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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-9, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dialysis patients may not have access to conventional renal replacement therapy (RRT) following disasters. We hypothesized that improvised renal replacement therapy (ImpRRT) would be comparable to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a porcine acute kidney injury model. METHODS: Following bilateral nephrectomies and 2 hours of caudal aortic occlusion, 12 pigs were randomized to 4 hours of ImpRRT or CRRT. In the ImpRRT group, blood was circulated through a dialysis filter using a rapid infuser to collect the ultrafiltrate. Improvised replacement fluid, made with stock solutions, was infused pre-pump. In the CRRT group, commercial replacement fluid was used. During RRT, animals received isotonic crystalloids and norepinephrine. RESULTS: There were no differences in serum creatinine, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus concentrations. While there was a difference between groups in serum potassium concentration over time (P < 0.001), significance was lost in pairwise comparison at specific time points. Replacement fluids or ultrafiltrate flows did not differ between groups. There were no differences in lactate concentration, isotonic crystalloid requirement, or norepinephrine doses. No difference was found in electrolyte concentrations between the commercial and improvised replacement solutions. CONCLUSION: The ImpRRT system achieved similar performance to CRRT and may represent a potential option for temporary RRT following disasters.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433103

RESUMO

Advances in combat casualty care have improved combat survivability over the past two decades. However, these outcomes remain incompletely framed in the broader context of combat casualty outcomes over the past eighty years. We hypothesized that starting with World War II, combat survival worsened at the beginning of each new conflict but then improved over time. To evaluate long-term trends in combat casualty outcomes, monthly combat injuries and deaths during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam conflict, Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) were collated. From these numbers, we calculated the monthly case fatality rate (CFR), the killed in action rate (%KIA), and the died of wounds rate (%DOW). We analyzed these metrics for significant trends during and between each conflict using linear and Loess regression. We then simulated alternate outcome scenarios by eliminating outcome variability. In this comprehensive analysis, CFR decreased over the study period in parallel with a decrease in %KIA. When examining individual conflicts, however, several unfavorable trends emerged including a spike in all fatality measures at the end of Vietnam and a rise in %DOW over the course of Korea and OIF. In comparing CFR at the beginning of each conflict to the best CFR from the prior conflict, high mortality outliers occurred in every conflict after a period of relative peace, and a clear "peacetime effect" occurred in both World War II and Vietnam. Eliminating these negative trends and the attendant preventable deaths would have reduced combat fatalities over the course of eighty years by 107,256 (39.7%). In summary, although combat mortality rates have generally improved since World War II, closer examination indicates several unfavorable trends both during and between conflicts. Identifying factors behind these trends will reveal further opportunities to improve combat casualty outcomes in the future. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, Epidemiological.

3.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 59(3): 322-327, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204749

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of coagulation in porcine studies is essential. We sought to establish normal values for porcine rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) according to the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines and to assess the effects of various preanalytical parameters on those measurements. Healthy Yorkshire-cross pigs (n = 81; 46 males and 35 females) were anesthetized. By using a 18-gauge needle attached to a vacuum phlebotomy tube, blood was acquired from the cranial vena cava. Tubes were filled in the following order: evacuation clot tube, EDTA tube, heparin tube, and 2 citrate tubes. The citrate tubes were randomly assigned to 30 min with or without constant agitation on a rocker. The following parameters were reported according to the manufacturer's recommendations: clotting time, clot formation time, α, (tangent to the clot formation curve when the clot firmness is 20 mm), clot firmness after 10 and 20 min, maximal clot firmness, maximum lysis, and lysis indexes at 30 and 45 min. Reference intervals were reported as mean ± 2 SD (parametric distribution) or 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of the population's results (nonparametric distribution). The effects of sex, sampling order, and agitation on ROTEM results were analyzed through linear regression. Neither sex nor sample agitation influenced any of the ROTEM parameters. Combined reference intervals were established for each ROTEM parameter by pooling data from the nonagitated tubes for both male and female pigs. This study is the first to establish ROTEM reference intervals from a large number of male and female adult Yorkshire-cross pigs and to provide a detailed description of preanalytical sample processing.

