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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564011

RESUMO

Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) services have been youth-focused since their inception. In England, recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines and new National Health Service (NHS) Standards for EIP recommend the expansion of the age acceptability criterion from 14-35 to 14-65. In the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough EIP service (CAMEO), we ran a service evaluation to assess the initial impact of this policy change. It aimed to elicit EIP treatment components utilization by patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) aged over 35, in comparison with those under 35. We found that the over-35s required more contacts from EIP healthcare professionals, especially from care coordinators (coefficient = .239; Robust SE = .102; Z = 6.42; p = 0.019) and social workers (coefficient = 18.462; Robust SE = .692; Z = .016; p < 0.001). These findings indicate that FEP patients aged over 35 may present with more complex and sustained clinical/social needs. This may have implications for EIP service development and commissioning.

2.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 124, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many people who have common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, also have some psychotic experiences. These experiences are associated with higher clinical complexity, poor treatment response, and negative clinical outcomes. Psychological interventions have the potential to improve outcomes for people with psychotic experiences. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) synthesise the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of psychological interventions to reduce psychotic experiences and their associated distress and (2) identify key components of effective interventions. METHODS: Our search strategy will combine terms for (1) psychological interventions, (2) psychotic experiences, and (3) symptoms associated with psychotic experiences. We will search the following online databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, all Cochrane databases, British Nursing Index (BNI), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and EconLit. Our primary outcome is the proportion of people who recovered or remitted from psychotic experiences after the intervention. Our secondary outcomes are changes in positive psychotic symptoms, negative psychotic symptoms, depression, anxiety, functioning (including social, occupational, and academic), quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Two independent reviewers will judge each study against pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and will extract study characteristics, outcome data, and intervention components. Risk of bias and methodological quality will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and the Drummond Checklist. Results will be synthesised using random-effects meta-analysis and narrative synthesis. DISCUSSION: The identification of effective psychological interventions and of specific components associated with intervention effectiveness will augment existing evidence that can inform the development of a new, tailored intervention to improve outcomes related to psychotic symptoms, anxiety and depression, distress, functioning, and quality of life. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016033869.

3.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 228-234, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852114

RESUMO

We investigated relationships between early developmental milestones, schizophrenia incidence and variability in its age at onset. We hypothesized that the period of risk for schizophrenia would be longer for those with later development. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was followed until 47 years of age, and those members diagnosed with schizophrenia or any other non-affective psychoses identified. Latent profile analysis was used to classify people into homogenous classes with respect to developmental milestones, and subsequently survival analysis explored relationship between classes and age of schizophrenia onset. Results suggest that 4-classes (early, regular, late, and extra late developers) can be identified, but due to few cases in one class (n = 93, <0.01% of 10,501), only 3 classes (early, regular, late) could be meaningfully compared. Schizophrenia incidence until 47 years of age differed systematically between classes: late developers had the highest cumulative incidence (2.39%); regular were intermediate (1.25%); and early developers had the lowest incidence (0.99%). However, age at onset and its variability was similar across classes, suggesting that our hypothesis of a wider 'window' for schizophrenia onset in late developers was not supported.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1404, 2018 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children and young people experiencing mental health difficulties (MHD) do not access care, often due to inadequate identification. Schools have a unique potential to improve early identification; however, evidence is limited regarding the acceptability of school-based identification programmes. This study aimed to examine parents' beliefs about the acceptability of school-wide MHD screening in primary schools. METHODS: We collaborated with experts in school-based mental health to develop a questionnaire to measure parental attitudes toward school-wide MHD screening. The questionnaire contained 13 items relating to acceptability; three open-text boxes for comments on harms, benefits, and screening in general; and four questions that captured demographic information. Parents of children attending four primary schools in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk completed the questionnaire. We calculated counts, percentages, and means for each statement, and analysed responses to open-ended questions using content analysis. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety parents returned the questionnaire across the four schools (61% response rate). In the 260 questionnaires analysed, a total of 254 parents (98%) believed that it is important to identify MHD early in life, and 251 (97%) believed that schools have an important role in promoting pupils' emotional health. The majority of parents (N = 213; 82%) thought that screening would be helpful, although 34 parents (13%) thought that screening would be harmful. Perceived harms of screening included inaccurate identification, stigmatisation, and low availability of follow-up care. There was no clear consensus regarding how to obtain consent or provide feedback of screening results. There were no significant differences in responses according to ethnicity, gender, age, or school. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that most parents within the socio-demographic context of our study will accept MHD screening within primary schools, and that school-based screening is viable from the perspective of parents. The comments provided about potential harms as well as suggestions for programme delivery are relevant to inform the development and evaluation of acceptable and sustainable school-based identification models. Implementation and scale-up of such programmes will require further understanding of the perspectives of mental health professionals, school staff, and the general public as well as further evaluation against the established standards for identification programmes.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
5.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is associated with depression, but studies of specific symptoms are relatively scarce. Association between inflammatory markers and specific symptoms may provide insights into potential mechanism of inflammation-related depression. Using longitudinal data, we have tested whether childhood serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with specific depressive symptoms in early adulthood. METHODS: In the ALSPAC birth cohort, serum IL-6 and CRP levels were assessed at age 9 years and 19 depressive symptoms were assessed at age 18 years. We used modified Poisson generalised linear regression with robust error variance to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each depressive symptom. In addition, we used confirmatory factor analysis to create two continuous latent variables representing somatic/neurovegetative and psychological dimension scores. Structural equation modelling was used to test the associations between IL-6 and these dimension scores. RESULTS: Based on data from 2731 participants, IL-6 was associated with diurnal mood variation, concentration difficulties, fatigue and sleep disturbances. The adjusted RRs for these symptoms at age 18 years for participants in top, compared with bottom, third of IL-6 at age 9 years were 1.75 (95% CI, 1.13-2.69) for diurnal mood variation, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.11-2.02) for concentration difficulties, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.12-1.54) for fatigue, and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.01-1.52) for sleep disturbances. At dimension level, IL-6 was associated with both somatic/neurovegetative (ß = 0.059, SE = 0.024, P = 0.013) and psychological (ß = 0.056, SE = 0.023, P = 0.016) scores. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation is associated with specific symptoms of depression. Associations with so-called somatic/neurovegetative symptoms of depression such as fatigue, sleep disturbances and diurnal mood variation indicate that these symptoms could be useful treatment targets and markers of treatment response in clinical trials of anti-inflammatory treatment for depression.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 145, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089819

