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1.
J Am Coll Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956017

RESUMO

Consumption of saturated fat causes deleterious effects on health, which could be minimized through physical activity and foods with functional characteristics consumption. The aim of the study was to evaluate the beverage rich in resveratrol consumption and physical exercise in gut microbiota, body composition, lipid peroxidation, interleukin-6 (IL6) concentration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats to the high-fat diet. Wistar rats were fed with control diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD and 15 mL solution of resveratrol, HFD and 15 mL of grape juice, HFD and 10 mL of red wine. All animals performed the physical training protocol five days a week. Grape juice and red wine composition were analyzed, SBP, body mass, consumption, adiposity and body composition, gut microbiota, lipid peroxidation and inflammation were evaluated. The grape juice (114.8 ± 22.5 mmHG) and red wine (129 ± 15.8 mmHg) groups showed lower SBP when compared to HFD (216.8 ± 20.6 mmHg) (p < 0.0001). The grape juice group (GJG) (39.1 ± 7) had a higher number of microbiota bands DNA when compared to the other groups (p = 0.002). The GJG (33.7 ± 6.7 pg/mL) presented lower concentration IL6 when compared to high-fat group (47.3 ± 16 pg/mL) (p = 0.003). GJG (4.7 ± 1.2 nmol/L) presented a lower concentration of TBARS when compared to control group (6.1 ± 1.4 nmol/L) and resveratrol group (6.6 ± 0.9 nmol/L), and the red wine group (7.4 ± 1.2 nmol/L) had a higher concentration of TBARS when compared to control group and GJG (p = 0.0001). The consumption of these beverages, especially grape juice, together with physical exercise, was able to promote beneficial changes even in the presence of a HFD.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1121-1127, Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055071

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are present in coronary artery disease (CAD) and are linked to the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). To attenuate these complications, transcription factors like nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) can be activated to inhibit NF-κB. However, the available data on expression of NF-κB, Nrf2 and PPARβ/δ in CAD patients are limited. Objective: To evaluate the expression of the transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 and PPAR��/�� in CAD patients. Methods: Thirty-five patients (17 men, mean age 62.4 ? 7.55 years) with CAD and twelve patients (5 men, mean age 63.50 ? 11.46 years) without CAD were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and processed for mRNA expression of Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and PPARβ/δ mRNAs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 (1.35 ? 0.57), NF-κB (1.08 ? 0.50) or in the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 (1.05 ? 0.88) in the CAD group compared to the group without CAD (1.16 ? 0.76, 0.95 ? 0.33, 0.81 ? 0.55, respectively). However, PPARβ/δ was highest expressed in the CAD group (1.17 ? 0.86 vs. 0.56 ? 0.34, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The main finding of this study was the PPARβ/δ being more expressed in the PBMC of patients with CAD compared to the control group, whereas no differences were observed in Nrf2 or NF-κB mRNA expressions.