4.
Mil Med ; 185(Suppl 1): 296-302, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We explore disparities in awarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) service-connected disability benefits (SCDB) to veterans based on gender, race/ethnicity, and misconduct separation. METHODS: Department of Defense data on service members who separated from October 1, 2001 to May 2017 were linked to Veterans Administration (VA) administrative data. Using adjusted logistic regression models, we determined the odds of receiving a PTSD SCDB conditional on a VA diagnosis of PTSD. RESULTS: A total of 1,558,449 (79% of separating service members) had at least one encounter in VA during the study period (12% female, 4.5% misconduct separations). Females (OR 0.72) and Blacks (OR 0.93) were less likely to receive a PTSD award and were nearly equally likely to receive a PTSD diagnosis (OR 0.97, 1.01). Other racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to receive an award and diagnosis, as were those with misconduct separations (award OR 1.3, diagnosis 2.17). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being diagnosed with PTSD at similar rates to their referent categories, females and Black veterans are less likely to receive PTSD disability awards. Other racial/ethnic minorities and those with misconduct separations were more likely to receive PTSD diagnoses and awards. Further study is merited to explore variation in awarding SCDB.

5.
J Burn Care Res ; 41(3): 633-639, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960038

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high mortality in burn patients. Urinary biomarkers can aid in the prediction of AKI and its consequences, such as death and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel methodology for detecting urinary biomarkers, the NephroCheck® Test System, and assess its ability to predict death or the need for RRT in burn patients. Burn patients admitted to the United States Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) burn intensive care unit were prospectively enrolled between March 2016 and April 2018. A urine sample was obtained from all study participants using the NephroCheck® system. Patient and injury characteristics were gathered, and descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using these data. Of the 69 patients in this study, 15 patients (21.7%) attained the composite outcome of death or needing RRT within 30 days of urine collection. NephroCheck® scores were higher for patients with the composite outcome, with P = 0.06 for centrifuged scores and P = 0.04 for noncentrifuged scores. Centrifuged and noncentrifuged scores were in high agreement and correlation (R2 = 0.97, P < 0.0001). Noncentrifuged scores were significant in the unadjusted analysis, but they were not significant in the adjusted analysis. Although these scores had a lower sensitivity and negative predictive value compared with other parameters, they had the second highest specificity and positive predictive value. NephroCheck® scores were higher in burn patients with the composite outcome of death or needing RRT, and they demonstrated comparable sensitivity and specificity to creatinine and TBSA.

6.
J Hypertens ; 38(7): 1293-1301, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the long-term effects of combat injury are not well understood, there is emerging concern that exposure to combat environments and subsequent injury may increase the risk of hypertension through changes in inflammatory responses, psychological stress and mental health, and health behaviors. METHODS: Data from the Millennium Cohort Study and the Department of Defense Trauma Registry were used to identify combat-exposed and combat-injured participants. Incident hypertension diagnoses were ascertained from the Millennium Cohort survey. The associations between combat exposure/injury and hypertension risk was estimated using multivariable complementary log-log survival models. RESULTS: The final analysis sample consisted of 38 734 participants. Of these, 50.8% deployed but were not exposed to combat, 48.6% deployed and were exposed to combat, and 0.6% had combat injury. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 7.6%. Compared with participants who deployed but did not experience combat (mild exposure), elevated odds of hypertension were observed among those who experienced combat but not wounded (moderate exposure; AOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19-1.38) and those wounded in combat (high exposure; AOR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.07-2.00). Sleep duration of less than 4 h (AOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03-1.43), sleep duration of 4-6 h (AOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29), posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.26-1.87), and overweight (AOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.61-1.95) and obese (AOR, 2.77; 95% CI, 2.45-3.12) status were also associated with higher odds of hypertension. CONCLUSION: Results support the hypotheses that combat exposure increases hypertension risk and that combat injury exacerbates this risk.

