Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 223
Filtrar
1.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protein "ADP-Ribosylarginine Hydrolase-Like Protein 2" is encoded by ADPRHL2 and reverses ADP-ribosylation. Recently, mutations in ADPRHL2 were found to be associated with a very rare childhood onset severe neurodegeneration syndrome with episodic, stress-induced seizures, ataxia, and axonal neuropathy. In this study, we evaluate a novel mutation in ADPRHL2 leading to an unknown adult onset syndrome "episodic psychosis, ataxia, motor neuropathy with pyramidal signs (PAMP syndrome)." DESIGN/METHODS: Four patients with episodic psychosis, ataxia, and motor neuropathy with pyramidal signs were included in this study. RESULTS: An index patient presented ataxia, postural tremor in the hands, and hallucinations at age 20 years, which had started after a viral infection. She improved within 3 months without any treatment. Her neurological exam revealed mild distal weakness, brisk DTRs, bilateral Babinski sign, impaired vibration sensation, position, and ataxia. Pes cavus and hammer toes were also noted. EMG revealed neurogenic changes in distal muscles and normal sensory nerve conduction studies. Cranial MRI was normal. She had three more severe episodes in recent years, and her neurologic findings got progressively worse. Two of her older sisters had much milder phenotypes. The phenotype of the fourth patient from an unrelated family was identical with the index patient. All affected patients had homozygous novel NM_017825.3:c.838G>A (p.Ala280Thr) mutations in a highly conserved region of ADPRHL2. Western blot analyses demonstrated that ADPRHL2 was not expressed in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we describe a novel mutation in ADPRHL2, which further expands the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of the patients harboring these mutations.

2.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The understanding of vascular plasticity is key to defining the role of blood vessels in physiologic and pathogenic processes. In the present study, the impact of the vascular quiescence marker SPARCL1 on angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis, and vessel integrity was evaluated. METHODS: Angiogenesis was studied using the metatarsal test, an ex vivo model of sprouting angiogenesis. In addition, acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate colitis models with SPARCL1 knockout mice were applied. RESULTS: This approach indicated that SPARCL1 inhibits angiogenesis and supports vessel morphogenesis and integrity. Evidence was provided that SPARCL1-mediated stabilization of vessel integrity counteracts vessel permeability and inflammation in acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate colitis models. Structure-function analyses of purified SPARCL1 identified the acidic domain of the protein necessary for its anti-angiogenic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings inaugurate SPARCL1 as a blood vessel-derived anti-angiogenic molecule required for vessel morphogenesis and integrity. SPARCL1 opens new perspectives as a vascular marker of susceptibility to colitis and as a therapeutic molecule to support blood vessel stability in this disease.

3.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimsed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of SNAP25 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SNAP25-DEE) by reviewing newly identified and previously reported individuals. METHODS: Individuals harboring heterozygous missense or loss-of-function variants in SNAP25 were assembled through collaboration with international colleagues, matchmaking platforms, and literature review. For each individual, detailed phenotyping, classification, and structural modeling of the identified variant were performed. RESULTS: The cohort comprises 23 individuals with pathogenic or likely pathogenic de novo variants in SNAP25. Intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy were identified as the core symptoms of SNAP25-DEE, with recurrent findings of movement disorders, cerebral visual impairment, and brain atrophy. Structural modeling for all variants predicted possible functional defects concerning SNAP25 or impaired interaction with other components of the SNARE complex. CONCLUSION: We provide a comprehensive description of SNAP25-DEE with intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy mostly occurring before the age of two years. These core symptoms and additional recurrent phenotypes show an overlap to genes encoding other components or associated proteins of the SNARE complex such as STX1B, STXBP1, or VAMP2. Thus, these findings advance the concept of a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that may be termed "SNAREopathies."

