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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 53746-53757, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734523

RESUMO

Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are a burgeoning electrochemical platform for long-duration energy storage, but present embodiments are too expensive for broad adoption. Nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NAqRFBs) seek to reduce system costs by leveraging the large electrochemical stability window of organic solvents (>3 V) to operate at high cell voltages and to facilitate the use of redox couples that are incompatible with aqueous electrolytes. However, a key challenge for emerging nonaqueous chemistries is the lack of membranes/separators with suitable combinations of selectivity, conductivity, and stability. Single-ion conducting ceramics, integrated into a flexible polymer matrix, may offer a pathway to attain performance attributes needed for enabling competitive nonaqueous systems. Here, we explore composite polymer-inorganic binder-filler membranes for lithium-based NAqRFBs, investigating two different ceramic compounds with NASICON-type (NASICON: sodium (Na) superionic conductor) crystal structure, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) and Li1.4Al0.4Ge0.2Ti1.4(PO4)3 (LAGTP), each blended with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric matrix. We characterize the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the synthesized membranes as a function of processing conditions and formulation using a range of microscopic and electrochemical techniques. Importantly, the electrochemical stability window of the as-prepared membranes lies between 2.2-4.5 V vs Li/Li+. We then integrate select composite membranes into a single electrolyte flow cell configuration and perform polarization measurements with different redox electrolyte compositions. We find that mechanically robust, chemically stable LATP/PVDF composites can support >40 mA cm-2 at 400 mV cell overpotential, but further improvements are needed in selectivity. Overall, the insights gained through this work begin to establish the foundational knowledge needed to advance composite polymer-inorganic membranes/separators for NAqRFBs.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(47): 56366-56374, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784712

RESUMO

Ti2Nb2O9 with a tunnel-type structure is considered as a perspective negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with theoretical capacity of 252 mAh g-1 corresponding to one-electron reduction/oxidation of Ti and Nb, but only ≈160 mAh g-1 has been observed practically. In this work, highly reversible capacity of 200 mAh g-1 with the average (de)lithiation potential of 1.5 V vs Li/Li+ is achieved for Ti2Nb2O9 with pseudo-2D layered morphology obtained via thermal decomposition of the NH4TiNbO5 intermediate prepared by K+→ H+→ NH4+ cation exchange from KTiNbO5. Using operando synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (SXPD), single-phase (de)lithiation mechanism with 4.8% unit cell volume change is observed. Operando X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) experiment revealed simultaneous Ti4+/Ti3+ and Nb5+/Nb4+ reduction/oxidation within the whole voltage range. Li+ migration barriers for Ti2Nb2O9 along [010] direction derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations are within the 0.15-0.4 eV range depending on the Li content that is reflected in excellent C-rate capacity retention. Ti2Nb2O9 synthesized via the ion-exchange route appears as a strong contender to widely commercialized Ti-based negative electrode material Li4Ti5O12 in the next generation of high-performance LIBs.

3.
iScience ; 24(9): 103033, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522869

RESUMO

Phenazines are redox-active nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds that can be produced by either bacteria or synthetic approaches. As an electron shuttles (mediators), phenazines are involved in several biological processes facilitating extracellular electron transfer (EET). Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the structural and electronic properties of phenazines that promote EET in microbial electrochemical systems. Our previous study experimentally investigated a phenazine-based library as an exogenous mediator system to facilitate EET in Escherichia coli. Herein, we combine our experimental data with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and multivariate linear regression modeling to understand the structure-function relationships in phenazine-based mediated EET. These calculations demonstrate that the computed redox properties of phenazines in lipophilic environments (e.g., cell membrane) correlate to experimental mediated current densities. Additional DFT-derived molecular properties were considered to develop a predictive model, which could be used in metabolic engineering approaches to introduce phenazines as endogenous mediators into bacteria.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 60(8): 5497-5506, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829762