Resumo Fundamentos: O estresse oxidativo e a inflamação estão presentes na doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e estão ligados à ativação do fator de transcrição nuclear kappa B (NF-κB). Para atenuar essas complicações, fatores de transcrição como o fator nuclear eritroide 2-relacionado ao fator 2 (Nrf2) e o receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma β/δ (PPARβ/δ) podem ser ativados para inibir o NF-κB. No entanto, os dados disponíveis sobre a expressão de NF-κB, Nrf2 e PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC são limitados. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão dos fatores transcricionais NF-κB e Nrf2 e o PPARβ/δ em pacientes com DAC. Métodos: Trinta e cinco pacientes (17 homens, idade média de 62,4 ± 7,55 anos) com DAC e doze pacientes (5 homens, com idade média de 63,50 ± 11,46 anos) sem DAC foram incluídos. Células mononucleares do sangue periférico (PBMCs) foram isoladas e processadas para a expressão de mRNA do Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinona oxidoredutase 1 (NQO1) e mRNAs do PPARβ/δ por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qPCR). Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados como estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Não houve diferença nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 (1,35 ± 0,57), NF-κB (1,08 ± 0,50) ou na enzima antioxidante NQO1 (1,05 ± 0,88) no grupo DAC em comparação com o grupo sem DAC (1,16 ± 0,76, 0,95 ± 0,33, 0,81 ± 0,55, respectivamente). Entretanto, o PPARβ/δ apresentou maior expressão no grupo com DAC (1,17 ± 0,86 vs. 0,56 ± 0,34, p = 0,008). Conclusão: O principal achado do presente estudo foi o PPARβ/δ apresentar maior expressão nas PBMCs de pacientes com DAC comparados ao grupo controle, ao passo que não foram observadas diferenças nas expressões de mRNA do Nrf2 ou NF-κB.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(6): 1121-1127, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are present in coronary artery disease (CAD) and are linked to the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). To attenuate these complications, transcription factors like nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-ß/δ (PPARß/δ) can be activated to inhibit NF-κB. However, the available data on expression of NF-κB, Nrf2 and PPARß/δ in CAD patients are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of the transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 and PPAR𝛽/𝛿 in CAD patients. METHODS: Thirty-five patients (17 men, mean age 62.4 ? 7.55 years) with CAD and twelve patients (5 men, mean age 63.50 ? 11.46 years) without CAD were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and processed for mRNA expression of Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and PPARß/δ mRNAs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 (1.35 ? 0.57), NF-κB (1.08 ? 0.50) or in the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 (1.05 ? 0.88) in the CAD group compared to the group without CAD (1.16 ? 0.76, 0.95 ? 0.33, 0.81 ? 0.55, respectively). However, PPARß/δ was highest expressed in the CAD group (1.17 ? 0.86 vs. 0.56 ? 0.34, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The main finding of this study was the PPARß/δ being more expressed in the PBMC of patients with CAD compared to the control group, whereas no differences were observed in Nrf2 or NF-κB mRNA expressions.

5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 274-282, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002225

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death globally and most CVD can be prevented by addressing their risk factors, such as an unhealthy diet. Many authors have studied the benefits of nut consumption on CVD. Nuts contain high amounts of vegetable protein, unsaturated fatty acids, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals and many other bioactive compounds, like phytosterols and phenolic compounds, which are able to reduce cholesterol levels and promote antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby reducing cardiovascular risks. This review aims to describe studies involving the consumption of nuts, including Brazil nuts and CVD risk factors with positive results in the improvement of lipid profile, glucose metabolism, vascular function, and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Nozes , Sementes , Biomarcadores , Colesterol , Fatores de Risco , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Hipertensão , HDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 274-282, may.-june. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006132

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death globally and most CVD can be prevented by addressing their risk factors, such as an unhealthy diet. Many authors have studied the benefits of nut consumption on CVD. Nuts contain high amounts of vegetable protein, unsaturated fatty acids, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals and many other bioactive compounds, like phytosterols and phenolic compounds, which are able to reduce cholesterol levels and promote antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby reducing cardiovascular risks. This review aims to describe studies involving the consumption of nuts, including Brazil nuts and CVD risk factors with positive results in the improvement of lipid profile, glucose metabolism, vascular function, and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Nozes , Sementes , Biomarcadores , Colesterol , Fatores de Risco , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Hipertensão , HDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes
7.
Biochemistry ; 58(15): 2054-2060, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912928