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 590186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364202

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni express the high temperature requirement protein A (HtrA), a secreted serine protease, which is implicated in virulence properties of the pathogen. Previous studies have shown that C. jejuni HtrA can cleave the epithelial transmembrane proteins occludin and E-cadherin in the tight and adherens junctions, respectively. In the present report, we studied the interaction of HtrA with another human tight junction protein, claudin-8. Confocal immunofluorescence experiments have shown that C. jejuni infection of the intestinal polarized epithelial cells in vitro leads to a relocation of claudin-8. Wild-type C. jejuni induced the downregulation of claudin-8 signals in the tight junctions and an accumulation of claudin-8 agglomerates in the cytoplasm, which were not seen during infection with isogenic ΔhtrA knockout deletion or protease-inactive S197A point mutants. Western blotting of protein samples from infected vs. uninfected cells revealed that an 18-kDa carboxy-terminal fragment is cleaved-off from the 26-kDa full-length claudin-8 protein, but not during infection with the isogenic ΔhtrA mutant. These results were confirmed by in vitro cleavage assays using the purified recombinant C. jejuni HtrA and human claudin-8 proteins. Recombinant HtrA cleaved purified claudin-8 in vitro giving rise to the same 18-kDa sized carboxy-terminal cleavage product. Mapping studies revealed that HtrA cleavage occurs in the first extracellular loop of claudin-8. Three-dimensional modeling of the claudin-8 structure identified an exposed HtrA cleavage site between the amino acids alanine 58 and asparagine 59, which is in well agreement with the mapping studies. Taken together, HtrA operates as a secreted virulence factor targeting multiple proteins both in the tight and adherens junctions. This strategy may help the bacteria to open the cell-to-cell junctions, and to transmigrate across the intestinal epithelium by a paracellular mechanism and establish an acute infection.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168985

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) describes a group of rare heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases with prenatal onset. Here we describe eight children with PCH from four unrelated families harboring the homozygous MINPP1 (NM_004897.4) variants; c.75_94del, p.(Leu27Argfs*39), c.851 C > A, p.(Ala284Asp), c.1210 C > T, p.(Arg404*), and c.992 T > G, p.(Ile331Ser). The homozygous p.(Leu27Argfs*39) change is predicted to result in a complete absence of MINPP1. The p.(Arg404*) would likely lead to a nonsense mediated decay, or alternatively, a loss of several secondary structure elements impairing protein folding. The missense p.(Ala284Asp) affects a buried, hydrophobic residue within the globular domain. The introduction of aspartic acid is energetically highly unfavorable and therefore predicted to cause a significant reduction in protein stability. The missense p.(Ile331Ser) affects the tight hydrophobic interactions of the isoleucine by the disruption of the polar side chain of serine, destabilizing the structure of MINPP1. The overlap of the above-mentioned genotypes and phenotypes is highly improbable by chance. MINPP1 is the only enzyme that hydrolyses inositol phosphates in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and several studies support its role in stress induced apoptosis. The pathomechanism explaining the disease mechanism remains unknown, however several others genes of the inositol phosphatase metabolism (e.g., INPP5K, FIG4, INPP5E, ITPR1) are correlated with phenotypes of neurodevelopmental disorders. Taken together, we present MINPP1 as a novel autosomal recessive pontocerebellar hypoplasia gene.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19030, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149206

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in PHD finger protein 6 (PHF6) cause Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS), a rare X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, which manifests variably in both males and females. To investigate the mechanisms behind overlapping but distinct clinical aspects between genders, we assessed the consequences of individual variants with structural modelling and molecular techniques. We found evidence that de novo variants occurring in females are more severe and result in loss of PHF6, while inherited variants identified in males might be hypomorph or have weaker effects on protein stability. This might contribute to the different phenotypes in male versus female individuals with BFLS. Furthermore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to induce knockout of PHF6 in SK-N-BE (2) cells which were then differentiated to neuron-like cells in order to model nervous system related consequences of PHF6 loss. Transcriptome analysis revealed a broad deregulation of genes involved in chromatin and transcriptional regulation as well as in axon and neuron development. Subsequently, we could demonstrate that PHF6 is indeed required for proper neuron proliferation, neurite outgrowth and migration. Impairment of these processes might therefore contribute to the neurodevelopmental and cognitive dysfunction in BFLS.

