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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14167, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578424

RESUMO

(Macro-)autophagy is a compartmental degradation pathway conserved from yeast to mammals. The yeast protein Atg8 mediates membrane tethering/hemifusion and cargo recruitment and is essential for autophagy. The human MAP1LC3/GABARAP family proteins show high sequence identity with Atg8, but MAP1LC3C is distinguished by a conspicuous amino-terminal extension with unknown functional significance. We have determined the high-resolution three-dimensional structure and measured the backbone dynamics of MAP1LC3C by NMR spectroscopy. From Ser18 to Ala120, MAP1LC3C forms an α-helix followed by the ubiquitin-like tertiary fold with two hydrophobic binding pockets used by MAP1LC3/GABARAP proteins to recognize targets presenting LC3-interacting regions (LIRs). Unlike other MAP1LC3/GABARAP proteins, the amino-terminal region of MAP1LC3C does not form a stable helix α1 but a "sticky arm" consisting of a polyproline II motif on a flexible linker. Ser18 at the interface between this linker and the structural core can be phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase A, which causes additional conformational heterogeneity as monitored by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, including changes in the LIR-binding interface. Based on these results we propose that the amino-terminal polyproline II motif mediates specific interactions with the microtubule cytoskeleton and that Ser18 phosphorylation modulates the interplay of MAP1LC3C with its various target proteins.

2.
Brain ; 142(11): 3351-3359, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504246

RESUMO

Using trio exome sequencing, we identified de novo heterozygous missense variants in PAK1 in four unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, macrocephaly and seizures. PAK1 encodes the p21-activated kinase, a major driver of neuronal development in humans and other organisms. In normal neurons, PAK1 dimers reside in a trans-inhibited conformation, where each autoinhibitory domain covers the kinase domain of the other monomer. Upon GTPase binding via CDC42 or RAC1, the PAK1 dimers dissociate and become activated. All identified variants are located within or close to the autoinhibitory switch domain that is necessary for trans-inhibition of resting PAK1 dimers. Protein modelling supports a model of reduced ability of regular autoinhibition, suggesting a gain of function mechanism for the identified missense variants. Alleviated dissociation into monomers, autophosphorylation and activation of PAK1 influences the actin dynamics of neurite outgrowth. Based on our clinical and genetic data, as well as the role of PAK1 in brain development, we suggest that gain of function pathogenic de novo missense variants in PAK1 lead to moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, macrocephaly caused by the presence of megalencephaly and ventriculomegaly, (febrile) seizures and autism-like behaviour.

3.
Brain ; 142(9): 2617-2630, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327001

RESUMO

The underpinnings of mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay remain elusive, often leading to late diagnosis and interventions. Here, we present data on exome and genome sequencing as well as array analysis of 13 individuals that point to pathogenic, heterozygous, mostly de novo variants in WDFY3 (significant de novo enrichment P = 0.003) as a monogenic cause of mild and non-specific neurodevelopmental delay. Nine variants were protein-truncating and four missense. Overlapping symptoms included neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). One proband presented with an opposing phenotype of microcephaly and the only missense-variant located in the PH-domain of WDFY3. Findings of this case are supported by previously published data, demonstrating that pathogenic PH-domain variants can lead to microcephaly via canonical Wnt-pathway upregulation. In a separate study, we reported that the autophagy scaffolding protein WDFY3 is required for cerebral cortical size regulation in mice, by controlling proper division of neural progenitors. Here, we show that proliferating cortical neural progenitors of human embryonic brains highly express WDFY3, further supporting a role for this molecule in the regulation of prenatal neurogenesis. We present data on Wnt-pathway dysregulation in Wdfy3-haploinsufficient mice, which display macrocephaly and deficits in motor coordination and associative learning, recapitulating the human phenotype. Consequently, we propose that in humans WDFY3 loss-of-function variants lead to macrocephaly via downregulation of the Wnt pathway. In summary, we present WDFY3 as a novel gene linked to mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability and conclude that variants putatively causing haploinsufficiency lead to macrocephaly, while an opposing pathomechanism due to variants in the PH-domain of WDFY3 leads to microcephaly.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013635