RESUMO

Whilst associations between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia and various phenotypic outcomes have been reported, an understanding of developmental pathways can only be gained by modelling comorbidity across psychopathology. We examine how genetic risk for schizophrenia relates to adolescent psychosis-related and internalizing psychopathology using a latent modelling approach, and compare this to genetic risk for other psychiatric disorders, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental pathways at this age. PRSs for schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, neuroticism and bipolar disorder were generated for individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the relationships of these PRSs with psychopathology factors modelled within (i) a correlated factors structure and (ii) a bifactor structure. The schizophrenia PRS was associated with an increase in factors describing psychotic experiences, negative dimension, depression and anxiety, but, when modelling a general psychopathology factor based on these measures, specific effects above this persisted only for the negative dimension. Similar factor relationships were observed for the neuroticism PRS, with a (weak) specific effect only for anxiety once modelling general psychopathology. Psychopathology during adolescence can be described by a general psychopathology construct that captures common variance as well as by specific constructs capturing remaining non-shared variance. Schizophrenia risk genetic variants identified through genome-wide association studies mainly index negative rather than positive symptom psychopathology during adolescence. This has potentially important implications both for research and risk prediction in high-risk samples.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198804, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an association between puberty and depression, but many things remain poorly understood. When assessing puberty in females, most studies combine indicators of breast and pubic hair development which are controlled by different hormonal pathways. The contributions of pubertal timing (age at onset) and pubertal status (stage of development, irrespective of timing) are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that stage of breast development in female adolescents, controlled largely by increased estradiol, would be more strongly associated with depression than pubic hair development which occurs in both males and females, and is controlled by adrenal androgens. We investigated whether this association was independent of pubertal timing. METHODS: ROOTS is an ongoing cohort of 1,238 adolescents (54% female) recruited in Cambridgeshire (UK) at age 14.5, and followed-up at ages 16 and 17.5. Depression was assessed using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and clinical interview. Breast and pubic hair development were assessed at 14.5, using Tanner rating scales. RESULTS: For each increase in Tanner breast stage at 14.5, depressive symptoms increased by 1.4 MFQ points (95% CI 0.6 to 2.3), irrespective of age at onset. Pubic hair status was only associated with depressive symptoms before adjustment for breast status, and was not associated with depression in males. The same pattern was observed longitudinally, and for depression diagnoses. LIMITATIONS: We did not directly measure hormone levels, our findings are observational, and the study had a relatively low response rate. CONCLUSIONS: Females at more advanced stages of breast development are at increased risk of depression, even if their age at pubertal onset is not early. Alongside social and psychological factors, hormones controlling breast but not pubic hair development may contribute to increased incidence of female depression during puberty.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with impaired neurodevelopment as indexed by lower premorbid IQ. We examined associations between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, IQ, and subsequent schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses (ONAP) to elucidate the role of neurodevelopment and inflammation in the pathogenesis of psychosis. METHODS: Population-based data on ESR and IQ from 638 213 Swedish men assessed during military conscription between 1969 and 1983 were linked to National Hospital Discharge Register for hospitalisation with schizophrenia and ONAP. The associations of ESR with IQ (cross-sectional) and psychoses (longitudinal) were investigated using linear and Cox-regression. The co-relative analysis was used to examine effects of shared familial confounding. We examined mediation and moderation of effect between ESR and IQ on psychosis risk. RESULTS: Baseline IQ was associated with subsequent risk of schizophrenia (adjusted HR per 1-point increase in IQ = 0.961; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.960-0.963) and ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.973; 95% CI 0.971-0.975). Higher ESR was associated with lower IQ in a dose-response fashion. High ESR was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (adjusted HR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.28) and decreased risk for ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.96), although these effects were specific to one ESR band (7-10 mm/hr). Familial confounding explained ESR-IQ but not ESR-psychoses associations. IQ partly mediated the ESR-psychosis relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Lower IQ is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and with an increased risk of schizophrenia and ONAP in adulthood. Low-grade inflammation may influence schizophrenia risk by affecting neurodevelopment. Future studies should explore the differential effects of inflammation on different types of psychosis.