7.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A few de novo missense variants in the cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) gene have recently been described as a novel cause of severe intellectual disability, seizures, and hypotonia in 18 individuals, with p.Arg87 substitutions in the majority. METHODS: We assembled data from 19 newly identified and all 18 previously published individuals with CYFIP2 variants. By structural modeling and investigation of WAVE-regulatory complex (WRC)-mediated actin polymerization in six patient fibroblast lines we assessed the impact of CYFIP2 variants on the WRC. RESULTS: Sixteen of 19 individuals harbor two previously described and 11 novel (likely) disease-associated missense variants. We report p.Asp724 as second mutational hotspot (4/19 cases). Genotype-phenotype correlation confirms a consistently severe phenotype in p.Arg87 patients but a more variable phenotype in p.Asp724 and other substitutions. Three individuals with milder phenotypes carry putative loss-of-function variants, which remain of unclear pathogenicity. Structural modeling predicted missense variants to disturb interactions within the WRC or impair CYFIP2 stability. Consistent with its role in WRC-mediated actin polymerization we substantiate aberrant regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in patient fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: Our study expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder and provides evidence for aberrant WRC-mediated actin dynamics as contributing cellular pathomechanism.

8.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(20): 3474-3483, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007159

RESUMO

The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates synaptic inhibition in the spinal cord, brain stem, and other regions of the mammalian central nervous system. Glucose was shown to potentiate α1 GlyRs by interacting with K143. Here, additional amino acids involved in glucose modulation were identified using a structure-based approach of site-directed mutagenesis followed by whole-cell patch-clamp analysis. We identified two additional lysine residues in the α1 GlyR extracellular domain, K16 and K281, that were involved in glucose modulation. Mutation of either residue to alanine abolished glucose potentiation. Residue K281 is located in the same pocket as K143 and could thus contribute to glucose binding. The double mutant K143A-K281A showed a 6-fold increase of EC50, while EC50 of both single mutants K143A and K281A was only slightly increased (1.7- and 1.3-fold, respectively). K16 is located at an analgesic binding site that is distant from the agonist or glucose sites, and the K16A mutation may generate a receptor species that is not potentiated. GlyR position α1-S267 is close to the postulated glucose binding site and known for interactions with ethanol and anesthetics. In the presence of glucose, GlyR α1 mutants S267A, S267I, and S267R showed potentiation, no effect, and reduction of current responses, respectively. This pattern follows that of ethanol modulation and suggests that the interaction sites of glucose and ethanol are identical or located close to each other. Our results support the presence of a distinct binding site for glucose on the glycine receptor, overlapping with the ivermectin/ethanol binding pocket near the transmembrane region and the TM2-3 loop.

9.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030681

RESUMO

Congenital myasthenic syndromes are rare hereditary disorders caused by mutations associated with proteins of the neuromuscular junction. Abnormal ''gain of function'' mutations result in prolonged nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel open state causing a rare subtype of CMS, slow-channel CMS (SCCMS). Mutations in the delta subunit encoding the gene, CHRND, resulting in SCCMS are extremely rare. An important clue to the diagnosis of SCCMS is repetitive CMAP's. Fluoxetine, usually at high doses, is used to treat SCCMS. The mutation, recently described in one patient, was identified by whole exome sequencing and validated, and its segregation with the disease was ascertained by Sanger sequencing. Here, we describe clinical and genetic findings of an early onset SCCMS patient carrying a very rare missense mutation c.880C > T in CHRND causing a highly conserved leucine to phenylalanine substitution in the M2 domain of CHRND. The patient had no repetitive CMAP. He had a dramatic response to fluoxetine at low-moderate doses (40 mg/day), increasing over months: Being wheelchair bound, he could walk independently after treatment. Rare cases may offer insight into the pathological gating mechanism leading to CMS. SCCMS should be suspected even without a repetitive CMAP. Fluoxetine at relatively low doses can be a very effective treatment.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932742

RESUMO

The histamine H2 receptor (H2R) plays an important role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion. Therefore, it is a main drug target for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux or peptic ulcer disease. However, there is as of yet no 3D-structural information available hampering a mechanistic understanding of H2R. Therefore, we created a model of the histamine-H2R-Gs complex based on the structure of the ternary complex of the ß2-adrenoceptor and investigated the conformational stability of this active GPCR conformation. Since the physiologically relevant motions with respect to ligand binding and conformational changes of GPCRs can only partly be assessed on the timescale of conventional MD (cMD) simulations, we also applied metadynamics and Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD) simulations. A multiple walker metadynamics simulation in combination with cMD was applied for the determination of the histamine binding mode. The preferential binding pose detected is in good agreement with previous data from site directed mutagenesis and provides a basis for rational ligand design. Inspection of the H2R-Gs interface reveals a network of polar interactions that may contribute to H2R coupling selectivity. The cMD and GaMD simulations demonstrate that the active conformation is retained on a µs-timescale in the ternary histamine-H2R-Gs complex and in a truncated complex that contains only Gs helix α5 instead of the entire G protein. In contrast, histamine alone is unable to stabilize the active conformation, which is in line with previous studies of other GPCRs.