RESUMO

Lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4, a widely used cathode material in commercial Li-ion batteries, unveils a complex defect structure, which is still being deciphered. Using a combined computational and experimental approach comprising density functional theory (DFT)+U and molecular dynamics calculations and X-ray and neutron diffraction, we provide a comprehensive characterization of various OH point defects in LiFePO4, including their formation, dynamics, and localization in the interstitial space and at Li, Fe, and P sites. It is demonstrated that one, two, and four (five) OH groups can effectively stabilize Li, Fe, and P vacancies, respectively. The presence of D (H) at both Li and P sites for hydrothermally synthesized deuterium-enriched LiFePO4 is confirmed by joint X-ray and neutron powder diffraction structure refinement at 5 K that also reveals a strong deficiency of P of 6%. The P occupancy decrease is explained by the formation of hydrogarnet-like P/4H and P/5H defects, which have the lowest formation energies among all considered OH defects. Molecular dynamics simulation shows a rich structural diversity of these defects, with OH groups pointing both inside and outside vacant P tetrahedra creating numerous energetically close conformers, which hinders their explicit localization with diffraction-based methods solely. The discovered conformers include structural water molecules, which are only by 0.04 eV/atom H higher in energy than separate OH defects.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(24): 2986-2989, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634297

RESUMO

Herein, we report the synthesis and investigation of a novel phenazine derivative M1 with oligomeric ethylene glycol ether substituents as a promising anolyte material for non-aqueous organic redox flow batteries (RFBs). The designed material undergoes a reversible and stable reduction at -1.72 V vs. Ag/AgNO3 and demonstrates excellent (>2.5 M) solubility in MeCN. A non-aqueous organic redox flow battery assembled using the novel phenazine derivative as an anolyte and a substituted triarylamine derivative as a catholyte exhibited high specific capacity (∼93% from the theoretical value), >95% Coulombic efficiency, 65% utilization of active materials and good charge-discharge cycling stability.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(4): 5184-5194, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474932

RESUMO

All-inorganic lead halide perovskites, for example, CsPbI3, are becoming more attractive for applications as light absorbers in perovskite solar cells because of higher thermal and photochemical stability as compared to their hybrid analogues. However, a specific drawback of the CsPbI3 absorber consists of the rapid phase transition from black to yellow nonphotoactive phase at low temperatures (e.g., <100 °C), which is accelerated under exposure to light. Herein, an experimental screening of an unprecedently large series (>30) of metal cations in a wide range of concentration has allowed us to establish a set of Pb2+ substitutes, facilitating the crystallization of the photoactive black CsPbI3 phase at low temperatures. Importantly, the appropriate Pb2+ substitution with Ca2+, Sr2+, Ce3+, Nd3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy2+, Er3+, Yb2+, Lu3+, and Pt2+ cations has led to a spectacular enhancement of the film stability under realistic solar cell operation conditions (∼1 sun equivalent light exposure, 50 °C). Optoelectronic, structural, and morphological effects of partial Pb2+ substitution were investigated, providing a deeper insight into the processes underlying the stabilization of the CsPbI3 films. Several CsPb1-xMxI∼3 systems were evaluated as absorber materials in perovskite solar cells, demonstrating encouraging light power conversion efficiency of 11.4% in preliminary experiments. The obtained results feature the potential of designing efficient and stable all-inorganic perovskite solar cells using novel absorber materials rationally designed via compositional engineering.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(24): 1-5, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295771

RESUMO

The search for new environmental-friendly materials for energy storage is ongoing. In the presented paper, we propose polymer microgels as a new class of redox-active colloids (RACs). The microgel stable colloids are perspective low-viscosity fluids for advanced flow batteries with high volumetric energy density. In this research, we describe the procedure for the anchoring of 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (4-amino-TEMPO) redox-active sites to the polymeric chains of water-soluble microgels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating networks. Using cyclic voltammetry and EPR spectroscopy, we show that ca. 14% of 4-amino-TEMPO groups retain electroactive properties and demonstrate the reversible redox response. It allows achieving a stable capacity of 2.5 mAh/g, enabling the low-viscous catholyte with a capacity of more than 100 mAh/L.