9.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(4): 356-362, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450471

RESUMO

Importance: Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives: To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n = 771 698). We included 647 515 participants in the analysis. Measurement of Exposures: Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants. Results: At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: -1.61; 95% CI, -1.74 to -1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both moderated (multiplicative, ß = .006; SE = 0.002; P = .02 and additive, ß = .008; SE = 0.002; P = .001) and mediated (ß = .028; SE = 0.002; P < .001) by IQ. Childhood infection had a greater association with NAP risk in the lower, compared with higher, IQ range. Conclusions and Relevance: Early childhood is a sensitive period for the effects of infection on IQ and NAP. The associations of adult NAP with early-childhood infection and adolescent IQ are not fully explained by shared familial factors and may be causal. Lower premorbid IQ in individuals with psychosis arises from unique environmental factors, such as early-childhood infection. Early-childhood infections may increase the risk of NAP by affecting neurodevelopment and by exaggerating the association of cognitive vulnerability with psychosis.

10.
Lancet Public Health ; 3(2): e72-e81, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rising number of young people going to university has led to concerns about an increasing demand for student mental health services. We aimed to assess whether provision of mindfulness courses to university students would improve their resilience to stress. METHODS: We did this pragmatic randomised controlled trial at the University of Cambridge, UK. Students aged 18 years or older with no severe mental illness or crisis (self-assessed) were randomly assigned (1:1), via remote survey software using computer-generated random numbers, to receive either an 8 week mindfulness course adapted for university students (Mindfulness Skills for Students [MSS]) plus mental health support as usual, or mental health support as usual alone. Participants and the study management team were aware of group allocation, but allocation was concealed from the researchers, outcome assessors, and study statistician. The primary outcome was self-reported psychological distress during the examination period, as measured with the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), with higher scores indicating more distress. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12615001160527. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2015, and Jan 15, 2016, we randomly assigned 616 students to the MSS group (n=309) or the support as usual group (n=307). 453 (74%) participants completed the CORE-OM during the examination period and 182 (59%) MSS participants completed at least half of the course. MSS reduced distress scores during the examination period compared with support as usual, with mean CORE-OM scores of 0·87 (SD 0·50) in 237 MSS participants versus 1·11 (0·57) in 216 support as usual participants (adjusted mean difference -0·14, 95% CI -0·22 to -0·06; p=0·001), showing a moderate effect size (ß -0·44, 95% CI -0·60 to -0·29; p<0·0001). 123 (57%) of 214 participants in the support as usual group had distress scores above an accepted clinical threshold compared with 88 (37%) of 235 participants in the MSS group. On average, six students (95% CI four to ten) needed to be offered the MSS course to prevent one from experiencing clinical levels of distress. No participants had adverse reactions related to self-harm, suicidality, or harm to others. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that provision of mindfulness training could be an effective component of a wider student mental health strategy. Further comparative effectiveness research with inclusion of controls for non-specific effects is needed to define a range of additional, effective interventions to increase resilience to stress in university students. FUNDING: University of Cambridge and National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East of England.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Plena , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br J Psychol ; 109(1): 45-62, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436017