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a main drug target and therefore a hot topic in pharmaceutical research. One important prerequisite to understand how a certain ligand affects a GPCR is precise knowledge about its binding mode and the specific underlying interactions. If no crystal structure of the respective complex is available, computational methods can be used to deduce the binding site. One of them are metadynamics simulations which have the advantage of an enhanced sampling compared to conventional molecular dynamics simulations. However, the enhanced sampling of higher-energy states hampers identification of the preferred binding mode. Here, we present a novel protocol based on clustering of multiple walker metadynamics simulations which allows identifying the preferential binding mode from such conformational ensembles. We tested this strategy for three different model systems namely the histamine H1 receptor in combination with its physiological ligand histamine, as well as the ß 2 adrenoceptor with its agonist adrenaline and its antagonist alprenolol. For all three systems, the proposed protocol was able to reproduce the correct binding mode known from the literature suggesting that the approach can more generally be applied to the prediction of GPCR ligand binding in future.


Assuntos
Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Algoritmos , Sítios de Ligação , Conformação Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Mol Med ; 25(1): 6, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deleterious variants in the voltage-gated sodium channel type 2 (Nav1.2) lead to a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from benign familial neonatal-infantile epilepsy (BFNIE), severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) and intellectual disability (ID) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. METHODS: To further elucidate the genotype-phenotype correlation of SCN2A variants we investigated the functional effects of six variants representing the phenotypic spectrum by whole-cell patch-clamp studies in transfected HEK293T cells and in-silico structural modeling. RESULTS: The two variants p.L1342P and p.E1803G detected in patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) showed profound and complex changes in channel gating, whereas the BFNIE variant p.L1563V exhibited only a small gain of channel function. The three variants identified in ID patients without seizures, p.R937C, p.L611Vfs*35 and p.W1716*, did not produce measurable currents. Homology modeling of the missense variants predicted structural impairments consistent with the electrophysiological findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that complete loss-of-function variants lead to ID without seizures, small gain-of-function variants cause BFNIE and EE variants exhibit variable but profound Nav1.2 gating changes. Moreover, structural modeling was able to predict the severity of the variant impact, supporting a potential role of structural modeling as a prognostic tool. Our study on the functional consequences of SCN2A variants causing the distinct phenotypes of EE, BFNIE and ID contributes to the elucidation of mechanisms underlying the broad phenotypic variability reported for SCN2A variants.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/genética , Síndromes Epilépticas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Epilépticas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2043-2058, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microcephaly is a sign of many genetic conditions but has been rarely systematically evaluated. We therefore comprehensively studied the clinical and genetic landscape of an unselected cohort of patients with microcephaly. METHODS: We performed clinical assessment, high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and functional studies in 62 patients (58% with primary microcephaly [PM], 27% with secondary microcephaly [SM], and 15% of unknown onset). RESULTS: We found severity of developmental delay/intellectual disability correlating with severity of microcephaly in PM, but not SM. We detected causative variants in 48.4% of patients and found divergent inheritance and variant pattern for PM (mainly recessive and likely gene-disrupting [LGD]) versus SM (all dominant de novo and evenly LGD or missense). While centrosome-related pathways were solely identified in PM, transcriptional regulation was the most frequently affected pathway in both SM and PM. Unexpectedly, we found causative variants in different mitochondria-related genes accounting for ~5% of patients, which emphasizes their role even in syndromic PM. Additionally, we delineated novel candidate genes involved in centrosome-related pathway (SPAG5, TEDC1), Wnt signaling (VPS26A, ZNRF3), and RNA trafficking (DDX1). CONCLUSION: Our findings enable improved evaluation and genetic counseling of PM and SM patients and further elucidate microcephaly pathways.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 294(15): 6188-6203, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782840

