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1.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 95, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although electronic monitoring is the "gold standard" for adherence monitoring, the range of inhaler devices on the market exceeds the availability of appropriate monitoring devices. Simple tools, applicable across a range of inhalers, are needed to assess patients' adherence to prescribed inhaled medication. This study reports on the validation of an Inhaler Adherence Questionnaire (IAQ). METHODS: Seventy-four adults who self-reported doctor diagnosed asthma and who were prescribed daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for asthma contributed data for these analyses. These participants were part of a larger study, investigating factors associated with non-adherence to prescribed daily inhaled corticosteroid medication. Participants were informed the research was investigating asthma management without explicit mention that medication adherence was being monitored. Inhaled corticosteroid medication adherence was measured in two ways. Firstly, participants completed the 6-item IAQ at enrolment. Secondly, ICS via pressurised Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) use was monitored electronically using the DoserCT which recorded daily use over 6 weeks. During the 6 weeks of prospective medication monitoring via the DoserCT we did not have contact with participants so that the adherence measure would reflect usual self-management behaviour. RESULTS: Two of the six questions in the IAQ had poor face validity and their exclusion from the questionnaire resulted in improved internal consistency. Mean days adherent were 37.1, 29.2 and 33.2% for subjects with IAQ scores of 0, 1 and 2 respectively. Higher IAQ scores of 3 and 4 were associated with greater mean days adherent of 73.7 and 67.4% respectively. A cut-point of 2 or less had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 80% for detecting non-adherence. The area under the ROC curve was 0.764 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The modified 4-item IAQ is simple, quick to complete and useful for measuring adherence with prescribed daily inhaled medication. This validation of the IAQ provides evidence for its utility in research and it will be important to validate this simple, inexpensive tool for use in clinical practice.

2.
Plant Dis ; : PDIS10192202RE, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954986

RESUMO

Spongospora subterranea is a soilborne plasmodiophorid that causes powdery scab in potato. It also transmits potato mop-top virus (PMTV), which causes necrotic arcs (spraing) in potato tubers. Three field experiments were conducted in naturally S. subterranea-infested soil to investigate the effects of two chemicals, Omega 500F (fluazinam) and FOLI-R-PLUS RIDEZ (biological extract), on powdery scab, PMTV, and changes in S. subterranea inoculum with six different potato cultivars. The efficacy of soil treatment with these two chemicals on tuber lesions, root galling, and pathogen population was also assessed in greenhouse trials. The chemical treatments did not reduce powdery scab, root gall formation, or S. subterranea inoculum in the field or greenhouse trials. Postharvest S. subterranea soil inoculum in fields varied across farms and among potato cultivars but the pathogen population consistently increased by the end of the growing season. The evaluated russet cultivars were more tolerant to powdery scab than the yellow- or red-skinned cultivars but all were susceptible to PMTV. In the field, powdery scab indices and soil inoculum changes were positively correlated, while postharvest S. subterranea inoculum was positively correlated with root galling in both greenhouse trials. Powdery scab and PMTV occurred in noninoculated potting mix, indicating that peat-based potting mix is a source for both pathogens. These results demonstrate that chemical management methods currently used by farmers are ineffective, that S. subterranea and PMTV in potting mix can cause severe epidemics in greenhouses, and that potato cultivar choices impact inoculum increases in soil.