11.
Cell Rep ; 32(11): 108159, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937132

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is an important human pathogen associated with gastric inflammation and neoplasia. It is commonly believed that this bacterium avoids major immune recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) because of low intrinsic activity of its flagellin and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In particular, TLR5 specifically detects flagellins in various bacterial pathogens, while Hp evolved mutations in flagellin to evade detection through TLR5. Cancerogenic Hp strains encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS core component and pilus-associated protein CagY, a large VirB10 ortholog, drives effector molecule translocation. Here, we identify CagY as a flagellin-independent TLR5 agonist. We detect five TLR5 interaction sites, promoting binding of CagY-positive Hp to TLR5-expressing cells, TLR5 stimulation, and intracellular signal transduction. Consequently, CagY constitutes a remarkable VirB10 member detected by TLR5, driving crucial innate immune responses by this human pathogen.

12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008879, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997728

RESUMO

The Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) orf I-encoded accessory protein p8 is cleaved from its precursor p12, and both proteins contribute to viral persistence. p8 induces cellular protrusions, which are thought to facilitate transfer of p8 to target cells and virus transmission. Host factors interacting with p8 and mediating p8 transfer are unknown. Here, we report that vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), which promotes actin filament elongation, is a novel interaction partner of p8 and important for p8 and HTLV-1 Gag cell-to-cell transfer. VASP contains an Ena/VASP homology 1 (EVH1) domain that targets the protein to focal adhesions. Bioinformatics identified a short stretch in p8 (amino acids (aa) 24-45) which may mediate interactions with the EVH1 domain of VASP. Co-immunoprecipitations confirmed interactions of VASP:p8 in 293T, Jurkat and HTLV-1-infected MT-2 cells. Co-precipitation of VASP:p8 could be significantly blocked by peptides mimicking aa 26-37 of p8. Mutational studies revealed that the EVH1-domain of VASP is necessary, but not sufficient for the interaction with p8. Further, deletion of the VASP G- and F-actin binding domains significantly diminished co-precipitation of p8. Imaging identified areas of partial co-localization of VASP with p8 at the plasma membrane and in protrusive structures, which was confirmed by proximity ligation assays. Co-culture experiments revealed that p8 is transferred between Jurkat T-cells via VASP-containing conduits. Imaging and flow cytometry revealed that repression of both endogenous and overexpressed VASP by RNA interference or by CRISPR/Cas9 reduced p8 transfer to the cell surface and to target Jurkat T-cells. Stable repression of VASP by RNA interference in chronically infected MT-2 cells impaired both p8 and HTLV-1 Gag transfer to target Jurkat T-cells, while virus release was unaffected. Thus, we identified VASP as a novel interaction partner of p8, which is important for transfer of HTLV-1 p8 and Gag to target T-cells.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular , Adesões Focais , Produtos do Gene gag , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Fosfoproteínas , Linfócitos T , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/química , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/química , Adesões Focais/genética , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/virologia , Produtos do Gene gag/química , Produtos do Gene gag/genética , Produtos do Gene gag/metabolismo , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/química , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/química , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/química , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Linfócitos T/química , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/virologia
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 527-538, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758447

