters patient management. WBMRI has demonstrated an ability to identify more sites of metastatic disease compared to CT. WBMRI should be used in two situations. Firstly, at diagnosis where ablative treatment will be required e.g. amputation, when the diagnosis of occult metastasis would change treatment planning. Secondly, at diagnosis of relapse to confirm if it is a solitary site of relapse prior to consideration of metastectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Bone Joint J ; 95-B(3): 384-90, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23450025

RESUMO

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign disease of the synovium of joints and tendon sheaths, which may be locally aggressive. We present 18 patients with diffuse-type PVNS of the foot and ankle followed for a mean of 5.1 years (2 to 11.8). There were seven men and 11 women, with a mean age of 42 years (18 to 73). A total of 13 patients underwent open or arthroscopic synovectomy, without post-operative radiotherapy. One had surgery at the referring unit before presentation with residual tibiotalar PVNS. The four patients who were managed non-operatively remain symptomatically controlled and under clinical and radiological surveillance. At final follow-up the mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was 93.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85 to 100), the mean Toronto Extremity Salvage Score was 92 (95% CI 82 to 100) and the mean American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons foot and ankle score was 89 (95% CI 79 to 100). The lesion in the patient with residual PVNS resolved radiologically without further intervention six years after surgery. Targeted synovectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy can result in excellent outcomes, without recurrence. Asymptomatic patients can be successfully managed non-operatively. This is the first series to report clinical outcome scores for patients with diffuse-type PVNS of the foot and ankle.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo , Articulações do Pé , Tumores de Células Gigantes , Sinovite Pigmentada Vilonodular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Articulação do Tornozelo/patologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Articulações do Pé/patologia , Articulações do Pé/cirurgia , Tumores de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Tumores de Células Gigantes/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sinovectomia , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Sinovite Pigmentada Vilonodular/diagnóstico , Sinovite Pigmentada Vilonodular/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 37(5): 447-51, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22086787

RESUMO

In this study, the use of computed tomography (CT) early in the management of suspected occult scaphoid fractures was evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed the notes and radiology of patients who had scaphoid CT scans over the preceding 3 years. Eighty-four patients that had CT scans within 14 days from injury were identified. Of the CT scans, 64% (n = 54) excluded a fracture and these patients were promptly mobilized. No patients returned with any complications from this management. Overall, 36% of CT scans were abnormal (n = 30), 7% revealed occult scaphoid fractures, 18% revealed occult carpal fractures of the triquetrum, capitate, and lunate, respectively, and 5% revealed distal radius fractures. All patients diagnosed with fractures were successfully managed with plaster immobilization and there was one case of complex regional pain syndrome. Early CT alters therapeutic decision making in suspected occult fractures preventing unnecessary immobilization in a working population without increase in cost.


Assuntos
Fraturas Fechadas/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Escafoide/lesões , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Criança , Feminino , Fraturas Fechadas/terapia , Humanos , Imobilização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurosci Behav Physiol ; 33(8): 839-44, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14636002

RESUMO

Acute experiments on Sprague-Dawley rats were performed to study the effects of local application of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists (SCH 23390 and raclopride) on the responses of neurons in the globus pallidus induced by stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. SCH 23390 induced short-latency inhibition in response to stimulation of the cortex and blocked long-latency inhibition. Application of raclopride suppressed short-latency inhibition and induced a long-latency inhibitory response to stimulation of the cortex. It is suggested that these changes are based on modulation of GABA release from striopallidal terminals by endogenous dopamine.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Globo Pálido/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Globo Pálido/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Racloprida/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Córtex Somatossensorial/efeitos dos fármacos
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