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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

3.
Biomarkers ; 26(6): 557-569, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128444

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the relationship between inhalation of airborne particles and cobalt in the Swedish hard metal industry and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood. METHODS: Personal sampling of inhalable cobalt and dust were performed for subjects in two Swedish hard metal plants. Stationary measurements were used to study concentrations of inhalable, respirable, and total dust and cobalt, PM10 and PM2.5, the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. The inflammatory markers CC16, TNF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, SAA and CRP, and the coagulatory markers FVIII, vWF, fibrinogen, PAI-1 and D-dimer were measured. A complete sampling was performed on the second or third day of a working week following a work-free weekend, and additional sampling was taken on the fourth or fifth day. The mixed model analysis was used, including covariates. RESULTS: The average air concentrations of inhalable dust and cobalt were 0.11 mg/m3 and 0.003 mg/m3, respectively. For some mass-based exposure measures of cobalt and total dust, statistically significant increased levels of FVIII, vWF and CC16 were found. CONCLUSIONS: The observed relationships between particle exposure and coagulatory biomarkers may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540914

RESUMO

We assessed the health risks of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) ambient air pollution and its trace elemental components in a rural South African community. Air pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. PM2.5 samples were previously collected, April 2017 to April 2018, and PM2.5 mass determined. The filters were analyzed for chemical composition. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) health risk assessment method was applied. Reference doses were calculated from the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, South African National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and US EPA reference concentrations. Despite relatively moderate levels of PM2.5 the health risks were substantial, especially for infants and children. The average annual PM2.5 concentration was 11 µg/m3, which is above WHO guidelines, but below South African NAAQS. Adults were exposed to health risks from PM2.5 during May to October, whereas infants and children were exposed to risk throughout the year. Particle-bound nickel posed both non-cancer and cancer risks. We conclude that PM2.5 poses health risks in Thohoyandou, despite levels being compliant with yearly South African NAAQS. The results indicate that air quality standards need to be tightened and PM2.5 levels lowered in South Africa.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , África do Sul , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138267

RESUMO

In 2015, stricter regulations to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions and particulate air pollution from shipping were implemented in the Baltic Sea. We investigated the effects on population exposure to particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5) from shipping and estimated related morbidity and mortality in Sweden's 21 counties at different spatial resolutions. We used a regional model to estimate exposure in Sweden and a city-scale model for Gothenburg. Effects of PM2.5 exposure on total mortality, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were estimated using exposure-response functions from the literature and combining them into disability-adjusted life years (DALYS). PM2.5 exposure from shipping in Gothenburg decreased by 7% (1.6 to 1.5 µg/m3) using the city-scale model, and 35% (0.5 to 0.3 µg/m3) using the regional model. Different population resolutions had no effects on population exposures. In the city-scale model, annual premature deaths due to shipping PM2.5 dropped from 97 with the high-sulfur scenario to 90 in the low-sulfur scenario, and in the regional model from 32 to 21. In Sweden, DALYs lost due to PM2.5 from Baltic Sea shipping decreased from approximately 5700 to 4200. In conclusion, sulfur emission restrictions for shipping had positive effects on health, but the model resolution affects estimations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Saúde Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Países Bálticos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Navios , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(10): 820-829, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between inhalable dust and cobalt, and respiratory symptoms, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide in expired air, and CC16 in the Swedish hard metal industry. METHODS: Personal sampling of inhalable dust and cobalt, and medical examination including blood sampling was performed for 72 workers. Exposure-response relationships were determined using logistic, linear, and mixed-model analysis. RESULTS: The average inhalable dust and cobalt concentrations were 0.079 and 0.0017 mg/m, respectively. Statistically significant increased serum levels of CC16 were determined when the high and low cumulative exposures for cobalt were compared. Nonsignificant exposure-response relationships were observed between cross-shift inhalable dust or cobalt exposures and asthma, nose dripping, and bronchitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an exposure-response relationship between inhalable cumulative cobalt exposure and CC16 levels in blood, which may reflect an injury or a reparation process in the lungs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Cobalto , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Ligas , Cobalto/análise , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Metalurgia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Suécia , Tungstênio
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between inhalable dust and cobalt and respiratory symptoms, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide in expired air and CC16 in the Swedish hard metal industry. METHODS: Personal sampling of inhalable dust and cobalt, medical examination including blood sampling was performed for 72 workers. Exposure-response relationships was determined using logistic, linear and mixed model analysis. RESULTS: The average inhalable dust and cobalt concentrations were 0.079 and 0.0017 mg/m, respectively. Statistically significant increased serum levels of CC16 were determined when the high and low cumulative exposures for cobalt were compared. Non-significant exposure-response relationships was observed between cross-shift inhalable dust or cobalt exposures and asthma, nose dripping and bronchitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an exposure-response relationship between inhalable cumulative cobalt exposure and CC16 levels in blood, which may reflect an injury or a reparation process in the lungs.