7.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persistent opioid use after injury is associated with subsequent long-term development of clinically recognized opioid abuse. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Opioid abuse is an epidemic in the United States and trauma can initiate persistent use; however, it remains unclear whether persistent opioid use contributes to the subsequent development of opioid abuse. The care of combat casualties by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs uniquely allows investigation of this long-term outcome. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study randomly selected 10,000 battle-injured United States military personnel. We excluded patients who died during initial hospitalization or within 180 days of discharge, had a preinjury opioid abuse diagnosis, or had missing data in a preselected variable. We defined persistent opioid use as filling an opioid prescription 3 to 6 months after discharge and recorded clinically recognized opioid abuse using relevant diagnosis codes. RESULTS: After exclusion, 9284 subjects were analyzed, 2167 (23.3%) of whom developed persistent opioid use. During a median follow-up time of 8 years, 631 (6.8%) patients developed clinically recognized opioid abuse with a median time to diagnosis of 3 years. Injury severity and discharge opioid prescription amount were associated with persistent opioid use after trauma. After adjusting for patient and injury-specific factors, persistent opioid use was associated with the long-term development of clinically recognized opioid abuse (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly a quarter of patients filled an opioid prescription 3 to 6 months after discharge, and this persistent use was associated with long-term development of opioid abuse.

8.
Ethn Dis ; 29(3): 451-462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367165

RESUMO

Objective: To determine: 1) rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with and without prior US military service; and 2) variation in CVD outcomes by race/ethnicity. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the 2011-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System during 2018-2019. Groups with (n=369,844) and without (n=2,491,784) prior service were compared overall, and by race/ethnicity. CVD odds were compared using logistic regression. Rate-difference decomposition was used to estimate relative contributions of covariates to differences in CVD prevalence. Results: CVD was associated with military service (OR=1.34; P<.001). Among non-Hispanic Blacks, prior service was associated with a lower odds of CVD (OR=.69; P<.001), fully attenuating the net difference in CVD between individuals with and without prior service. Non-Hispanic Whites who served had the highest odds of CVD, while Hispanics with prior service had the same odds of CVD as non-Hispanic Whites without prior service. After age, smoking and body mass index status were the largest contributors to CVD differences by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Results from this study support an association between prior military service and CVD and highlight differences in this association by race/ethnicity. Knowledge of modifiable health behaviors that contribute to differences in CVD outcomes could be used to guide prevention efforts.

9.
Injury ; 50(11): 1908-1914, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trauma patients are predisposed to kidney injury. We hypothesized that in shock, zone 3 REBOA would increase renal blood flow (RBF) compared to control and that a period of zone 3 occlusion following zone 1 occlusion would improve renal function compared to zone 1 occlusion alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four anesthetized swine underwent hemorrhagic shock, 45 min of zone 1 REBOA (Z1, supraceliac), zone 3 REBOA (Z3, infrarenal), or no intervention (control) followed by resuscitation with shed blood and 5 h of critical care. In a fourth group (Z1Z3), animals underwent 55 min of zone 3 REBOA following zone 1 occlusion. Physiologic parameters were recorded, blood and urine were collected at specified intervals. RESULTS: During critical care, there were no differences in RBF between the Z1 and Z3 groups. The average RBF during critical care in Z1Z3 was significantly lower than in Z3 alone (98.2 ±â€¯23.9 and 191.9 ±â€¯23.7 mL/min; p = 0.046) and not different than Z1. There was no difference in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-to-urinary creatinine ratio between Z1 and Z1Z3. Animals in the Z1Z3 group had a significant increase in the ratio at the end of the experiment compared to baseline [median (IQR)] [9.2 (8.2-13.2) versus 264.5 (73.6-1174.6)]. Following Z1 balloon deflation, RBF required 45 min to return to baseline. CONCLUSION: Neither zone 3 REBOA alone nor zone 3 REBOA following zone 1 REBOA improved renal blood flow or function. Following zone 1 occlusion, RBF is restored to baseline levels after approximately 45 min.

10.
J Am Coll Surg ; 229(5): 508-515.e1, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction is important during combat operations because resources are limited and triage decisions must be rapid and accurate. We evaluated 2 point-of-care urinary biomarker tests for risk prediction in combat casualties. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study of critically injured military personnel admitted to Craig Joint Theater Hospital in Afghanistan from October 2012 to December 2013. We collected urine within 3 hours of admission and measured urinary biomarkers with NephroCheck and a neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin dipstick (NGALds) to evaluate their ability to predict a combined end point of need for renal replacement therapy or death. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and receiver operator characteristic curves were generated for both tests. RESULTS: A total of 89 patients were included for analysis. The median Injury Severity Score was 18 and the combined end point occurred in 12 (13.5%) patients. NephroCheck was not associated with the combined end point (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.81 to 3.03; p = 0.19) and the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.65. The NGALds was highly associated with the combined end point (OR 4.93; 95% CI 2.18 to 11.14; p < 0.001) and the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.84. The NGALds remained significantly associated with the combined end point in a logistic regression model that included Injury Severity Score as a covariate (OR 4.10; 95% CI 1.74 to 9.67; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of urinary biomarkers with an NGALds, but not NephroCheck, predicts poor outcomes in combat casualties. An NGALds is a simple urine dipstick that could be deployed to combat zones to prioritize aeromedical evacuation, help with triage decisions, and predict resource use.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Militares , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ferimentos e Lesões/urina , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Lipocalina-2/urina , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
11.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275952

RESUMO

While hemorrhagic shock might be the result of various conditions, hemorrhage control and resuscitation are the corner stone of patient management. Hemorrhage control can prove challenging in both the acute care and surgical settings, especially in the abdomen, where no direct pressure can be applied onto the source of bleeding. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has emerged as a promising replacement to resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) for the management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage in human trauma patients. By inflating a balloon at specific levels (or zones) of the aorta to interrupt blood flow, hemorrhage below the level of the balloon can be controlled. While REBOA allows for hemorrhage control and augmentation of blood pressure cranial to the balloon, it also exposes caudal tissue beds to ischemia and the whole body to reperfusion injury. We aim to introduce the advantages of REBOA while reviewing known limitations. This review outlines a step-by-step approach to REBOA implementation, and discusses common challenges observed both in human patients and during translational large animal studies. Currently accepted and debated indications for REBOA in humans are discussed. Finally, we review possible applications for veterinary patients and how REBOA has the potential to be translated into clinical veterinary practice.

12.
Transfusion ; 59(S2): 1601-1607, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable trauma-related mortality and is frequently aggravated by acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC). Viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) may improve identification and management of ATC. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate changes in ROTEM among combat casualties during the first 24 hours and compare the capabilities of our conventional clotting assay (international normalized ratio [INR], >1.2) to a proposed integrated ROTEM model (INR >1.2 with the addition of tissue factor pathway activation thromboelastometry [EXTEM] A5 ≤35 mm and/or EXTEM LI30 <97% on admission) to identify ATC and predict massive transfusion (MT). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of trauma patients treated in NATO hospitals in Afghanistan between January 2012 and June 2013. ROTEM (EXTEM, functional fibrinogen thromboelastometry, APTEM, EXTEM with the addition of a fibrinolysis inhibitor) was performed on admission and at 6 and 24 hours by a designated research team. Treatment teams did not have access to the ROTEM results. RESULTS: ROTEM values were available for 40 male casualties. The integrated ROTEM model classified 15% more patients with ATC than with INR alone and increased the detection of those that required MT by 22%. The sensitivity of the integrated ROTEM model to predict MT was higher than with INR greater than 1.2 (86% vs. 64%); however, specificity with both definitions for predicting MT was poor (38% vs. 50%, respectively). CONCLUSION: These observations support the importance of early identification of and intervention in ATC. Integrating ROTEM into the definition of ATC would increase detection of those requiring MT arguing for its use as an adjunct to clinical presentation in the ultimate decision to initiate MT.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Hemorragia , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Modelos Biológicos , Tromboelastografia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Afeganistão , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/terapia , Hospitais Militares , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(4): 694-701, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potassium-binding polymers have shown promising results in an anephric porcine hyperkalemia model. The benefits of the polymer in a clinically relevant injury model remain unknown. We hypothesized that potassium-binding cartridges would control serum potassium concentration in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model with supraceliac aortic occlusion and a limb crush injury. METHODS: Ten Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized and instrumented. Pigs underwent splenectomy and bilateral nephrectomy. Hemorrhagic shock was induced for 30 minutes while a leg compression device was applied. Pigs underwent supraceliac aortic occlusion for 60 minutes and were resuscitated with shed blood. The leg compression device was removed 20 minutes after balloon deflation. After 20 minutes of reperfusion, animals were randomized to extracorporeal circulation with (treatment) or without (control) the potassium binding cartridges. In both groups, blood was circulated through a hemodialyzer with a peristaltic pump. In the treatment group, the ultrafiltrate was diverted from the hemodialyzer through cartridges containing the polymer and returned to the extracorporeal circuit. Animals were resuscitated with 0.9% saline boluses and a norepinephrine infusion. The change in serum potassium concentration (ΔK) was calculated as serum [K]T390 - serum [K]T0. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in serum potassium concentration between groups (p < 0.001). ΔK was significantly higher in the control than the treatment group (3.75 [3.27-4.42] and 1.15 [0.62-1.59] mmol/L, respectively; p = 0.03). There were no differences in mean arterial pressure (p = 0.14), isotonic crystalloids requirement (p = 0.51), or norepinephrine dose (p = 0.83) between groups. Serum lactate concentration was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). At the end of the experiment, the [K] was reduced by 25% (24.9%-27.8%) across the cartridges. CONCLUSION: The cartridges controlled serum potassium concentrations without dialysate and retained potassium binding capabilities over 4 hours. There were no deleterious effects on hemodynamic parameters. Those cartridges might be beneficial adjuncts for hyperkalemia management in austere environments. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Translational science study, level I.