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p < .001). Sixty-nine percentage of the UHR group had more than one DSM-IV diagnosis, mainly affective and anxiety disorders. The UHR group experienced more trauma (p < .001) and more mood and anxiety symptoms (p < .001). Interestingly, in our UHR group, only schizotypy paranoia was correlated with insecure attachment. In the HV group, depression, anxiety, schizotypy paranoia, and social anxiety were correlated with insecure attachment. This difference and some discrepancies with previous studies involving UHR suggest that individuals at UHR may compose a heterogeneous group; some experience significant mood and/or anxiety symptoms that may not be explained by specific attachment styles. Nonetheless, measuring attachment in UHR individuals could help maximize therapeutic relationships to enhance recovery.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 12(3): 497-504, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509391

RESUMO

Psychotic experiences, depressive and anxiety symptoms may be manifestations of a latent continuum of common mental distress. The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme has increased the reach of psychological treatments to people with common mental disorders in England. However, psychotic experiences are neither measured nor considered in therapy. We aimed to confirm the presence of psychotic experiences among IAPT service-users and determine whether these experiences are associated with higher depression/anxiety levels and poorer recovery. All service-users that attended the Fenland and Peterborough IAPT teams in Cambridgeshire between November 16, 2015 and January 29, 2016 participated in a service evaluation. In addition to routine mesures, such as the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), we introduced a shortened version of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-P15) to measure psychotic experiences. Classes of individuals were identified with latent class analysis. Associations were reported using Pearson correlation coefficient. One hundred and seventy-three services-users were included, mostly females (N = 133; 76.9%). The mean age was 36.6 (SD = 13.3). Around 30% likely belonged to a class with psychotic experiences. CAPE-P15 frequency was significantly correlated to PHQ-9 (r = 0.44; P < .001) and GAD-7 (r = 0.32; P < .001). Similarly, CAPE-P15 distress and both PHQ-9 (r = 0.43; P < .001) and GAD-7 (r = 0.38; P < .001) were highly correlated. These associations were replicated after the initial period of the therapy, indicating poor recovery. Some IAPT service-users suffer psychotic experiences. Tailoring available evidence-based psychological therapies for these people in IAPT settings might trailblaze a new care pathway to improve recovery in this group.

13.
Pers Individ Dif ; 116: 73-85, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974825

RESUMO

Our daily lives involve high levels of repetition of activities within similar contexts. We buy the same foods from the same grocery store, cook with the same spices, and typically sit at the same place at the dinner table. However, when questioned about these routine activities, most of us barely remember the details of our actions. Habits are automatically triggered behaviours in which we engage without conscious awareness or deliberate control. Although habits help us to operate efficiently, breaking them requires great effort. We have developed a 27-item questionnaire to measure individual differences in habitual responding in everyday life. The Creature of Habit Scale (COHS) incorporates two aspects of the general concept of habits, namely routine behaviour and automatic responses. Both aspects of habitual behaviour were weakly correlated with underlying anxiety levels, but showed a more substantial difference in relation to goal-oriented motivation. We also observed that experiences of adversity during childhood increased self-reported automaticity, and this effect was further amplified in participants who also reported exposure to stimulant drugs. The COHS is a valid and reliable self-report measure of habits, which may prove useful in a number of contexts where discerning individuals' propensity for habit is beneficial.