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested that uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from the metabolism of the gut microbiota may be involved in the inflammatory signaling pathway in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between uremic toxins (IS and IAA) and AhR protein expression in CKD patients. A cross-sectional observational study involving 17 hemodialysis (HD) [11 men, 55.5 ± 11.7 years of age, 54.0 (25.5-136.0) months of HD, body mass index (BMI) of 25.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2] and 15 non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD (8 men, 54.1 ± 18.2 years of age, glomerular filtration rate of 34.8 ± 21.0 mL/min/1.73 m2, BMI of 27.4 ± 5.0 kg/m2) patients was conducted. IS and IAA levels were measured by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the protein expression levels of AhR and nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB) were evaluated by a Western blot assay. There was no difference in the expression of either AhR or NF-κB in the patients, and as expected, uremic toxin levels were higher in HD patients than in NDD patients. In the overall analysis, AhR protein expression was positively associated with IAA plasma levels ( r = 0.4; p = 0.03) and NF-κB protein expression ( r = 0.62; p = 0.001). Although the role of AhR in inflammation and CVD in CKD patients is far from being completely understood, the association between IAA and AhR observed in this study suggests a possible role for uremic toxins in the cell signaling pathway involved in inflammation in CKD patients.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Indicã/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Bras Nefrol ; 40(1): 53-58, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD). METHODS: Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old) were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session) intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day) at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session). Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0 ± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL, p=0.02) and non-exercise day (121.5 ± 13.7 to 115.4 ± 17.2 ng/mL, p=0.02) after 60 minutes of dialysis. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fibronectinas/sangue , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 53-58, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893817

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD). Methods: Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old) were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session) intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day) at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session). Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0 ± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL, p=0.02) and non-exercise day (121.5 ± 13.7 to 115.4 ± 17.2 ng/mL, p=0.02) after 60 minutes of dialysis. Conclusion: These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.


RESUMO História: A irisina é um hormônio induzido pelo exercício recentemente identificado que estimula o "escurecimento" do tecido adiposo branco, pelo menos em camundongos. Nos pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), a regulação da irisina não é totalmente compreendida, e pouca atenção tem sido dada aos efeitos do exercício sobre os níveis de irisina nesses pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do exercício de alta intensidade sobre os níveis plasmáticos de irisina em pacientes com DRC em hemodiálise (HD). Métodos: 15 pacientes em HD (5 homens, 44,4 ± 15,1 anos) foram estudados e serviram como os próprios controles. Os exercícios de resistência intradialítica de alta intensidade (sessão única) consistiram em três séries de dez repetições com quatro movimentos diferentes em ambos os membros inferiores durante 30 minutos. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas em dias diferentes (dia de exercício e dia sem exercício) exatamente no mesmo horário (30 e 60 minutos após o início da sessão de diálise). Os níveis de irisina plasmática foram medidos por ensaio ELISA e os parâmetros antropométricos e bioquímicos foram avaliados. Resultados: Os níveis plasmáticos de irisina foram significativamente reduzidos tanto nos dias de exercício (125,0 ± 18,5 a 117,4 ± 15,0 ng/mL, p=0,02) quanto nos dias sem exercício (121,5 ± 13,7 a 115,4 ± 17,2 ng / mL, p=0,02), após 60 minutos de diálise. Conclusão: esses dados sugerem que o exercício intenso de resistência intradialítica não aumentou a concentração circulante de irisina em pacientes sob HD. Além disso, nossos dados mostram que após uma hora de sessão de diálise, os níveis plasmáticos de irisina podem ser reduzidos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Diálise Renal , Fibronectinas/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Projetos Piloto
10.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 34(1): 35-40, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26484017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are common findings in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and they are directly related to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which is the major cause of death in these patients, particularly for those undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Strength physical exercise is a new therapeutic approach to reduce these complications in CKD patients. Following this, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute intradialytic strength physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in HD patients. METHODS: Sixteen HD patients were studied (11 women; 44.4±14.6 years; body mass index 23.3±4.9 kg/m(2); 61.6±43.1 months of dialysis) and served as their own controls. Acute (single session) intradialytic physical exercise were performed at 60% of the one-repetition maximum test for three sets of 10 repetitions for four exercise categories in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on two different days at exactly the same time (30 minutes and 60 minutes after initiating the dialysis-with and without exercise). Antioxidant enzymes activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase], lipid peroxidation marker levels (malondialdehyde), and inflammatory marker levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were determined. RESULTS: SOD plasma levels were significantly reduced after acute physical exercise from 244.8±40.7 U/mL to 222.4±28.9 U/mL (P=0.03) and, by contrast, increased on the day without exercise (218.2±26.5 U/mL to 239.4±38.6 U/mL, P=0.02). There was no alteration in plasma catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in on either day (with or without exercise). Additionally, there was no association between these markers and clinical, anthropometric, or biochemical parameters. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that acute intradialytic strength physical exercise was unable to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, and in addition, it seems to reduce plasma SOD levels, which could exacerbate the oxidative stress in HD patients.