9.
ACS Sens ; 5(11): 3547-3557, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175510

RESUMO

The targeted diagnosis and effective treatments of chronic skin wounds remain a healthcare burden, requiring the development of sensors for real-time monitoring of wound healing activity. Herein, we describe an adaptable method for the fabrication of carbon ultramicroelectrode arrays (CUAs) on flexible substrates with the goal to utilize this sensor as a wearable device to monitor chronic wounds. As a proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate the electrochemical detection of three electroactive analytes as biomarkers for wound healing state in simulated wound media on flexible CUAs. Notably, to follow pathogenic responses, we characterize analytical figures of merit for identification and monitoring of bacterial warfare toxin pyocyanin (PYO) secreted by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also demonstrate the detection of uric acid (UA) and nitric oxide (NO•), which are signaling molecules indicative of wound healing and immune responses, respectively. The electrochemically determined limit of detection (LOD) and linear dynamic range (LDR) for PYO, UA, and NO• fall within the clinically relevant concentrations. Additionally, we demonstrate the successful use of flexible CUAs for quantitative, electrochemical detection of PYO from P. aeruginosa strains and cellular NO• from immune cells in the wound matrix. Moreover, we present an electrochemical examination of the interaction between PYO and NO•, providing insight into pathogen-host responses. Finally, the effects of the antimicrobial agent, silver (Ag+), on P. aeruginosa PYO production rates are investigated on flexible CUAs. Our electrochemical results show that the addition of Ag+ to P. aeruginosa in wound simulant decreases PYO secretion rates.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Piocianina , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Cicatrização
10.
Chempluschem ; 85(12): 2580-2585, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155772

RESUMO

The quality of ion-selective membranes determines the efficiency of Vanadium Flow Batteries (VFBs), and alternatives to expensive Nafion™ materials are actively being searched for. One of the membrane architecture approaches is to imitate the Nafion™ structure with two separate phases: a conductive sulfonated polymer and an inner matrix. We introduce a new composite material based on sulfonated styrene polymerized inside the pores of a stretched PTFE matrix. Variation of polystyrene content and a sulfonation degree allowed to obtain membranes with IEC from to 0.96 to 1.84 mmol/g. Balanced vanadium permeability (ca. 5.5 ⋅ 10-6  cm2 /min) and proton conductivity (ca. 50 mS/cm) were achieved for the material with 21-23 % polystyrene content and a sulfonation degree up to 94 %. Membranes showed stable cycling with 81 % energy efficiency in a single-cell VFB. This work contributes to the existing knowledge of Nafion alternatives by providing a cheap and scalable method of membrane production.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(16): 6772-6778, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689804

RESUMO

Hybrid perovskite solar cells attract a great deal of attention due to the feasibility of their low-cost production and their demonstration of impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 25%. However, the insufficient intrinsic stability of lead halides under light soaking and thermal stress impedes practical implementation of this technology. Herein, we show that the photothermal aging of a widely used perovskite light absorber such as MAPbI3 can be suppressed significantly by using polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) as a stabilizing agent. By applying a few complementary methods, we reveal that the PVC additive leads to passivation of defects in the absorber material. Introducing an optimal content of PVC into MAPbI3 delivers a PCE of 18.7% in combination with a significantly improved solar cell operational lifetime: devices retained ∼70% of the initial efficiency after light soaking for 1500 h, whereas the control samples without PVC degraded almost completely under the same conditions.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(14): 5563-5568, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564599

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that charge transport interlayers with low gas permeability can increase the operational lifetime of perovskite solar cells serving as a barrier for migration of volatile decomposition products from the photoactive layer. Herein we present a hybrid hole transport layer (HTL) comprised of p-type polytriarylamine (PTAA) polymer and vanadium(V) oxide (VOx). Devices with PTAA/VOx top HTL reach up to 20% efficiency and demonstrate negligible degradation after 4500 h of light soaking, whereas reference cells using PTAA/MoOx as HTL lose ∼50% of their initial efficiency under the same aging conditions. It was shown that the main origin of the enhanced device stability lies in the higher tolerance of VOx toward MAPbI3 compared to the MoOx interlayer, which tends to facilitate perovskite decomposition. Our results demonstrate that the application of PTAA/VOx hybrid HTL enables long-term operational stability of perovskite solar cells, thus bringing them closer to commercial applications.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8550, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444787