3.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 271, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An experiential curriculum exposing medical students to the clinic early has many benefits but comes with the emotional stress this environment engenders. Schwartz rounds (SR) are an effective means to combat emotional stress and increasingly used in UK and USA hospitals. Recent studies show that the SR format may also provide benefits for medical students. This study aimed to investigate whether the guidance of SR in second year medical students provides the same benefits as to healthcare professionals. METHODS: SR assessment involved 83 s year MBChB students in facilitated groupwork sessions. Topics discussed were "change and resilience" and "duty of candour". Students completed a Likert Scale questionnaire evaluating outcomes proffered by the Point of Care Foundation in collaboration with the Schwartz Foundation, with freeform feedback. RESULTS: There was an 86% completion rate with 25% providing written feedback. Participants were more likely to agree than disagree that SR were beneficial. SR effectiveness in enhancing students' working relationship awareness and skills was strongly correlated with understanding the purpose of, and engagement with, the SR (P < 0.001). Similarly, engagement with the SR was strongly correlated with self-reporting of enhanced patient-centredness (P < 0.001). Freeform feedback could be grouped into five themes that revolved around understanding of the SR and engagement with the process. Many positive comments regarded the SR as a forum not only to "learn experientially" but to so in a "safe environment". Many negative comments stemmed from students not seeing any benefits of engagement with the SR, in that sharing experiences was "unbeneficial", "empathy is inherent and not learnt", or that sharing emotional problems is simply "moaning". CONCLUSION: SRs are an effective way of fostering empathy and understanding towards patients and colleagues. However, for the students to benefit fully from the SR it is necessary for them to engage and understand the process. Therefore, for the successful implementation of SR into pre-clinical medical education, it is important to help students realise that SR are not merely a "facilitated whinge".

4.
Acta Trop ; 212: 105646, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721393

RESUMO

Within schistosomiasis control, assessing environmental risk of currently non-treated demographic groups e.g. pre-school-aged children (PSAC) and their mothers is important. We conducted a pilot micro-epidemiological assessment at the crater lake of Barombi Kotto, Cameroon with GPS tracking and infection data from 12 PSAC-mother pairs (n = 24) overlaid against environmental sampling inclusive of snail, parasite and water-use information. Several high-risk locations or 'hotspots' with elevated water contact, increased intermediate snail host densities and detectable schistosome environmental DNA (eDNA) were identified. Exposure between PSAC and mother pairs was temporally and spatially associated, suggesting interventions which can benefit both groups simultaneously might be feasible. When attempting to interrupt parasite transmission in future, overlaid maps of snail, parasite and water contact data can guide fine-scale spatial targeting of environmental interventions.

5.
Cogn Sci ; 44(7): e12848, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608077

RESUMO

The computations involved in statistical learning have long been debated. Here, we build on work suggesting that a basic memory process, chunking, may account for the processing of statistical regularities into larger units. Drawing on methods from the memory literature, we developed a novel paradigm to test statistical learning by leveraging a robust phenomenon observed in serial recall tasks: that short-term memory is fundamentally shaped by long-term distributional learning. In the statistically induced chunking recall (SICR) task, participants are exposed to an artificial language, using a standard statistical learning exposure phase. Afterward, they recall strings of syllables that either follow the statistics of the artificial language or comprise the same syllables presented in a random order. We hypothesized that if individuals had chunked the artificial language into word-like units, then the statistically structured items would be more accurately recalled relative to the random controls. Our results demonstrate that SICR effectively captures learning in both the auditory and visual modalities, with participants displaying significantly improved recall of the statistically structured items, and even recall specific trigram chunks from the input. SICR also exhibits greater test-retest reliability in the auditory modality and sensitivity to individual differences in both modalities than the standard two-alternative forced-choice task. These results thereby provide key empirical support to the chunking account of statistical learning and contribute a valuable new tool to the literature.

6.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566963
7.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 47: 101751, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521434

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Head and neck cancer (HNC) and its treatment are associated with significant symptom burden and functional impairment. HNC patients must engage in intensive and complex self-management protocols to minimize acute and late treatment effects. Self-management among HNC patients is understudied due to the limited availability of disease-specific self-management measures. This article describes the initial psychometric testing of the HNC Patient Self-Management Inventory (HNC-PSMI), an instrument that characterizes self-management tasks in the HNC population. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used. One hundred HNC patients completed the HNC-PSMI, the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Cancer Symptom Survey plus General Symptom Survey, and the Profile of Mood States-Short Form. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the HNC-PSMI, the relevance of items, internal consistency of domain item responses, and the direction and strength of associations between domain scores and other measures were examined. RESULTS: There was variability both in the number of self-management tasks performed overall and in each domain as well as in the reported difficulty completing those tasks. Kuder-Richardson values for domains with > 3 items ranged from 0.61 to 0.86. Hypothesized associations were supported. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the psychometric properties for the HNC-PSMI were acceptable. The HNC-PSMI can be used to advance an understanding of self-management requirements and challenges in HNC patients.