RESUMO

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a severe multi-systemic inflammatory disease characterized by neutrophilic pustulosis and triggered by pro-inflammatory IL-36 cytokines in skin. While 19%-41% of affected individuals harbor bi-allelic mutations in IL36RN, the genetic cause is not known in most cases. To identify and characterize new pathways involved in the pathogenesis of GPP, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 31 individuals with GPP and demonstrated effects of mutations in MPO encoding the neutrophilic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). We discovered eight MPO mutations resulting in MPO -deficiency in neutrophils and monocytes. MPO mutations, primarily those resulting in complete MPO deficiency, cumulatively associated with GPP (p = 1.85E-08; OR = 6.47). The number of mutant MPO alleles significantly differed between 82 affected individuals and >4,900 control subjects (p = 1.04E-09); this effect was stronger when including IL36RN mutations (1.48E-13) and correlated with a younger age of onset (p = 0.0018). The activity of four proteases, previously implicated as activating enzymes of IL-36 precursors, correlated with MPO deficiency. Phorbol-myristate-acetate-induced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was reduced in affected cells (p = 0.015), and phagocytosis assays in MPO-deficient mice and human cells revealed altered neutrophil function and impaired clearance of neutrophils by monocytes (efferocytosis) allowing prolonged neutrophil persistence in inflammatory skin. MPO mutations contribute significantly to GPP's pathogenesis. We implicate MPO as an inflammatory modulator in humans that regulates protease activity and NET formation and modifies efferocytosis. Our findings indicate possible implications for the application of MPO inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases. MPO and affected pathways represent attractive targets for inducing resolution of inflammation in neutrophil-mediated skin diseases.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Peroxidase/genética , Psoríase/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Adulto , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Armadilhas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Psoríase/patologia , Doenças Raras/enzimologia , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/patologia , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
14.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599939

RESUMO

Herpesviruses uniquely express two essential nuclear egress-regulating proteins forming a heterodimeric nuclear egress complex (core NEC). These core NECs serve as hexameric lattice-structured platforms for capsid docking and recruit viral and cellular NEC-associated factors that jointly exert nuclear lamina as well as membrane-rearranging functions (multicomponent NEC). The regulation of nuclear egress has been profoundly analyzed for murine and human cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) on a mechanistic basis, followed by the description of core NEC crystal structures, first for HCMV, then HSV-1, PRV and EBV. Interestingly, the highly conserved structural domains of these proteins stand in contrast to a very limited sequence conservation of the key amino acids within core NEC-binding interfaces. Even more surprising, although a high functional consistency was found when regarding the basic role of NECs in nuclear egress, a clear specification was identified regarding the limited, subfamily-spanning binding properties of core NEC pairs and NEC multicomponent proteins. This review summarizes the evolving picture of the relationship between sequence coevolution, structural conservation and properties of NEC interaction, comparing HCMV to α-, ß- and γ-herpesviruses. Since NECs represent substantially important elements of herpesviral replication that are considered as drug-accessible targets, their putative translational use for antiviral strategies is discussed.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 41(9): 1615-1628, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579715

RESUMO

Serine biosynthesis disorders comprise a spectrum of very rare autosomal recessive inborn errors of metabolism with wide phenotypic variability. Neu-Laxova syndrome represents the most severe expression and is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and pre- or perinatal lethality. Here, we present the mutation spectrum and a detailed phenotypic analysis in 15 unrelated families with severe types of serine biosynthesis disorders. We identified likely disease-causing variants in the PHGDH and PSAT1 genes, several of which have not been reported previously. Phenotype analysis and a comprehensive review of the literature corroborates the evidence that serine biosynthesis disorders represent a continuum with varying degrees of phenotypic expression and suggest that even gradual differences at the severe end of the spectrum may be correlated with particular genotypes. We postulate that the individual residual enzyme activity of mutant proteins is the major determinant of the phenotypic variability, but further functional studies are needed to explore effects at the enzyme protein level.

16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362900

RESUMO

The CD83 molecule has been identified to be expressed on numerous activated immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, microglia, and neutrophils. Both isoforms of CD83, the membrane-bound as well as its soluble form are topic of intensive research investigations. Several studies revealed that CD83 is not a typical co-stimulatory molecule, but rather plays a critical role in controlling and resolving immune responses. Moreover, CD83 is an essential factor during the differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and the development and maintenance of tolerance. The identification of its interaction partners as well as signaling pathways have been an enigma for the last decades. Here, we report the latest data on the expression, structure, and the signaling partners of CD83. In addition, we review the regulatory functions of CD83, including its striking modulatory potential to maintain the balance between tolerance versus inflammation during homeostasis or pathologies. These immunomodulatory properties of CD83 emphasize its exceptional therapeutic potential, which has been documented in specific preclinical disease models.