RESUMO

Li-ion battery performance and life cycle strongly depend on a passivation layer called solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). Its structure and composition are studied in great details, while its formation process remains elusive due to difficulty of in situ measurements of battery electrodes. Here we provide a facile methodology for in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of SEI formation on cross-sectioned composite battery electrodes allowing for direct observations of SEI formation on various types of carbonaceous negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. Using this approach, we observed SEI nucleation and growth on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), MesoCarbon MicroBeads (MCMB) graphite, and non-graphitizable amorphous carbon (hard carbon). Besides the details of the formation mechanism, the electrical and mechanical properties of the SEI layers were assessed. The comparative observations revealed that the electrode potentials for SEI formation differ depending on the nature of the electrode material, whereas the adhesion of SEI to the electrode surface clearly correlates with the surface roughness of the electrode. Finally, the same approach applied to a positive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 electrode did not reveal any signature of cathodic SEI thus demonstrating fundamental differences in the stabilization mechanisms of the negative and positive electrodes in Li-ion batteries.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(16): 19161-19173, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233360

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of a series of hole transport layer (HTL) materials such as Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), NiOx, poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine (PTAA), and polytriarylamine (PTA) on photostability of thin films and solar cells based on MAPbI3, Cs0.15FA0.85PbI3, Cs0.1MA0.15FA0.75PbI3, Cs0.1MA0.15FA0.75Pb(Br0.15I0.85)3, and Cs0.15FA0.85Pb(Br0.15I0.85)3 complex lead halides. Mixed halide perovskites showed reduced photostability in comparison with similar iodide-only compositions. In particular, we observed light-induced recrystallization of all perovskite films except MAPbI3 with the strongest effects revealed for Br-containing systems. Moreover, halide and ß FAPbI3 phase segregations were also observed mostly in mixed-halide systems. Interestingly, coating perovskite films with the PCBM layer spectacularly suppressed light-induced growth of crystalline domains as well as segregation of Br-rich and I-rich phases or ß FAPbI3. We strongly believe that all three effects are promoted by the light-induced formation of surface defects, which are healed by adjacent PCBM coating. While comparing different hole-transport materials, we found that NiOx and PEDOT:PSS are the least suitable HTLs because of their interfacial (photo)chemical interactions with perovskite absorbers. On the contrary, polyarylamine-type HTLs PTA and PTAA form rather stable interfaces, which makes them the best candidates for durable p-i-n perovskite solar cells. Indeed, multilayered ITO/PTA(A)/MAPbI3/PCBM stacks revealed no aging effects within 1000 h of continuous light soaking and delivered stable and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cells. The obtained results suggest that using polyarylamine-type HTLs and simple single-phase perovskite compositions pave a way for designing stable and efficient perovskite solar cells.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2630-2636, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178515

RESUMO

In this work, we report a comparative study of the gamma ray stability of perovskite solar cells based on a series of perovskite absorbers including MAPbI3 (MA = methylammonium), MAPbBr3, Cs0.15FA0.85PbI3 (FA = formamidinim), Cs0.1MA0.15FA0.75PbI3, CsPbI3, and CsPbBr3. We reveal that the composition of the perovskite material strongly affects the radiation stability of the solar cells. In particular, solar cells based on the MAPbI3 were found to be the most resistant to gamma rays since this perovskite undergoes rapid self-healing due to the special gas-phase chemistry analyzed with ab initio calculations. The fact that the solar cells based on MAPbI3 can withstand a 1000 kRad gamma ray dose without any noticeable degradation of the photovoltaic properties is particularly exciting and shifts the paradigm of research in this field toward designing more dynamic rather than intrinsically robust (e.g., inorganic) materials.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1484, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198379

RESUMO

The rapid progress in mass-market applications of metal-ion batteries intensifies the development of economically feasible electrode materials based on earth-abundant elements. Here, we report on a record-breaking titanium-based positive electrode material, KTiPO4F, exhibiting a superior electrode potential of 3.6 V in a potassium-ion cell, which is extraordinarily high for titanium redox transitions. We hypothesize that such an unexpectedly major boost of the electrode potential benefits from the synergy of the cumulative inductive effect of two anions and charge/vacancy ordering. Carbon-coated electrode materials display no capacity fading when cycled at 5C rate for 100 cycles, which coupled with extremely low energy barriers for potassium-ion migration of 0.2 eV anticipates high-power applications. Our contribution shows that the titanium redox activity traditionally considered as "reducing" can be upshifted to near-4V electrode potentials thus providing a playground to design sustainable and cost-effective titanium-containing positive electrode materials with promising electrochemical characteristics.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(8): 4581-4591, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048660