9.
Med Care ; 58(6): 497-503, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of low birthweight and prematurity vary 2-fold across states in the United States, with increased rates among states with higher concentrations of racial minorities. Medicaid expansion may serve as a mechanism to reduce geographic variation within states that expanded, by improving health and access to care for vulnerable populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the association of Medicaid expansion with changes in county-level geographic variation in rates of low birthweight and preterm births, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN: We compared changes in the coefficient of variation and the ratio of the 80th-to-20th percentiles using bootstrap samples (n=1000) of counties drawn separately for all births and for white, black, and Hispanic births, separately. MEASURES: County-level rates of low birthweight and preterm birth. RESULTS: Before Medicaid expansion, counties in expansion states were concentrated among quintiles with lower rates of adverse birth outcomes and counties in nonexpansion states were concentrated among quintiles with higher rates. In expansion states, county-level variation, measured by the coefficient of variation, declined for both outcomes among all racial/ethnic categories. In nonexpansion states, geographic variation reduced for both outcomes among Hispanic births and for low birthweight among white births, but increased for both outcomes among black births. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in county-level variation in adverse birth outcomes among expansion states suggests improved equity in these states. Further reduction in geographic variation will depend largely on policies or interventions that reduce racial disparities in states that did and did not expand Medicaid.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislação & jurisprudência , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
F1000Res ; 9: 20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399198

RESUMO

The C57BL/6N inbred lines of mice are widely used in genetic research. They are particularly favoured in large scale studies such as the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), where C57BL/6N mice are genetically altered to generate a collection of null alleles (currently more than 8500 null alleles have been generated). In this project, mice carrying null alleles are subjected to a pipeline of broad-based phenotyping tests to produce wide ranging phenotyping data on each model. We have previously described the development of a Home Cage Analysis system that automatically tracks the activity of group housed mice from a microchip inserted in the groin. This platform allows assessment of multiple biologically relevant phenotypes over long periods of time without experimenter interference, and therefore is particularly suited for high through-put studies. To investigate the impact of microchips on other tests carried out in the IMPC pipeline, we inserted microchips in 12 male and 12 female C57BL/6Ntac mice at seven weeks of age. Starting at nine weeks of age these mice underwent standard phenotyping tests, concurrently with 20 unchipped C57BL/6Ntac mice (10 females, 10 males). Tissues from a subset of the microchipped mice (six males and six females), chosen at random, were also sent for histopathological examination at the end of the phenotyping pipeline.

11.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(5): 343-347, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233651

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tracheostomy is a common surgical procedure used to create a secure airway in patients, now performed by a variety of specialties, with a notable rise in critical care environments. It is unclear whether this rise is seen in units with large head and neck surgery departments, and how practice in such units compares with the rest of the UK. METHODS: A three-year retrospective audit was carried out between anaesthetic, surgical and critical care departments. All tracheostomy procedures were recorded anonymously. RESULTS: A total of 523 tracheostomies were performed, 66% of which were in men. The mean patient age was 60 years. The majority (83%) were elective, performed for various indications, while the remaining 17% were emergency tracheostomies performed for pending airway obstruction. A fifth of the tracheostomies were percutaneous procedures. Most emergency tracheostomies (78%) were performed by otolaryngology. Three cricothyroidotomies were performed within critical care and theatres. Complications related to tracheostomy occurred in 47 cases (9%), most commonly lower respiratory tract infection. The mean time to decannulation was 12.8 days. CONCLUSIONS: This paper discusses the findings of a comprehensive, multispecialty audit of tracheostomy experience in a large health board, with over 150 tracheostomies performed annually. Elective cases form the majority although there is a significant case series of emergency tracheostomies performed for a range of pathologies. Around a quarter of those requiring tracheostomy ultimately died, mostly as a result of advanced cancer.


Assuntos
Auditoria Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anestesiologia/métodos , Anestesiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otolaringologia/métodos , Otolaringologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
12.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(5): 460-462, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia are at an elevated risk of further malignancy. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma often presents with cervical lymph node metastasis, and can pose a diagnostic challenge in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who may have pre-existing palpable neck nodes. METHODS: A retrospective case review of a health board was conducted to identify patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with a previous diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. RESULTS: Four patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that developed after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were identified. Two patients had a background of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. The remaining two patients had a background of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia under active surveillance. Three out of the four patients died within 30 months of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma following non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is aggressive. A heightened clinical suspicion is essential to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in patients with dual pathology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Língua/diagnóstico
14.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 555-570, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914652

RESUMO

Muscle wasting, or muscle atrophy, can occur with age, injury, and disease; it affects the quality of life and complicates treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a key positive regulator of muscle mass. The IGF1/Igf1 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms that differ in tissue expression, potency, and function, particularly in cellular proliferation and differentiation, as well as in systemic versus localized signaling. Genome engineering is a novel strategy for increasing gene expression and has the potential to recapitulate the diverse biology seen in IGF1 signaling through the overexpression of multiple IGF1 isoforms. Using a CRISPR-Cas9 gene activation approach, we showed that the expression of multiple IGF1 or Igf1 mRNA variants can be increased in human and mouse skeletal muscle myoblast cell lines using a single-guide RNA (sgRNA). We found increased IGF1 protein levels in the cell culture media and increased cellular phosphorylation of AKT1, the main effector of IGF1 signaling. We also showed that the expression of Class 1 or Class 2 mRNA variants can be selectively increased by changing the sgRNA target location. The expression of multiple IGF1 or Igf1 mRNA transcript variants in human and mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts promoted myotube differentiation and prevented dexamethasone-induced atrophy in myotubes in vitro. Our findings suggest that this novel approach for enhancing IGF1 signaling has potential therapeutic applications for treating skeletal muscle atrophy.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Diferenciação Celular , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Mioblastos/citologia , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Neurobiol Dis ; 134: 104682, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759134

RESUMO

Audiogenic seizure-prone mice can be protected from seizure-associated death by exposure to an oxygen atmosphere or treatment with selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We have shown previously in a rat model that epileptic seizure activity can spread through brainstem areas to cause sufficient laryngospasm for obstructive apnea and that the period of seizure-associated obstructive apnea can last long enough for respiratory arrest to occur. We hypothesized that both the oxygen-rich atmosphere and SSRIs function by prolonging the time to respiratory arrest, thus ensuring that seizure activity stops before the point of respiratory arrest to allow recovery of respiratory function. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated each preventative treatment in a rat model of controlled airway occlusion where the times to respiratory arrest can be measured. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (median age = 66 days) were studied in the absence of any seizure activity. By directly studying responses to controlled airway occlusion, rather than airway occlusion secondary to seizure activity, we could isolate the effects of manipulations that might prolong respiratory arrest from the effects of those manipulations on seizure intensity. All group sizes were ≥ 8 animals per group. We found that both oxygen exposure and fluoxetine significantly increased the time to respiratory arrest by up to 65% (p < .0001 for 5 min oxygen exposure; p = .031 for 25 mg/kg fluoxetine tested 60 min after injection) and, given that neither treatment has been shown to significantly alter seizure duration, these increases can account for the protection of either manipulation against death in sudden death models. Importantly, we found that 30 s of exposure to oxygen produced nearly the same protection as 5 min exposure suggesting that oxygen exposure could start after a seizure starts (p = .0012 for 30 s oxygen exposure). Experiments with 50% oxygen/50% air mixtures indicate that the oxygen concentration needs to be above about 60% to ensure that times to respiratory arrest will always be longer than a period of seizure-induced airway occlusion. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, while instructive with regard to mechanism, require impractical dosing and may carry additional risk in the form of greater challenges for resuscitation. We conclude that oxygen exposure or SSRI treatment prevent seizure associated death by sufficiently prolonging the time to respiratory arrest so that respiratory function can recover after the seizure abates and eliminates the stimulus for seizure-induced apnea.

18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(11)2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678928

RESUMO

A 27-year-old man with a background of schizophrenia presented during the summer months with a 2-day history of a blistering eruption predominantly affecting his hands, forearms and face. He had not knowingly been exposed to any chemicals or toxins and was otherwise well. Clinical examination revealed multiple, large, tense blisters affecting the sun-exposed sites. Histology subsequently demonstrated subepidermal blisters with minimal inflammation and negative immunofluorescence. Porphyrin biochemistry including faecal, urinary and serum samples were unremarkable and thus a diagnosis of pseudoporphyria was reached. There were no obvious triggers, however, olanzapine (an atypical antipsychotic) had been commenced 2 months previously and was deemed to be the most likely cause. This is the first report of pseudoporphyria being associated with an atypical antipsychotic and highlights the importance of eliciting an accurate drug history by specifically enquiring about any recent medication changes that could account for the clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Olanzapina/efeitos adversos , Porfiria Cutânea Tardia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Olanzapina/administração & dosagem , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Transgend Health ; 4(1): 280-286, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656857

RESUMO

Background: Transgender/nonbinary (trans/NB) patients face stigma in health care settings. Health care professionals' training on trans/NB issues has historically been lacking. Interprofessional education (IPE) provides an opportunity to improve knowledge and attitudes across health care professions. The purpose of this study was to: (a) describe the development and implementation of an IPE workshop on gender-affirming care through a trans/NB community-academic partnership and (b) examine the impact of the workshop on student knowledge and attitudes. Methods: The workshop included a slide presentation on basic terminology and concepts, video clips of trans/NB patient-provider interactions, facilitated discussions of affirming practices, and a trans/NB panel. Nonparametric statistical analysis of pre- and post-survey data from 58 workshop participants measured changes in student knowledge and attitudes. Findings: Students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in knowledge (t=-12.72; p<0.01) and interpersonal comfort (t=-2.06; p<0.05) as well as sex and gender beliefs (t=-3.06; p<0.05) on subscales from the Transgender Attitudes & Beliefs Scale. The results demonstrated no differences on the human value subscale (t=-0.69; p=0.49) or on health care professional questions (t=-1.23; p=0.23). Conclusions: A community-academic partnership developed and implemented this brief interactive educational intervention, which can improve both knowledge and attitudes about trans/NB individuals' health among health professional students.

20.
J Clin Transl Sci ; 3(5): 218-226, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660246

RESUMO

Community advisory boards (CABs) are a valuable strategy for engaging and partnering with communities in research. Eighty-nine percent of Clinical and Translational Science Awardees (CTSA) responding to a 2011 survey reported having a CAB. CTSAs' experiences with CABs are valuable for informing future practice. This study was conducted to describe common CAB implementation practices among CTSAs; document perceived benefits, challenges, and contributions; and examine their progress toward desirable outcomes. A cross-CTSA collaborative team collected survey data from respondents representing academic and/or community members affiliated with CTSAs with CABs. Data representing 44 CTSAs with CABs were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A majority of respondents reported practices reflecting respect for CAB members' expertise and input such as compensation (75%), advisory purview beyond their CTSA's Community Engagement program (88%), and influence over CAB operations. Three-quarters provide members with orientation and training on roles and responsibilities and 89% reported evaluating their CAB. Almost all respondents indicated their CTSA incorporates the feedback of their CABs to some degree; over half do so a lot or completely. This study profiles practices that inform CTSAs implementing a CAB and provide an evaluative benchmark for those with existing CABs.

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