17.
Virus Res ; 285: 198023, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428517

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous human pathogen of high clinical relevance. Despite intensive research of virus-host interaction, crucial details still remain unknown. In this study, the role of the cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 during HCMV infection was investigated. Pin1 is able to recognize phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline motifs and regulates the structural conformation, stability and function of its substrates. Concerning HCMV replication, our recent studies revealed that Pin1 plays an important role in viral nuclear egress by contributing to the depletion of the nuclear lamina at distinct sites through the cis/trans conversion of lamin proteins. Here, novel data illustrate the HCMV-induced upregulation of Pin1 including various cell types being permissive, semi-permissive or non-permissive for productive HCMV replication. Addressing the question of functional impact, Pin1 knock-out (KO) did not show a measurable effect on viral protein expression, at least when assessed by Western blot analysis. Applying highly sensitive methods of qPCR and plaque titration, a pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 activity, however, led to a significant decrease of viral genome equivalents and production of infectious virus, respectively. When focusing on the identification of viral proteins interacting with Pin1 by various coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) settings, we obtained positive signals for (i) the core nuclear egress complex protein pUL50, (ii) the viral mRNA export factor pUL69 and (iii) the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor pUL44. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis focusing on partial colocalization between Pin1 and the coexpressed viral proteins pUL50, pUL69 or pUL44, respectively, was consistent with the CoIP experiments. Mapping experiments, using transient expression constructs for a series of truncated protein versions and specific replacement mutants, revealed a complex pattern of Pin1 interaction with these three early regulatory HCMV proteins. Data suggest a combination of different modes of Pin1 interactions, involving both classical phosphorylation-dependent Pin1 binding motifs and additional phosphorylation-independent binding sites. Combined, these results support the concept that Pin1 may play an important role in several stages of HCMV infection, thus determining viral replicative efficiency.

18.
J Biol Chem ; 295(10): 3189-3201, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980459

RESUMO

Herpesviruses uniquely express two essential nuclear egress-regulating proteins forming a heterodimeric basic structure of the nuclear egress complex (core NEC). These core NECs serve as a hexameric lattice-structured platform for capsid docking and recruit viral and cellular NEC-associated factors that jointly exert nuclear lamina- and membrane-rearranging functions (multicomponent NEC). Here, we report the X-ray structures of ß- and γ-herpesvirus core NECs obtained through an innovative recombinant expression strategy based on NEC-hook::NEC-groove protein fusion constructs. This approach yielded the first structure of γ-herpesviral core NEC, namely the 1.56 Å structure of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BFRF1-BFLF2, as well as an increased resolution 1.48 Å structure of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pUL50-pUL53. Detailed analysis of these structures revealed that the prominent hook segment is absolutely required for core NEC formation and contributes approximately 80% of the interaction surface of the globular domains of NEC proteins. Moreover, using HCMV::EBV hook domain swap constructs, computational prediction of the roles of individual hook residues for binding, and quantitative binding assays with synthetic peptides presenting the HCMV- and EBV-specific NEC hook sequences, we characterized the unique hook-into-groove NEC interaction at various levels. Although the overall physicochemical characteristics of the protein interfaces differ considerably in these ß- and γ-herpesvirus NECs, the binding free energy contributions of residues displayed from identical positions are similar. In summary, the results of our study reveal critical details of the molecular mechanism of herpesviral NEC interactions and highlight their potential as an antiviral drug target.


Assuntos
Betaherpesvirinae/metabolismo , Gammaherpesvirinae/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5717, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844047

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor TLR5 recognizes a conserved domain, termed D1, that is present in flagellins of several pathogenic bacteria but not in Helicobacter pylori. Highly virulent H. pylori strains possess a type IV secretion system (T4SS) for delivery of virulence factors into gastric epithelial cells. Here, we show that one of the H. pylori T4SS components, protein CagL, can act as a flagellin-independent TLR5 activator. CagL contains a D1-like motif that mediates adherence to TLR5+ epithelial cells, TLR5 activation, and downstream signaling in vitro. TLR5 expression is associated with H. pylori infection and gastric lesions in human biopsies. Using Tlr5-knockout and wild-type mice, we show that TLR5 is important for efficient control of H. pylori infection. Our results indicate that CagL, by activating TLR5, may modulate immune responses to H. pylori.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/imunologia , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/imunologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA