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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

2.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2944, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619304

RESUMO

CARD11 is a lymphocyte-specific scaffold molecule required for proper activation of B- and T-cells in response to antigen. Germline gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the CARD11 gene cause a unique B cell lymphoproliferative disorder known as B cell Expansion with NF-κB and T cell Anergy (BENTA). In contrast, patients carrying loss-of-function (LOF), dominant negative (DN) CARD11 mutations present with severe atopic disease. Interestingly, both GOF and DN CARD11 variants cause primary immunodeficiency, with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, likely resulting from impaired adaptive immune responses. This report describes a unique four-generation family harboring a novel heterozygous germline indel mutation in CARD11 (c.701-713delinsT), leading to one altered amino acid and a deletion of 4 others (p.His234_Lys238delinsLeu). Strikingly, affected members exhibit both moderate B cell lymphocytosis and atopic dermatitis/allergies. Ectopic expression of this CARD11 variant stimulated constitutive NF-κB activity in T cell lines, similar to other BENTA patient mutations. However, unlike other GOF mutants, this variant significantly impeded the ability of wild-type CARD11 to induce NF-κB activation following antigen receptor ligation. Patient lymphocytes display marked intrinsic defects in B cell differentiation and reduced T cell responsiveness in vitro. Collectively, these data imply that a single heterozygous CARD11 mutation can convey both GOF and DN signaling effects, manifesting in a blended BENTA phenotype with atopic features. Our findings further emphasize the importance of balanced CARD11 signaling for normal immune responses.

4.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1192-1201, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628108

RESUMO

Few monogenic causes for severe manifestations of common allergic diseases have been identified. Through next-generation sequencing on a cohort of patients with severe atopic dermatitis with and without comorbid infections, we found eight individuals, from four families, with novel heterozygous mutations in CARD11, which encodes a scaffolding protein involved in lymphocyte receptor signaling. Disease improved over time in most patients. Transfection of mutant CARD11 expression constructs into T cell lines demonstrated both loss-of-function and dominant-interfering activity upon antigen receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Patient T cells had similar defects, as well as low production of the cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The mTORC1 and IFN-γ production defects were partially rescued by supplementation with glutamine, which requires CARD11 for import into T cells. Our findings indicate that a single hypomorphic mutation in CARD11 can cause potentially correctable cellular defects that lead to atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
5.
J Immunol ; 198(1): 147-155, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852741

RESUMO

Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) regulates immune responses by restraining effector T cell expansion and limiting nonspecific damage to the host. RICD is triggered by re-engagement of the TCR on a cycling effector T cell, resulting in apoptosis. It remains unclear how RICD sensitivity is calibrated in T cells derived from different individuals or subsets. In this study we show that aerobic glycolysis strongly correlates with RICD sensitivity in human CD8+ effector T cells. Reducing glycolytic activity or glucose availability rendered effector T cells significantly less sensitive to RICD. We found that active glycolysis specifically facilitates the induction of proapoptotic Fas ligand upon TCR restimulation, accounting for enhanced RICD sensitivity in highly glycolytic T cells. Collectively, these data indicate that RICD susceptibility is linked to metabolic reprogramming, and that switching back to metabolic quiescence may help shield T cells from RICD as they transition into the memory pool.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Glicólise/imunologia , Western Blotting , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
7.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(1): 32-46, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352053

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Activating germline mutations in CARD11 have recently been linked to a rare genetic disorder associated with congenital B cell lymphocytosis. We describe a patient with a similar clinical phenotype who had a de novo germline G123D CARD11 mutation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA from the patient and his biological parents. Laboratory studies examined characteristics of the patient's B and T lymphocytes. A CARD11 cDNA containing the mutation was transfected into a lymphocyte cell line to gain an understanding of its function. RNA sequencing was performed on samples from the patient and from patients with alternate germline CARD11 mutations and differential gene expression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The patient had a decade-long history of severe polyclonal B lymphocytosis in the 20,000-90,000 lymphocytes/mm(3) range, which was markedly exacerbated by EBV infection and splenectomy at different times. He had a heterozygous germline CARD11 mutation causing a G123D amino acid substitution, which was demonstrated to induce NF-κB activation in unstimulated lymphocytes. In contrast to previous patients with CARD11 mutations, this patient's B cells exhibited higher expression of several cell cycle progression genes, as well as enhanced proliferation and improved survival following B cell receptor stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the third reported germline and first de novo CARD11 mutation shown to cause congenital B cell lymphocytosis. The mutation was associated with a dramatically greater lymphocytosis than in previously described cases, disproportionate to the level of constitutive NF-κB activation. However, comparative review of the patient's clinical history, combined with additional genomic and functional analyses, underscore other important variables that may affect pathophysiology or regulate mutant CARD11 function in B cell proliferation and disease. We now refer to these patients as having BENTA disease (B cell Expansion with NF-κB and T cell Anergy).


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Linfocitose/congênito , Linfocitose/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Apoptose/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/química , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , DNA/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Guanilato Ciclase/química , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Linfocitose/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
8.
J Immunol ; 192(9): 4202-9, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24688028

RESUMO

Upon TCR restimulation, activated, cycling T cells can undergo a self-regulatory form of apoptosis known as restimulation-induced cell death (RICD). We previously demonstrated that RICD is impaired in T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, which lack SLAM-associated protein (SAP) expression. Both SAP and the specific SLAM receptor NK, T, and B cell Ag (NTB-A) are required for RICD, but the mechanism by which these molecules promote a strong, proapoptotic signal through the TCR remains unclear. In this article, we show that the Src-family kinase LCK, but not FYN, associates with NTB-A in activated human T cells. This association increased after TCR restimulation in a SAP-dependent manner, requiring both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs in the NTB-A cytoplasmic tail. Both NTB-A-associated LCK phosphorylation and kinase activity were enhanced in restimulated T cells, amplifying proximal TCR signaling. In contrast, TCR-induced LCK association with NTB-A, as well as phosphorylation and kinase activity, was reduced in T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease or normal T cells transfected with SAP-specific small interfering RNA, consistent with RICD resistance. Collectively, our data reveal how SAP nucleates a previously unknown signaling complex involving NTB-A and LCK to potentiate RICD of activated human T cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Apoptose/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Imunoprecipitação , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteína Associada à Molécula de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária , Membro 1 da Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T/citologia , Transfecção
9.
J Exp Med ; 209(12): 2247-61, 2012 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23129749

RESUMO

Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) controls genes involved in normal lymphocyte functions, but constitutive NF-κB activation is often associated with B cell malignancy. Using high-throughput whole transcriptome sequencing, we investigated a unique family with hereditary polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis. We found a novel germline heterozygous missense mutation (E127G) in affected patients in the gene encoding CARD11, a scaffolding protein required for antigen receptor (AgR)-induced NF-κB activation in both B and T lymphocytes. We subsequently identified a second germline mutation (G116S) in an unrelated, phenotypically similar patient, confirming mutations in CARD11 drive disease. Like somatic, gain-of-function CARD11 mutations described in B cell lymphoma, these germline CARD11 mutants spontaneously aggregate and drive constitutive NF-κB activation. However, these CARD11 mutants rendered patient T cells less responsive to AgR-induced activation. By reexamining this rare genetic disorder first reported four decades ago, our findings provide new insight into why activating CARD11 mutations may induce B cell expansion and preferentially predispose to B cell malignancy without dramatically perturbing T cell homeostasis.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Linfocitose/genética , Sequência de Bases , Análise por Conglomerados , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Linfocitose/complicações , Microscopia Confocal , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Esplenomegalia/complicações
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