11.
Nutr. hosp ; 32(4): 1808-1812, oct. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-143686

RESUMO

Background: thyroid function depends on trace mineral selenium (Se), being at the active center of the iodothyronine deiodinase that catalyzes the conversion of the thyroxine (T4) to the active form of thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3). Hemodialysis (HD) patients have reduced T3 levels partly due to impaired hormonal conversion that can be related to Se deficiency, a common feature in these patients. This study evaluated the effect of Brazil nuts (richest Se source) on thyroid hormone levels in HD patients. Methods: we performed an uncontrolled intervention with 40 HD patients (53.3 ± 16.1 yrs, dialysis vintage 62.0 (8.0 - 207.0) months) that received one nut (≈5g, average 58.1 mg Se/g) per day for three months. Se plasma levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation and, serum T3, free T4 (FT4), TSH as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were measured by ELISA. Results: all patients were Se deficient and presented low T3 levels at baseline. After intervention, Se plasma levels (from 17.6 ± 11.6 to 153.4 ± 86.1 μg/L), GPx activity (from 33.7 ± 5.9 to 41.4 ± 11.2 nmol/min/mL), T3 (from 27.3 ± 8.8 to 50.2 ± 4.8ng/dL) and FT4 levels (0.87 ± 0.2 to 0.98 ± 0.4 ng/dL) were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while TSH levels were reduced (from 2.17 ± 1.3 to 1.96 ± 1.1 uUI/mL), but not significantly. Conclusion: in conclusion, increasing Se levels via Brazil nut supplementation was associated with improvement in thyroid hormone levels in HD patients, although the amount of Se given was not able to restore T3 to normal levels (AU)


Introducción: la función tiroidea depende de minerales traza de selenio (Se), que está en el centro activo de la deiodinasa yodotironina, que cataliza la conversión de la tiroxina (T4) a la forma activa de la hormona tiroidea, triyodotironina (T3). Hemodiálisis (HD) de los pacientes ha reducido los niveles de T3 de los pacientes, debido en parte a la conversión hormonal alterada que puede estar relacionada con la deficiencia de Se, una característica común en estos pacientes. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de las nueces de Brasil (la más rica fuente de Se) en los niveles de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes en HD. Métodos: se realizó una intervención no controlada con 40 pacientes en HD (53,3 ± 16,1 años, diálisis vendimia 62,0 (8,0 - 207,0 meses)), que recibieron una nuez (≈ 5, promedio 58,1 mg Se/g) por día durante tres meses. Determinaron los niveles plasmáticos de Se por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica con generación de hidruros y los niveles de T3, T4 libre (FT4), TSH en suero, así como la actividad de la glutatión peroxidasa (GPx) por ELISA. Resultados: todos los pacientes tenían niveles bajos de Se y T3 al inicio del estudio. Después de la intervención, los niveles plasmáticos de Se (de 17,6 ± 11,6 a 153,4 ± 86,1 mg/L), actividad GPx (de 33,7 ± 5,9 a 41,4 ± 11,2 nmol/min/ml), T3 (de 27,3 ± 8,8 a 50,2 ± 4,8 ng/dL) y T4L (0,87 ± 0,2 a 0,98 ± 0,4 ng/dL) se incrementaron significativamente (p <0,05), mientras que los niveles de TSH se redujeron (de 2,17 ± 1,3 a 1,96 ± 1,1 IUU/ml), pero no de forma significativa. Conclusión: en conclusión, el aumento de los niveles de Se vía suplementación con nuez brasileña se asocia con una mejoría en los niveles de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes en HD, aunque la cantidad de Se dada no fue capaz de restablecer la T3 a los niveles normales (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Selênio/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glândula Tireoide , Diálise Renal , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Hormônios Tireóideos , Bertholletia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(2): 772-777, feb. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-133467

RESUMO

Introduction: Fructose intake has increased dramatically in consequence of the consumption of fructose-based sweetened foods and beverages. Research suggests that high fructose intake has a strong association with uric acid (UA) levels and worse prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fructose intake on plasma UA levels in nondialysis- dependent CKD patients. Methods: Fifty-two patients on stages 3-5 (64.2 ± 9.6 years, 24 men, glomerular filtration rate of 30.5 ± 10.3ml/ min) were divided into two groups: high fructose intake (>50g/d, n=29, 61.7 ± 9.3years) and low fructose intake (<50g/d, n=23, 65.8 ± 9.7years). Blood samples were collected to determine lipid profile and plasma levels of UA, inflammatory (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)) and cardiovascular markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)). The energy, protein and fructose intake was estimated using 3-day 24-hour food recall. Results: High fructose intake was observed in 55.8% of patients and the mean UA levels were 7.7 ± 1.3 and 6.2 ± 1.6mg/dl in patients with high and low fructose intake, respectively (p<0.05). According to the regression analysis, fructose intake was the only variable able to affect the AU levels (b=0.42, p=0.016) after adjustment for gender, BMI, energy and protein intake, cardiovascular markers and lipid profile. Conclusions: These findings support a potential role for fructose in hyperuricemia in these patients (AU)


Introducción: El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado dramáticamente en consecuencia del consumo de alimentos y bebidas azucaradas a base de fructosa. Pesquisas sugieren que el alto consumo de fructosa tiene una fuerte asociación con niveles de ácido úrico (AU) y empeora el pronóstico de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la influencia del consumo de fructosa en los niveles plasmáticos de ácido úrico en pacientes con ERC que no son dependiente de diálisis. Métodos: Cincuenta y dos pacientes en fases 3-5 (64,2±9,6 años, 24 hombres, tasa de filtración glomerular de 30,5±10,3ml/min) se dividieron en dos grupos: alto consumo de fructosa (>50g/día, n=29, 61,7± 9,3 años) y bajo consumo de fructosa (<50g/día, n=23, 65,8±9,7 años). Muestras de sangre fueron recogidas para determinación del perfil lipídico y niveles plasmáticos de AU, citocinas inflamatorias (interleucina-6 (IL-6), factor de necrosis tumoral-α (TNF-α), proteína C-reactiva (CRP)), y marcadores cardiovasculares (proteína quimiotáctica de monocitos-1 (MCP-1), molécula de adhesión intercelular- 1 (ICAM-1) y molécula de adhesión vascular-1 (VCAM-1)). El consumo de energía, proteína y fructosa fue estimulado utilizando 3 días de recordatorio alimentar de 24 horas. Resultados: El alto consumo de fructosa fue observado en el 55,8% de los pacientes y los niveles medios de AU fueron 7,7±1,3 y 6,2±1,6mg/dl en pacientes con alto y bajo consumo de fructosa, respectivamente (p<0,05). De acuerdo con el análisis de regresión, el consumo de fructosa fue la única variable capaz de afectar los niveles de AU (b=0,42, p=0,016) después del ajuste para el género, composición corporal, energía y proteína, marcadores cardiovasculares y el perfil lipídico. Conclusiones: Estos resultados apoyan un papel potencial de la fructosa ocasionando la hiperuricemia en estos pacientes (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta , Testes de Função Renal
13.
J Bras Nefrol ; 36(4): 490-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25517278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease present selenium (Se) plasma deficiency which is an essential trace element with important biological functions and, the best known biological role is attributed to its presence in the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The Se content of foods depends on soil and some authors have suggested that Amazon soil (North Brazilian region) has high Se concentrations when compared to other regions of Brazil. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to compare the Se status in hemodialysis (HD) patients from North and Southeast of Brazil. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients from Southeast region (22 men and 16 women, 15% diabetic, 53.5 ± 26.4 yrs) were compared to 40 patients from North region (28 men and 12 women, 22.5% diabetic, 63.5 ± 11.9 yrs). Se in plasma was determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation. RESULTS: The plasma Se levels in patients from Southeast region were significantly lower (17.5 ± 11.9 µg/L) when compared to patients from the North (37.1 ± 15.8 µg/L) (p < 0.001). However, both patient groups presented low Se plasma levels when compared to recommended values (60- 120 µg/L). There was no correlation between plasma Se levels and analyzed parameters. CONCLUSION: We concluded that patients from North (Amazon) region present higher plasma Se levels when compared to the patients from Southeast of Brazil. However, independently of the region, HD patients presented Se deficiency.