RESUMO

The elucidation of complex electrochemical reaction mechanisms requires advanced models with many intermediate reaction steps, which are governed by a large number of parameters like reaction rate constants and charge transfer coefficients. Overcomplicated models introduce high uncertainty in the choice of the parameters and cannot be used to obtain meaningful insights on the reaction pathway. We describe a new framework of optimal reaction mechanism selection based on the mean-field microkinetic modeling approach (MF-MKM) and adaptive sampling of model parameters. The optimal model is selected to provide both the accurate fitting of experimental data within the experimental error and low uncertainty of model parameters choice. Generally, this approach can be applied for any complex heterogeneous electrochemical reaction. We use the "2e-" electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a representative example of a sufficiently complex reaction. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) experimental data for both ORR in O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH solution and hydrogen peroxide oxidation/reduction reaction (HPRR/HPOR) in Ar-purged 0.1 M KOH solution with different HO2- concentrations were used to show the dependence of the model parameters uniqueness on the completeness of the experimental dataset. It is demonstrated that the optimal reaction mechanism for ORR on CNT and available experimental data consists of O2 adsorption step on the electrode surface and effective step of two-electron reduction to HO2- combined with its desorption from the electrode. The low uncertainty of estimated model parameters is provided only within the 2-step model being applied to the full available experimental dataset. The assessment of elementary step mechanisms on electro-catalytic materials including carbon-based electrodes requires more diverse experimental data and/or higher precision of experimental measurements to facilitate more precise microkinetic modeling of more complex reaction mechanisms.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(10): 1541-1544, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922170

RESUMO

We report the application of a Ni-based coordination polymer derived from 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene (P1) as a fast and stable potassium battery anode. In a voltage range of 0.5-2.0 V vs. K+/K, a reversible capacity of 220 mA h g-1 was obtained at 0.1 A g-1. Even with a relatively high electrode loading of 5.0 mg cm-2 and only 10 wt% carbon additive, 118 mA h g-1 was still retained at 1 A g-1. For thinner electrodes with 30 wt% carbon, a capacity of up to 104 mA h g-1 was observed at 10 A g-1 (charging in ∼40 seconds). An areal capacity of up to 2.73 mA h cm-2 was demonstrated. The capacity fade at 1 A g-1 was only 4.4% after 200 cycles. Structure transformations of P1 during charge/discharge were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 152(19): 194704, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687249

RESUMO

Hard carbon (HC) is considered as a negative electrode material for potassium-ion batteries, but it suffers from significant irreversible capacity loss at the first discharge cycle. Here, we investigated the possible reasons of this capacity loss with a combination of in situ AFM and various ex situ TEM techniques (high resolution TEM and high angle annular dark field scanning TEM imaging, and STEM-EELS and STEM-EDX spectroscopic mapping) targeting the electrode/electrolyte interphase formation process in the carbonate-based electrolyte with and without vinylene carbonate (VC) as an additive. The studied HC consists of curved graphitic layers arranged into short packets and round cages, the latter acting as traps for K+ ions causing low Coulombic efficiency between cycling. Our comparative study of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in the carbonate-based electrolyte with and without the VC additive revealed that in the pristine electrolyte, the SEI consists mostly of inorganic components, whereas adding VC introduces a polymeric organic component to the SEI, increasing its elasticity and stability against fracturing upon HC expansion/contraction during electrochemical cycling. Additionally, significant K+ loss occurs due to Na+ for K+ exchange in Na-carboxymethyl cellulose used as a binder. These findings reflect the cumulative impact of the internal HC structure, SEI properties, and binder nature into the electrochemical functional properties of the HC-based anodes for K-ion batteries.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(1): 135-140, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820980

RESUMO

Thermal effects in organo-metal halide perovskites are studied by ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed at effective temperatures of 293 and 383 K and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We find that the cause of thermal instability in this class of perovskites is the rotation of the methylammonium (MA) groups that destroy the rigid lattice of pure compounds (MAPbI3 and MAPbBr3). When the Pb-I lattice is initially distorted by partial replacement of the I with Cl or Br, this not only prevents formation of PbI2 seeds but also improves lattice flexibility and stability against the temperature-induced motion and rotation of MA groups.

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