14.
Addict Behav ; 72: 79-85, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28384607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gambling disorder has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and impaired quality of life. The current definition of non-pathological, problem, and pathological types of gambling is based on total symptom scores, which may overlook nuanced underlying presentations of gambling symptoms. The aims of the current study were (i) to identify subtypes of gambling in young adults, using latent class analysis, based on individual responses from the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD); and (ii) to explore relationships between these gambling subtypes, and clinical/cognitive measures. METHODS: Total 582 non-treatment seeking young adults were recruited from two US cities, on the basis of gambling five or more times per year. Participants undertook clinical and neurocognitive assessment, including stop-signal, decision-making, and set-shifting tasks. Data from individual items of the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD) were entered into latent class analysis. Optimal number of classes representing gambling subtypes was identified using Bayesian Information Criterion and differences between them were explored using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Three subtypes of gambling were identified, termed recreational gamblers (60.2% of the sample; reference group), problem gamblers (29.2%), and pathological gamblers (10.5%). Common quality of life impairment, elevated Barratt Impulsivity scores, occurrence of mainstream mental disorders, having a first degree relative with an addiction, and impaired decision-making were evident in both problem and pathological gambling groups. The diagnostic item 'chasing losses' most discriminated recreational from problem gamblers, while endorsement of 'social, financial, or occupational losses due to gambling' most discriminated pathological gambling from both other groups. Significantly higher rates of impulse control disorders occurred in the pathological group, versus the problem group, who in turn showed significantly higher rates than the reference group. The pathological group also had higher set-shifting errors and nicotine consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Even problem gamblers who had a relatively low total SCI-PG scores (mean endorsement of two items) exhibited impaired quality of life, objective cognitive impairment on decision-making, and occurrence of other mental disorders that did not differ significantly from those seen in the pathological gamblers. Furthermore, problem/pathological gambling was associated with other impulse control disorders, but not increased alcohol use. Groups differed on quality of life when classified using the data-driven approach, but not when classified using DSM cut-offs. Thus, the current DSM-5 approach will fail to discriminate a significant fraction of patients with biologically plausible, functionally impairing illness, and may not be ideal in terms of diagnostic classification. Cognitive distortions related to 'chasing losses' represent a particularly important candidate treatment target for early intervention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Jogo de Azar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Cognição/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/classificação , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
15.
Schizophr Res ; 189: 69-74, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28254243

RESUMO

A need for a brief, easy to complete self-report questionnaire to detect people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) in busy clinical settings has been recognised. Our aim was to explore whether the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences - Positive 15-items Scale (CAPE-P15) could be used as a screening tool to identify people at UHR in a clinical setting. Our objectives were to confirm the CAPE-P15 factorial structure as well as its reliability and determine cut-off values for the detection of such individuals using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), a commonly used clinical interview for the detection of UHR. 165 participants aged between 13 and 18 referred to the General Hospital of Vienna were included in the analysis. 50.9% of the sample were "CAARMS-positive" and 49.1% "CAARMS-negative". The Youden method determined CAPE-P15 cut-off values for UHR detection of 1.47 for both frequency of and distress associated with psychotic experiences. The cut-off value of 1.47 for frequency showed sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 58%, a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 71%; whilst for distress it showed sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 63%, a positive predictive value of 69% and a negative predictive value of 66%. Good reliability and the previously suggested three-correlated factor model as well as an alternative bi-factor model of the CAPE-P15 were confirmed. The CAPE-P15 seems to be a promising screening tool for identifying people who might be at UHR in busy clinical settings.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 59: 253-259, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies confirm an increase in circulating inflammatory markers during acute psychosis. Longitudinal studies are scarce but are needed to understand whether elevated inflammatory markers are a cause or consequence of illness. We report a longitudinal study of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescence and subsequent risk of schizophrenia and related psychoses in adulthood in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. METHOD: Serum high-sensitivity CRP was measured at age 15/16 years in 6362 participants. ICD-10 diagnoses of schizophrenia and related psychoses were obtained from centralised hospital inpatient and outpatient registers up to age 27 years. Logistic regression calculated odds ratios (ORs) for psychotic outcomes associated with baseline CRP levels analysed as both continuous and categorical variables using American Heart Association criteria. Age, sex, body mass index, maternal education, smoking, and alcohol use were included as potential confounders. RESULTS: By age 27years, 88 cases of non-affective psychosis (1.38%), of which 22 were schizophrenia (0.35%), were identified. Adolescent CRP was associated with subsequent schizophrenia. The adjusted OR for schizophrenia by age 27yearsfor each standard deviation (SD) increase in CRP levels at age 15/16yearswas 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07-1.46), which was consistent with a linear, dose-response relationship (P-value for quadratic term 0.23). Using CRP as a categorical variable, those with high (>3mg/L) compared with low (<1mg/L) CRP levels at baseline were more likely to develop schizophrenia; adjusted OR 4.25 (95% CI, 1.30-13.93). There was some indication that higher CRP was associated with earlier onset of schizophrenia (rs=-0.40; P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: A longitudinal association between adolescent CRP levels and adult schizophrenia diagnosis indicates a potentially important role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of the illness, although the findings, based on a small number of cases, need to be interpreted with caution and require replication in other samples.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 16: 58, 2016 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27206714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psychological distress (GPD). METHODS: Multidimensional item response theory was used on existing health survey data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey (n = 766) to calibrate an item bank consisting of pooled items from the short common mental disorder screen (GHQ-12) and the Affectometer-2 (a measure of "general happiness"). Computer simulation was used to evaluate usefulness and efficacy of its adaptive administration. RESULTS: A bifactor model capturing variation across a continuum of population distress (while controlling for artefacts due to item wording) was supported. The numbers of items for different required reliabilities in adaptive administration demonstrated promising efficacy of the proposed item bank. CONCLUSIONS: Psychometric modeling of the common dimension captured by more than one instrument offers the potential of adaptive testing for GPD using individually sequenced combinations of existing survey items. The potential for linking other item sets with alternative candidate measures of positive mental health is discussed since an optimal item bank may require even more items than these.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
18.
Eur J Ageing ; 13(1): 5-14, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804368