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common ß-herpesvirus causing life-long latent infections. HCMV replication interferes with cell cycle regulation in host cells because the HCMV-encoded cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog pUL97 extensively phosphorylates the checkpoint regulator retinoblastoma protein. pUL97 also interacts with cyclins B1, T1, and H, and recent findings have strongly suggested that these interactions influence pUL97 substrate recognition. Interestingly, here we detected profound mechanistic differences among these pUL97-cyclin interactions. Our study revealed the following. (i) pUL97 interacts with cyclins B1 and H in a manner dependent on pUL97 activity and HCMV-specific cyclin modulation, respectively. (ii) The phosphorylated state of both proteins is an important determinant of the pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction. (iii) Activated phospho-Thr-315 cyclin H is up-regulated during HCMV replication. (iv) Thr-315 phosphorylation is independent of intracellular pUL97 or CDK7 activity. (v) pUL97-mediated in vitro phosphorylation is detectable for cyclin B1 but not H. (vi) Mutual transphosphorylation between pUL97 and CDK7 is not detectable, and an MS-based phosphosite analysis indicated that pUL97 might unexpectedly not be phosphorylated in its T-loop. (vii) The binary complexes pUL97-cyclin H and CDK7-cyclin H as well as the ternary complex pUL97-cyclin-H-CDK7 are detectable in an assembly-based CoIP approach. (viii) pUL97 self-interaction can be bridged by the transcriptional cyclins T1 or H but not by the classical cell cycle-regulating B1 cyclin. Combined, our findings unravel a number of cyclin type-specific differences in pUL97 interactions and suggest a multifaceted regulatory impact of cyclins on HCMV replication.


Assuntos
Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Ciclina H/metabolismo , Ciclina T/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Ciclina B1/genética , Ciclina H/genética , Ciclina T/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fosforilação , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1061-1071, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809043

RESUMO

Height is a heritable and highly heterogeneous trait. Short stature affects 3% of the population and in most cases is genetic in origin. After excluding known causes, 67% of affected individuals remain without diagnosis. To identify novel candidate genes for short stature, we performed exome sequencing in 254 unrelated families with short stature of unknown cause and identified variants in 63 candidate genes in 92 (36%) independent families. Based on systematic characterization of variants and functional analysis including expression in chondrocytes, we classified 13 genes as strong candidates. Whereas variants in at least two families were detected for all 13 candidates, two genes had variants in 6 (UBR4) and 8 (LAMA5) families, respectively. To facilitate their characterization, we established a clustered network of 1025 known growth and short stature genes, which yielded 29 significantly enriched clusters, including skeletal system development, appendage development, metabolic processes, and ciliopathy. Eleven of the candidate genes mapped to 21 of these clusters, including CPZ, EDEM3, FBRS, IFT81, KCND1, PLXNA3, RASA3, SLC7A8, UBR4, USP45, and ZFHX3. Fifty additional growth-related candidates we identified await confirmation in other affected families. Our study identifies Mendelian forms of growth retardation as an important component of idiopathic short stature.

9.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1790-1796, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identifying and characterizing novel causes of autosomal recessive intellectual disability based on systematic clinical and genetic evaluation, followed by functional experiments. METHODS: Clinical examinations, genome-wide positional mapping, and sequencing were followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot of the protein SVBP and its interaction partners. We then knocked down the gene in rat primary hippocampal neurons and evaluated the consequences on synapses. RESULTS: We identified a founder, homozygous stop-gain variant in SVBP (c.82C>T; p.[Gln28*]) in four affected individuals from two independent families with intellectual disability, microcephaly, ataxia, and muscular hypotonia. SVBP encodes a small chaperone protein that transports and stabilizes two angiogenesis regulators, VASH1 and VASH2. The altered protein is unstable and nonfunctional since transfected HeLa cells with mutant SVBP did not reveal evidence for immunoreactive SVBP protein fragments and cotransfection with VASH1 showed a severe reduction of VASH1 in medium and cell lysate. Knocking down Svbp in rat primary hippocampal neurons led to a significant decrease in the number of excitatory synapses. CONCLUSION: SVBP is not only involved in angiogenesis, but also has vital functions in the central nervous system. Biallelic loss-of-function variants in SVBP lead to intellectual disability.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 203-212, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612693