14.
Mil Med ; 184(5-6): e298-e302, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low distal aortic flow via partial aortic occlusion (AO) may mitigate ischemia induced by resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). We compared endocrine effects of a novel simulated partial AO strategy, endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC), with simulated REBOA in a swine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aortic flow in 20 swine was routed from the supraceliac aorta through an automated extracorporeal circuit. Following liver injury-induced hemorrhagic shock, animals were randomized to control (unregulated distal flow), simulated REBOA (no flow, complete AO), or simulated EVAC (distal flow of 100-300 mL/min after 20 minutes of complete AO). After 90 minutes, damage control surgery, resuscitation, and full flow restoration ensued. Critical care was continued for 4.5 hours or until death. RESULTS: Serum angiotensin II concentration was higher in the simulated EVAC (4,769 ± 624 pg/mL) than the simulated REBOA group (2649 ± 429) (p = 0.01) at 180 minutes. There was no detectable difference in serum renin [simulated REBOA: 231.3 (227.9-261.4) pg/mL; simulated EVAC: 294.1 (231.2-390.7) pg/mL; p = 0.27], aldosterone [simulated EVAC: 629 (454-1098), simulated REBOA: 777 (575-1079) pg/mL, p = 0.53], or cortisol (simulated EVAC: 141 ± 12, simulated REBOA: 127 ± 9 ng/mL, p = 0.34) concentrations between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated EVAC was associated with higher serum angiotensin II, which may have contributed to previously reported cardiovascular benefits. Future studies should evaluate the renal effects of EVAC and the concomitant therapeutic use of angiotensin II.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Sistema Endócrino/enzimologia , Aldosterona/análise , Aldosterona/sangue , Angiotensina II/análise , Angiotensina II/sangue , Animais , Aorta/enzimologia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema Endócrino/irrigação sanguínea , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Renina/análise , Renina/sangue , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suínos
15.
Mil Med ; 184(3-4): 81-83, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215751

RESUMO

Trauma-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has affected many U.S. warfighters throughout history. We seek to provide a historical review of the epidemiology of combat-acquired AKI and to highlight the importance of adapting current renal replacement therapy (RRT) capabilities to prepare for the next armed conflict. While severe AKI was rare in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, an analysis of prior wars suggests that it will be more common in future combat operations characterized by prolonged evacuation times, limited resuscitation capabilities, and delayed aeromedical evacuation. Therefore, the military community must develop RRT capabilities to satisfy the demands of prolonged field care and austere environments. We propose a series of solutions such as re-enforcing forward deployment of conventional RRT capabilities as well as novel therapies such as improvised dialysis systems or sorbent-based RRT.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/complicações , Distúrbios de Guerra/terapia , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/tendências
16.
Shock ; 50(6): 677-683, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427323

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The standard of care for refractory hyperkalemia is renal replacement therapy (RRT). However, traditional RRT requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and large amounts of dialysate. It is therefore poorly suited for austere environments. We hypothesized that a simplified hemoperfusion system could control serum potassium concentration in a swine model of acute hyperkalemia. METHODS: Ten pigs were anesthetized and instrumented. A dialysis catheter was inserted. After bilateral nephrectomy, animals received intravenous potassium chloride and were randomized to the control or treatment group. In both groups, blood was pumped through an extracorporeal circuit (EC) with an in-line hemodialyzer. In the treatment arm, ultrafiltrate from the hemodialyzer was diverted through cartridges containing novel potassium binding beads and returned to the EC. Blood samples were obtained every 30 min for 6 h. RESULTS: Serum potassium concentration was significantly lower in the treatment than in the control group over time (P = 0.02). There was no difference in serum total calcium concentration for group or time (P = 0.13 and 0.44, respectively) or platelet count between groups or over time (P = 0.28 and 1, respectively). No significant EC thrombosis occurred. Two of five animals in the control group and none in the treatment group developed arrhythmias. All animals survived until end of experiment. CONCLUSIONS: A simplified hemoperfusion system removed potassium in a porcine model. In austere settings, this system could be used to temporize patients with hyperkalemia until evacuation to a facility with traditional RRT.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/terapia , Animais , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoperfusão , Hiperpotassemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Potássio/sangue , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Suínos
17.
Am J Nephrol ; 48(6): 399-405, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although rhabdomyolysis has been associated with acute kidney injury and mortality in the short term, the long-term consequences of an episode of rhabdomyolysis remain unknown. We sought to identify the long-term outcomes of rhabdomyolysis, including mortality, renal function, and incidence of hypertension (HTN), among service members initially admitted to the intensive care unit after sustaining a combat injury in Iraq or Afghanistan between February 1, 2002 and February 1, 2011. METHODS: Information on age, sex, injury severity score, mechanism of injury, serum creatinine, burn injury, presenting mean arterial pressure, and creatine kinase were retrospectively collected and analyzed for 2,208 patients. Standard descriptive tests were used to compare characteristics of patients with and without rhabdomyolysis. Competing risk Cox proportional hazards models were performed to assess the associated risk of rhabdomyolysis with both HTN and poor renal function. RESULTS: While rhabdomyolysis was associated with HTN on univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64; p = 0.029), this difference did not persist on multivariable analysis (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.99-1.62; p = 0.058). The median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 119 (interquartile range [IQR] 103-128) among those with rhabdomyolysis, compared with 108 (IQR 94-121) in the group without rhabdomyolysis (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: After adjustment, patients with rhabdomyolysis were not at an increased risk of HTN compared to patients without rhabdomyolysis. eGFR was paradoxically higher in patients with rhabdomyolysis. There was no association found between rhabdomyolysis and mortality.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rabdomiólise/epidemiologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/diagnóstico , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Burns ; 44(8): 1920-1929, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The injury severity score considers burn size and inhalation injury in estimating overall anatomical injury severity. Models that adjust for injury severity score in addition to total burn size and inhalation injury may therefore be double counting the risk from these individual burn characteristics, and obscuring (or overemphasizing) the contribution of risk from each source. The primary aim of this study was to compare differences in the estimated mortality risk of burn trauma using the traditional injury severity score (ISS) calculation and the non-burn injury severity score (NBISS) to examine how separating out the risk attributable to the burn injury versus other trauma changes the interpretation and clinical assessment. METHODS: Among U.S. casualties sustaining burns during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan from March 2003 to October 2013, we performed a retrospective cohort study. Unadjusted, adjusted, and weighted Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate the risk of age, burn injury severity, and non-burn injury severity on mortality. Weighted hazard ratios and adjusted survival curves were performed using non-parametric inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: Our final sample consisted of 902 service members with a mortality proportion of 5.7% (n=51). Adjusting for non-burn trauma with traditional ISS attenuated the risk of percent total body surface area burned (%TBSA) by 20% when modeled continuously [HR (95% CI): 1.27 (1.10-1.32) vs. 1.07 (0.99-1.15]. However, the adjusted model using NBISS only attenuated the associated mortality risk of burn size by 5% [HR (95% CI): 1.22 (1.12-1.34)] and had a similar model fit (AIC: 484.2 vs. 478.6). For the weighted Cox proportional hazards models, the risk from a large burn (%TBSA≥60) was also attenuated when adjusting for ISS [HR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.18-6.64)] compared to the model adjusting for NBISS [HR (95% CI): 5.63 (2.79-11.35)]. CONCLUSION: Our analysis comparing the use of traditional ISS and NBISS to measure comorbid non-burn trauma resulted in different interpretations for the effect of %TBSA on subsequent mortality. Our results suggest that the association of %TBSA with death can be obscured by the inclusion of traditional ISS. Therefore, we recommend using NBISS when constructing statistical models in this patient population.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/mortalidade , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Militares , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/mortalidade , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Mil Med ; 183(suppl_2): 147-152, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189053

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury is a recognized complication of combat trauma. The complications associated with acute kidney injury, such as life-threatening hyperkalemia, are usually delayed in onset. In the recent conflicts, rapid evacuation of U.S. and coalition personnel generally resulted in these complications occurring at higher echelons of care where renal replacement therapies were available. In the future however, deployed providers may not have this luxury and should be prepared to temporize patients while they await transport. In this clinical practice guideline, recommendations are made for the management of patients with, or at risk for, acute kidney injury and hyperkalemia in the austere, deployed environment.


Assuntos
Diálise/métodos , Hiperpotassemia/terapia , Guerra , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Diálise/tendências , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hidratação/métodos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Medicina Militar/métodos
20.
Mil Med ; 183(11-12): e335-e340, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137515

RESUMO

Introduction: Options for the treatment of hyperkalemia in the pre-hospital setting are limited, particularly in the context of natural disaster or during combat operations. Contemporary interventions require extensive resources and technical expertise. Here we examined the potential for a simple, field deployable bridge-dialysis as a countermeasure for acute hyperkalemia induced by prolonged ischemia-reperfusion. Methods: Twenty female swine were randomized into two experimental groups undergoing a 2-hour bilateral hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion injury. Subsequent to injury, hemoperfusion was performed in the presence (Column) and absence (Sham Control) of a high-affinity potassium-binding column (CytoSorbents, Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA). Serial blood gas and chemistries were sampled. Primary endpoint was changed in serum potassium concentrations post-injury and filtration. Results: Serum potassium was significantly elevated following ischemia-reperfusion injury in both groups (149% (12) and 150% (22), p < 0.05 vs respective baseline values). There were no differences observed between groups in respect to physiologic parameters; mean arterial pressure, heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, or central venous oxygenation. Filtration resulted in a significant relative decrease in potassium compared with controls after the first hour as determined by repeated measures two-way ANOVA (p < 0.0001) which continued through end of the study. Significant thrombocytopenia was observed in animals undergoing filtration with a mean reduction in platelets measured at T = 480 minutes (168 × 103µL, p < 0.0001 vs baseline). Conclusions: We demonstrate that serum potassium can be filtered via hemoperfusion utilizing a simple extracorporeal potassium-binding platform, though evolution of this technology will be required to achieve meaningful reduction of potassium in clinically significant hyperkalemia after trauma.


Assuntos
Filtração/normas , Hiperpotassemia/terapia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Análise de Variância , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Filtração/métodos , Hemoperfusão/métodos , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Hiperpotassemia/complicações , Potássio/efeitos adversos , Potássio/análise , Potássio/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Suínos
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