RESUMO

Despite efforts to expand global physical activity (PA) surveillance data to include both low- and high-income countries worldwide, our understanding of the relationship between PA and quality of life (QOL) in older adults from culturally diverse backgrounds is limited. We tested McAuley's social-cognitive model of the PA-QOL relationship in the cultural context of the Czech Republic, a post-communist central European country. A total of 546 older Czech adults (mean age 68 years) completed a battery of questionnaires assessing indicators of PA, self-efficacy, health status, and global QOL. A structural equation model was used to test the relationship between PA and QOL. The model hypothesized an indirect relationship between PA and QOL: PA predicted self-efficacy, which in turn predicted global QOL through mental and physical health status. The analyses indicated an acceptable fit of the proposed model, albeit with different emphases than those of studies from Western countries. Above all, we observed a stronger effect of PA on self-efficacy and a weaker mediating effect of health status on the PA-QOL relationship. Our findings supported the validity of McAuley's PA-QOL social-cognitive model for a non-Western cultural context. However, it seems that self-efficacy and health status may influence the PA-QOL relationship in this population in a manner different from that proposed in McAuley's model.

19.
BMJ Open ; 6(11): e012300, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186934

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: At least 550 University of Cambridge students free from active crises or severe mental illness will be randomised to joining an 8-week mindfulness course or to mental health provision as usual (one-to-one allocation rate). Psychological distress will be measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure at baseline, postintervention, examination term and 1-year follow-up. Other outcomes are use of mental health services, inability to sit examinations or special circumstance requests, examination grades, well-being, altruism and coping measured with ecological momentary assessment. Outcome assessment and intention-to-treat primary analysis using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline scores will be blind to intervention allocation. We will also conduct per-protocol, subgroup and secondary outcome analyses. An Independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee will be set up. We will systematically monitor for, and react to, possible adverse events. An advisory reference group will comprise student representatives, members of the University Counselling Service and other student welfare staff. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval has been obtained from Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2015.060). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. A lay summary will be disseminated to a wider audience including other universities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12615001160527; pre-results.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Saúde Mental/normas , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Universidades
20.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 25(3): 205-19, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26096674

RESUMO

Statistical theory indicates that hierarchical clustering by interviewers or raters needs to be considered to avoid incorrect inferences when performing any analyses including regression, factor analysis (FA) or item response theory (IRT) modelling of binary or ordinal data. We use simulated Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) data to show the consequences (in terms of bias, variance and mean square error) of using an analysis ignoring clustering on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) estimates. Our investigation includes the performance of different estimators, such as maximum likelihood, weighted least squares and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Our simulation results suggest that ignoring clustering may lead to serious bias of the estimated factor loadings, item thresholds, and corresponding standard errors in CFAs for ordinal item response data typical of that commonly encountered in psychiatric research. In addition, fit indices tend to show a poor fit for the hypothesized structural model. MCMC estimation may be more robust against clustering than maximum likelihood and weighted least squares approaches but further investigation of these issues is warranted in future simulation studies of other datasets. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Análise Fatorial , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
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