RESUMO

Using exome sequencing, we have identified de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 in 13 unrelated individuals presenting with an overlapping phenotype of mild to severe intellectual disability. The de novo variants comprise six missense variants, three of which are recurrent, and three truncating variants. Brain anomalies such as perisylvian polymicrogyria, cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum were consistent among individuals harboring recurrent de novo missense variants. MAPK8IP3 has been shown to be involved in the retrograde axonal-transport machinery, but many of its specific functions are yet to be elucidated. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to target six conserved amino acid positions in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that two of the six investigated human alterations led to a significantly elevated density of axonal lysosomes, and five variants were associated with adverse locomotion. Reverse-engineering normalized the observed adverse effects back to wild-type levels. Combining genetic, phenotypic, and functional findings, as well as the significant enrichment of de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 within our total cohort of 27,232 individuals who underwent exome sequencing, we implicate de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 as a cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder with intellectual disability and variable brain anomalies.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 747-759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664714

RESUMO

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.

12.
J Neurosci ; 39(14): 2606-2619, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696732

RESUMO

Active zones at chemical synapses are highly specialized sites for the regulated release of neurotransmitters. Despite a high degree of active zone protein conservation in vertebrates, every type of chemical synapse expresses a given set of protein isoforms and splice variants adapted to the demands on neurotransmitter release. So far, we know little about how specific active zone proteins contribute to the structural and functional diversity of active zones. In this study, we explored the nanodomain organization of ribbon-type active zones by addressing the significance of Piccolino, the ribbon synapse-specific splice variant of Piccolo, for shaping the ribbon structure. We followed up on previous results, which indicated that rod photoreceptor synaptic ribbons lose their structural integrity in a knockdown of Piccolino. Here, we demonstrate an interaction between Piccolino and the major ribbon component RIBEYE that supports plate-shaped synaptic ribbons in retinal neurons. In a detailed ultrastructural analysis of three different types of retinal ribbon synapses in Piccolo/Piccolino-deficient male and female rats, we show that the absence of Piccolino destabilizes the superstructure of plate-shaped synaptic ribbons, although with variable manifestation in the cell types examined. Our analysis illustrates how the expression of a specific active zone protein splice variant (e.g., Piccolino) contributes to structural diversity of vertebrate active zones.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Retinal ribbon synapses are a specialized type of chemical synapse adapted for the regulated fast and tonic release of neurotransmitter. The hallmark of retinal ribbon synapses is the plate-shaped synaptic ribbon, which extends from the release site into the terminals' cytoplasm and tethers hundreds of synaptic vesicles. Here, we show that Piccolino, the synaptic ribbon specific splice variant of Piccolo, interacts with RIBEYE, the main component of synaptic ribbons. This interaction occurs via several PxDLS-like motifs located at the C terminus of Piccolino, which can connect multiple RIBEYE molecules. Loss of Piccolino disrupts the characteristic plate-shaped structure of synaptic ribbons, indicating a role of Piccolino in synaptic ribbon assembly.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 408-421, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552426

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) and combined developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous severely devastating conditions. Recent studies emphasized de novo variants as major underlying cause suggesting a generally low-recurrence risk. In order to better understand the full genetic landscape of EE and DEE, we performed high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis in combination with whole-exome sequencing in 63 deeply phenotyped independent patients. After bioinformatic filtering for rare variants, diagnostic yield was improved for recessive disorders by manual data curation as well as molecular modeling of missense variants and untargeted plasma-metabolomics in selected patients. In total, we yielded a diagnosis in ∼42% of cases with causative copy number variants in 6 patients (∼10%) and causative sequence variants in 16 established disease genes in 20 patients (∼32%), including compound heterozygosity for causative sequence and copy number variants in one patient. In total, 38% of diagnosed cases were caused by recessive genes, of which two cases escaped automatic calling due to one allele occurring de novo. Notably, we found the recessive gene SPATA5 causative in as much as 3% of our cohort, indicating that it may have been underdiagnosed in previous studies. We further support candidacy for neurodevelopmental disorders of four previously described genes (PIK3AP1, GTF3C3, UFC1, and WRAP53), three of which also followed a recessive inheritance pattern. Our results therefore confirm the importance of de novo causative gene variants in EE/DEE, but additionally illustrate the major role of mostly compound heterozygous or hemizygous recessive inheritance and consequently high-recurrence risk.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
14.
J Mol Model ; 24(12): 346, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498974

RESUMO

Binding of histamine to the G-protein coupled histamine H1 receptor plays an important role in the context of allergic reactions; however, no crystal structure of the resulting complex is available yet. To deduce the histamine binding site, we performed unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a microsecond time scale, which allowed to monitor one binding event, in which particularly the residues of the extracellular loop 2 were involved in the initial recognition process. The final histamine binding pose in the orthosteric pocket is characterized by interactions with Asp1073.32, Tyr1083.33, Thr1945.43, Asn1985.46, Trp4286.48, Tyr4316.51, Phe4326.52, and Phe4356.55, which is in agreement with existing mutational data. The conformational stability of the obtained complex structure was subsequently confirmed in 2 µs equilibrium MD simulations, and a metadynamics simulation proved that the detected binding site represents an energy minimum. A complementary investigation of a D107A mutant, which has experimentally been shown to abolish ligand binding, revealed that this exchange results in a significantly weaker interaction and enhanced ligand dynamics. This finding underlines the importance of the electrostatic interaction between the histamine ammonium group and the side chain of Asp1073.32 for histamine binding.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257461

RESUMO

All herpesviruses use a heterodimeric nuclear egress complex (NEC) to transport capsids out of host cell nuclei. Despite their overall similar structure, NECs may differ significantly in sequence between different viruses. Up to now, structural information is limited to isolated NEC heterodimers and to large hexagonal lattices made up of hexagonal ring-like structures ("Hexagons"). The present study aimed to expand the existing structural knowledge with information on the dynamics of NECs from different viruses and in different oligomerization states. For this task, comparative molecular dynamics simulations were performed of the free NEC heterodimers from three different viruses (HCMV (human cytomegalovirus), HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus 1), and PRV (pseudorabies virus)). In addition, higher oligomerization states comprising two or six NEC heterodimers were characterized for HCMV and HSV-1. The study revealed that the isolated NEC heterodimers from α- (HSV-1, PRV) and ß-herpesviruses (HCMV) differ significantly in their dynamics, which can be attributed to a poorly conserved interface region between the NEC subdomains. These differences become smaller for higher oligomerization states, and both HCMV and HSV-1 individual Hexagons exhibit a common region of enhanced dynamics, which might be of functional relevance for the formation of curved vesicle structures or the recognition of hexameric capsid proteins.

16.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232381

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine disease-associated single-gene variants in conotruncal defects, particularly tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). METHODS: We analyzed for rare loss-of-function and deleterious variants in FLT4 (VEGFR3) and other genes in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, as part of a genome sequencing study involving 175 adults with TOF from a single site. RESULTS: We identified nine (5.1%) probands with novel FLT4 variants: seven loss-of-function, including an 8-kb deletion, and two predicted damaging. In ten other probands we found likely disruptive variants in VEGF-related genes: KDR (VEGFR2; two stopgain and two nonsynonymous variants), VEGFA, FGD5, BCAR1, IQGAP1, FOXO1, and PRDM1. Detection of VEGF-related variants (19/175, 10.9%) was associated with an increased prevalence of absent pulmonary valve (26.3% vs. 3.4%, p < 0.0001) and right aortic arch (52.6% vs. 29.1%, p = 0.029). Extracardiac anomalies were rare. In an attempt to replicate findings, we identified three loss-of-function or damaging variants in FLT4, KDR, and IQGAP1 in ten independent families with TOF. CONCLUSION: Loss-of-function variants in FLT4 and KDR contribute substantially to the genetic basis of TOF. The findings support dysregulated VEGF signaling as a novel mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of TOF.

17.
BMC Microbiol ; 18(1): 106, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiologic agent of diphtheria and different systemic infections. The bacterium has been classically described as an extracellular pathogen. However, a number of studies revealed its ability to invade epithelial cells, indicating a more complex pathogen-host interaction. The molecular mechanisms controlling and facilitating internalization of C. diphtheriae still remains unclear. Recently, the DIP0733 transmembrane protein was found to play an important role in the interaction with matrix proteins and cell surfaces, nematode colonization, cellular internalization and induction of cell death. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a number of short linear motifs and structural elements of DIP0733 with putative importance in virulence, using bioinformatic approaches. A C-terminal coiled-coil region of the protein was considered particularly important, since it was found only in DIP0733 homologs in pathogenic Corynebacterium species but not in non-pathogenic corynebacteria. Infections of epithelial cells and transepithelial resistance assays revealed that bacteria expressing the truncated form of C. diphtheriae DIP0733 and C. glutamicum DIP0733 homolog are less virulent, while the fusion of the coiled-coil sequence to the DIP0733 homolog from C. glutamicum resulted in increased pathogenicity. These results were supported by nematode killing assays and experiments using wax moth larvae as invertebrate model systems. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the coil-coiled domain of DIP0733 is crucial for interaction with epithelial cells and pathogenicity in invertebrate animal model systems.

18.
Biochem J ; 475(18): 2955-2967, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120107

RESUMO

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts important functions in inflammation, infectious diseases, and cancer. The large GTPase human guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the most strongly IFN-γ-induced cellular proteins. Previously, it has been shown that GBP-1 mediates manifold cellular responses to IFN-γ including the inhibition of proliferation, spreading, migration, and invasion and through this exerts anti-tumorigenic activity. However, the mechanisms of GBP-1 anti-tumorigenic activities remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidated the molecular mechanism of the human GBP-1-mediated suppression of proliferation by demonstrating for the first time a cross-talk between the anti-tumorigenic IFN-γ and Hippo pathways. The α9-helix of GBP-1 was found to be sufficient to inhibit proliferation. Protein-binding and molecular modeling studies revealed that the α9-helix binds to the DNA-binding domain of the Hippo signaling transcription factor TEA domain protein (TEAD) mediated by the 376VDHLFQK382 sequence at the N-terminus of the GBP-1-α9-helix. Mutation of this sequence resulted in abrogation of both TEAD interaction and suppression of proliferation. Further on, the interaction caused inhibition of TEAD transcriptional activity associated with the down-regulation of TEAD-target genes. In agreement with these results, IFN-γ treatment of the cells also impaired TEAD activity, and this effect was abrogated by siRNA-mediated inhibition of GBP-1 expression. Altogether, this demonstrated that the α9-helix is the proliferation inhibitory domain of GBP-1, which acts independent of the GTPase activity through the inhibition of the Hippo transcription factor TEAD in mediating the anti-proliferative cell response to IFN-γ.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11330, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054523

RESUMO

The human uptake transporter NaCT is important for human brain development, brain function and energy metabolism and mediates the uptake of citrate and other intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle from blood into neurons and hepatocytes. Mutations in the SLC13A5 gene encoding NaCT are associated with epileptic encephalopathy. To gain more insights into the transport mechanisms we analyzed the functional consequences of mutations in the SLC13A5 gene on NaCT-mediated transport function. Using HEK293 cells expressing wild-type and eight mutated NaCT proteins, we investigated the mRNA and protein amount as well as the protein localization of all NaCT variants. Furthermore, the impact on NaCT-mediated citrate uptake was measured. In addition, a structural model of the transport pore was generated to rationalize the consequences of the mutations on a structural basis. We demonstrated that all proteins were synthesized with an identical molecular weight as the wild-type transporter but several mutations (NaCTp.G219R, -p.G219E, -p.T227M, -p.L420P and -p.L488P) lead to a complete loss of NaCT-mediated citrate transport. This loss of transport activity can be explained on the basis of the developed structural model. This model may help in the further elucidation of the transport mechanism of this important uptake transporter.

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