8.
Environ Res ; 191: 110095, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms are not fully known. Current evidence suggests that air pollution exposure contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. There are few studies investigating associations between air pollution and carotid plaques, a well-known precursor of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A Swedish population-based cohort (aged 45-64 years at recruitment) was randomly selected from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study between 1991 and 1994, of which 6103 participants underwent ultrasound examination of the right carotid artery to determine carotid plaque presence and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Participants were assigned individual residential air pollution exposure (source-specific PM2.5, PM10, NOx, BC) at recruitment from Gaussian dispersion models. Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders and cardiovascular risk factors, were used to investigate associations between air pollutants and prevalence of carotid plaques, and CIMT, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid plaques was 35%. The mean levels of PM2.5 and PM10 at recruitment were 11 and 14 µg/m3, most of which was due to long range transport. The exposure contrast within the cohort was relatively low. PM2.5 exposure was associated with carotid plaques in a model including age and sex only (OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20) per 1 µg/m3), but after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) the association was weak and not significant (OR 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.16) per 1 µg/m3). The pattern was similar for PM10 and NOx exposure. Associations between air pollutants and plaques were slightly stronger for long-term residents and in younger participants with hypertension. There was no clear linear trend between air pollution exposure and plaque prevalence. Non-significant slightly positive associations were seen between air pollution exposures and CIMT. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, well-controlled cross-sectional study at low exposure levels we found no significant associations between air pollution exposures and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and SES. Further epidemiological studies of air pollution and intermediate outcomes are needed to explain the link between air pollution and cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aterosclerose , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Artérias Carótidas/química , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 06 25.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594471

RESUMO

Several published and pre-print studies report associations between exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 mortality. While further epidemiological and experimental studies are still needed to prove causality, the association is plausible and consistent with the literature: Air pollution is associated with inferior outcomes in other respiratory infections, may act as carrier for the virus, exerts negative effects on the airways and is associated with cardiopulmonary comorbidities that lead to a poorer prognosis in COVID-19 patients. The lockdown to inhibit the spread of COVID-19 has led to substantial decreases in air pollution levels in many countries.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Material Particulado , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Environ Res ; 185: 109446, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278155

RESUMO

Urbanization and increasing road traffic cause exposure to both noise and air pollution. While the levels of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) have decreased in Sweden during the past decades, exposure to traffic noise has increased. The association with cardiovascular morbidity is less well established for noise than for air pollution, and most studies have only studied one of the two highly spatially correlated exposures. The Swedish Primary Prevention Study cohort consists of men aged 47 to 55 when first examined in 1970-1973. The cohort members were linked to the Swedish patient registry through their personal identity number and followed until first cardiovascular event 1970-2011. The address history during the entire study period was used to assign annual modelled residential exposure to road traffic noise and NOx. The Cox proportional hazards model with age on the time axis and time-varying exposures were used in the analysis. The results for 6304 men showed a non-significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease for long-term road traffic noise at the home address, after adjusting for air pollution. The hazard ratios were 1.08 (95% CI 0.90-1.28) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.14 (95% CI 0.96-1.36) for ischemic heart disease incidence and 1.07 (95% CI 0.85-1.36) for stroke incidence, for noise above 60 dB, compared to below 50 dB. This study found some support for cardiovascular health effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise above 60 dB, after having accounted for exposure to air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224668, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the relationship between respirable dust, quartz and chemical binders in Swedish iron foundries and respiratory symptoms, lung function (as forced expiratory volume FEV1 and vital capacity FVC), fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and levels of club cell secretory protein 16 (CC16) and CRP. METHODS: Personal sampling of respirable dust and quartz was performed for 85 subjects in three Swedish iron foundries. Full shift sampling and examination were performed on the second or third day of a working week after a work free weekend, with additional sampling on the fourth or fifth day. Logistic, linear and mixed model analyses were performed including, gender, age, smoking, infections, sampling day, body mass index (BMI) and chemical binders as covariates. RESULTS: The adjusted average respirable quartz and dust concentrations were 0.038 and 0.66 mg/m3, respectively. Statistically significant increases in levels of CC16 were associated with exposure to chemical binders (p = 0.05; p = 0.01) in the regression analysis of quartz and respirable dust, respectively. Non-significant exposure-responses were identified for cumulative quartz and the symptoms asthma and breathlessness. For cumulative chemical years, non-significant exposure-response were observed for all but two symptoms. FENO also exhibited a non significant exposure-response for both quartz and respirable dust. No exposure-response was determined for FEV1 or FVC, CRP and respirable dust and quartz. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that early markers of pulmonary effect, such as increased levels of CC16 and FENO, are more strongly associated with chemical binder exposure than respirable quartz and dust in foundry environments.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Inflamação/etiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Metalurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Quartzo/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Ferro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Quartzo/análise , Suécia , Uteroglobina/sangue , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107012, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but few studies have considered incident disease in relation to PM from different sources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations between long-term exposure to different types of PM and sources, and incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in three Swedish cities. METHODS: Based on detailed emission databases, monitoring data, and high-resolution dispersion models, we calculated source contributions to PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) from road wear, traffic exhaust, residential heating, and other sources in Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Umeå. Registry data for participants from four cohorts were used to obtain incidence of IHD and stroke for first hospitalization or death. We constructed time windows of exposure for same-year, 1- to 5-y, and 6- to 10-y averages preceding incidence from annual averages at residential addresses. Risk estimates were based on random effects meta-analyses of cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We observed 5,166 and 3,119 incident IHD and stroke cases, respectively, in 114,758 participants. Overall, few consistent associations were observed between the different air pollution measures and IHD or stroke incidence. However, same-year levels of ambient locally emitted BC (range: 0.01-4.6 µg/m3) were associated with a 4.0% higher risk of incident stroke per interquartile range (IQR), 0.30 µg/m3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 7.8]. This association was primarily related to BC from traffic exhaust. PM10 (range: 4.4-52 µg/m3) and PM2.5 (range: 2.9-22 µg/m3) were not associated with stroke. Associations with incident IHD were observed only for PM2.5 exposure from residential heating. DISCUSSION: Few consistent associations were observed between different particulate components and IHD or stroke. However, long-term residential exposure to locally emitted BC from traffic exhaust was associated with stroke incidence. The comparatively low exposure levels may have contributed to the paucity of associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4757.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carbono , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos
13.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(8): 1087-1098, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the relationship between inhalation of airborne particles and quartz in Swedish iron foundries and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood. METHODS: Personal sampling of respirable dust and quartz was performed for 85 subjects in three Swedish iron foundries. Stationary measurements were used to study the concentrations of respirable dust and quartz, inhalable and total dust, PM10 and PM2.5, as well as the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, namely interleukins (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12), C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured in plasma or serum, together with markers of coagulation including fibrinogen, factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor and D-dimer. Complete sampling was performed on the second or third day of a working week after a work-free weekend, and follow-up samples were collected 2 days later. A mixed model analysis was performed including sex, age, smoking, infections, blood group, sampling day and BMI as covariates. RESULTS: The average 8-h time-weighted average air concentrations of respirable dust and quartz were 0.85 mg/m3 and 0.052 mg/m3, respectively. Participants in high-exposure groups with respect to some of the measured particle types exhibited significantly elevated levels of SAA, fibrinogen and FVIII. CONCLUSIONS: These observed relationships between particle exposure and inflammatory markers may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among foundry workers with high particulate exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Quartzo/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ferro , Metalurgia , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício , Suécia
14.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 45(5): 429-443, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165899

RESUMO

Objectives Precarious employment (PE) is a term used to describe non-standard employment forms characterized by low security that may have negative effects on mental health. The objective of this review was to systematically review the evidence for effects of PE on mental health and identify important areas for further research. Methods A protocol was developed following PRISMA-P guidelines. Web of Science, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched up to 4 September 2017. All unique records were assessed for eligibility and quality by at least two reviewers. Data from included studies were summarized in forest plots and meta-analyses using a random-effects model. Evidence quality was rated using the GRADE method. Results We obtained 3328 unique records, of which 16 studies of sufficient quality met the inclusion criteria. Moderate quality evidence (GRADE score 3 of 4) was found for an adverse effect of job insecurity on mental health; summary odds ratio (OR) 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.70]. There was very low quality (GRADE 1 of 4) evidence for effects of temporary employment or unpredictable work hours on mental health. Five studies on multidimensional exposures all showed adverse effects, weighted average OR 2.01 (95% CI 1.60-2.53). Conclusions Research on PE and mental health is growing, but high-quality prospective studies are still scarce. Job insecurity likely has an adverse effect on mental health. A clear multi-dimensional definition of PE is lacking, and harmonization efforts are needed. Further single-variable observational studies on job insecurity or temporary employment should not be prioritized.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159436

RESUMO

Emission of pollutants from shipping contributes to ambient air pollution. Our aim was to estimate exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and health effects from shipping in countries around the Baltic Sea, as well as effects of the sulfur regulations for fuels enforced in 2015 by the Baltic Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA). Yearly PM2.5 emissions, from ship activity data and emission inventories in 2014 and 2016, were estimated. Concentrations and population exposure (0.1° × 0.1°) of PM2.5 were estimated from a chemical transport mode, meteorology, and population density. Excess mortality and morbidity were estimated using established exposure-response (ER) functions. Estimated mean PM2.5 per inhabitant from Baltic shipping was 0.22 µg/m3 in 2014 in ten countries, highest in Denmark (0.57 µg/m3). For the ER function with the steepest slope, the number of estimated extra premature deaths was 3413 in total, highest in Germany and lowest in Norway. It decreased by about 35% in 2016 (after SECA), a reduction of >1000 cases. In addition, 1500 non-fatal cases of ischemic heart disease and 1500 non-fatal cases of stroke in 2014 caused by Baltic shipping emissions were reduced by the same extent in 2016. In conclusion, PM2.5 emissions from Baltic shipping, and resulting health impacts decreased substantially after the SECA regulations in 2015.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Saúde da População , Navios , Países Bálticos , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Enxofre , Emissões de Veículos
16.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(7): 1023-1031, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that welders have increased cardiovascular mortality. This may be due to airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure. Elevated levels of PM in polluted urban air have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This study seeks to explore potential mechanisms for the increased cardiovascular mortality in welders. METHODS: Seventy welders were compared to 74 referents. Exposure to PM was assessed by personal full-shift sampling of work room air the last 2 days before collection of blood samples. Selected biomarkers of pro-coagulant activity, endothelial/platelet activation and systemic inflammation were determined in the samples. RESULTS: The welders had been occupationally exposed to PM for 15 years on average. The geometric mean current exposure to PM was 8.1 mg/m3. They had statistically significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α, P-selectin, CD40L, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and D-dimer than the referents. Increasing concentrations of D-dimer and CD40L were observed by increasing current exposure to PM. DISCUSSION: The study shows that welders highly exposed to welding PM were in a pro-thrombotic state with increased thrombin generation and consequently higher D-dimer concentrations. The welders had also increased endothelial/platelet activation as compared to the referents. These alterations are compatible with increased cardiovascular mortality as previously reported among welders.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Soldagem , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Ativação Plaquetária , Federação Russa , Trombina
18.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 44(4): 341-350, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443355

RESUMO

Objectives Precarious employment conditions have become more common in many countries over the last decades, and have been linked to various adverse health outcomes. The objective of this review was to collect and summarize existing scientific research of the relationship between dimensions of precarious employment and the rate of occupational injuries. Methods A protocol was developed in accordance with the PRISMA-P checklist for systematic literature reviews. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus for articles on observational studies from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand published in peer-reviewed journals 1990-2017. A minimum of two independent reviewers assessed each article with respect to quality and eligibility criteria. Articles of high/moderate quality meeting all specified inclusion criteria were included in the review. Results The literature search resulted in 471 original titles, of which 17 articles met all the inclusion criteria. The most common exposures were in descending order; temporary employment, multiple jobs, working for a subcontractor at the same worksite/temp agency, part-time, self-employment, hourly pay, union membership, insurance benefits, flexible versus fixed work schedule, wages, job insecurity, work-time control and precarious career trajectories. Ten studies reported a positive association between precarious employment and occupational injuries. Four studies reported a negative association, and three studies did not show any significant association. Conclusions This review supports an association between some of the dimensions of precarious employment and occupational injuries; most notably for multiple jobholders and employees of temp agencies or subcontractors at the same worksite. However, results for temporary employment are inconclusive. There is a need for more prospective studies of high quality, designed to measure effect sizes as well as causality.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Emprego , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Serviços Contratados , Saúde Global , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fatores de Risco
19.
Environ Res ; 158: 61-71, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term exposure to air pollution increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but it is not clear which components of air pollution are the most harmful, nor which time window of exposure is most relevant. Further studies at low exposure levels have also been called for. We analyzed two Swedish cohorts to investigate the effects of total and source-specific particulate matter (PM) on incident cardiovascular disease for different time windows of exposure. METHODS: Two cohorts initially recruited to study predictors of cardiovascular disease (the PPS cohort and the GOT-MONICA cohort) were followed from 1990 to 2011. We collected data on residential addresses and assigned each individual yearly total and source-specific PM and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) exposures based on dispersion models. Using multivariable Cox regression models with time-dependent exposure, we studied the association between three different time windows (lag 0, lag 1-5, and exposure at study start) of residential PM and NOx exposure, and incidence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the study period, there were 2266 new-onset cases of ischemic heart disease, 1391 of stroke, 925 of heart failure and 1712 of atrial fibrillation. The majority of cases were in the PPS cohort, where participants were older. Exposure levels during the study period were moderate (median: 13µg/m3 for PM10 and 9µg/m3 for PM2.5), and similar in both cohorts. Road traffic and residential heating were the largest local sources of PM air pollution, and long distance transportation the largest PM source in total. In the PPS cohort, there were positive associations between PM in the last five years and both ischemic heart disease (HR: 1.24 [95% CI: 0.98-1.59] per 10µg/m3 of PM10, and HR: 1.38 [95% CI: 1.08-1.77] per 5µg/m3 of PM2.5) and heart failure. In the GOT-MONICA cohort, there were positive but generally non-significant associations between PM and stroke (HR: 1.48 [95% CI: 0.88-2.49] per 10µg/m3 of PM10, and HR: 1.50 [95% CI: 0.90-2.51] per 5µg/m3 of PM2.5, in the last five years). Effect estimates were stronger for women, non-smokers, and higher socioeconomic classes. Exposure in the last five years seemed to be more strongly associated with outcomes than other exposure time windows. Associations between source-specific PM air pollution and outcomes were mixed and generally weak. High correlations between the main pollutants limited the use of multi-pollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: The main PM air pollutants were associated with ischemic heart disease and stroke (in women) at the relatively low exposure levels in Gothenburg, Sweden. The associations tended to be stronger for women than for men, for non-smokers than for smokers, and for higher socioeconomic classes than for lower. The associations could not be attributed to a specific PM source or type, and differed somewhat between the two cohorts. The results of this study confirm that further efforts to reduce air pollution exposure should be undertaken in Sweden to reduce the negative health effects in the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 90(5): 451-463, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258373

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Welders are exposed to airborne particles from the welding environment and often develop symptoms work-related from the airways. A large fraction of the particles from welding are in the nano-size range. In this study we investigate if the welders' airways are affected by exposure to particles derived from gas metal arc welding in mild steel in levels corresponding to a normal welding day. METHOD: In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with and 10 welders without work-related symptoms from the lower airways and 11 non-welders without symptoms, were exposed to welding fumes (1 mg/m3) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Symptoms from eyes and upper and lower airways and lung function were registered. Blood and nasal lavage (NL) were sampled before, immediately after and the morning after exposure for analysis of markers of oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for analysis of leukotriene B4 (LT-B4) was sampled before, during and immediately after exposure. RESULTS: No adverse effects of welding exposure were found regarding symptoms and lung function. However, EBC LT-B4 decreased significantly in all participants after welding exposure compared to filtered air. NL IL-6 increased immediately after exposure in the two non-symptomatic groups and blood neutrophils tended to increase in the symptomatic welder group. The morning after, neutrophils and serum IL-8 had decreased in all three groups after welding exposure. Remarkably, the symptomatic welder group had a tenfold higher level of EBC LT-B4 compared to the two groups without symptoms. CONCLUSION: Despite no clinical adverse effects at welding, changes in inflammatory markers may indicate subclinical effects even at exposure below the present Swedish threshold limit (8 h TWA respirable dust).


Assuntos
Leucotrieno B4/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Soldagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Método Duplo-Cego , Poeira , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lavagem Nasal , Neutrófilos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
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