Assuntos
Diálise Renal , Selênio/sangue , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Bras Nefrol ; 36(4): 496-501, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25517279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polyphenols contained in natural sources such as grapes, have been considered pharmacological agents to combat oxidative stress and inflammation, common features in Chronic Kidney Disease patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of grape powder supplementation on inflammatory and antioxidant biomarkers in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: The double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial evaluated non-diabetic HD patients that received grape powder (500 mg of polyphenols/day) (n = 16, 9 men, 53.0 ± 9.8 years of age, 111.6 ± 58.2 HD months) or placebo (n = 16, 9 men, 52.7 ± 13.7 years of age, 110.4 ± 93.1 HD months) for five weeks. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were evaluated by ELISA method. RESULTS: After the intervention period, the patients receiving grape powder showed an increase in the GSH-Px activity (16.5 (41.0) to 42.0 (43.3) nmol/min/ml) (p < 0.05) and they did not have the CRP levels increased as seen in placebo group (2.6 (0.28) to 2.8 (0.23 mg/L) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The use of grape powder as phenolic source could play an important role as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in non-diabetic HD patients.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Vitis , Antioxidantes/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 496-501, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-731149

RESUMO

Introduction: Polyphenols contained in natural sources such as grapes, have been considered pharmacological agents to combat oxidative stress and inflammation, common features in Chronic Kidney Disease patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of grape powder supplementation on inflammatory and antioxidant biomarkers in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: The double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial evaluated non-diabetic HD patients that received grape powder (500 mg of polyphenols/day) (n = 16, 9 men, 53.0 ± 9.8 years of age, 111.6 ± 58.2 HD months) or placebo (n = 16, 9 men, 52.7 ± 13.7 years of age, 110.4 ± 93.1 HD months) for five weeks. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were evaluated by ELISA method. Results: After the intervention period, the patients receiving grape powder showed an increase in the GSH-Px activity (16.5 (41.0) to 42.0 (43.3) nmol/min/ml) (p < 0.05) and they did not have the CRP levels increased as seen in placebo group (2.6 (0.28) to 2.8 (0.23 mg/L) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of grape powder as phenolic source could play an important role as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in non-diabetic HD patients. .


Introdução: Polifenóis contidos em fontes naturais, como as uvas, têm sido considerados agentes farmacológicos no combate ao estresse oxidativo e inflamação, condições comuns na Doença Renal Crônica. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de farinha de uva sobre marcadores inflamatórios e antioxidantes em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise (HD). Métodos: Estudo randomizado, duplo-cego, placebocontrolado, no qual foram avaliados pacientes não diabéticos em HD que receberam farinha de uva (500 mg de polifenóis/dia) (n = 16, 9 homens, 53,0 ± 9,8 anos, 111,6 ± 58,2 meses em HD) ou placebo (n = 16, 9 homens, 52,7 ± 13,7 anos, 110,4 ± 93,1 meses em HD) por cinco semanas. A atividade da glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px) e os níveis plasmáticos de proteína C-reativa (PCR) foram mensurados por meio do método ELISA. Resultados: Após o período de intervenção, os pacientes que receberam farinha de uva apresentaram elevação na atividade da GSH-Px (16,5 (41,0) para 42,0 (43,3) nmol/min/ml) (p < 0,05) e não foi observada elevação nos níveis de PCR, como visto no grupo placebo (2,6 (0,28) para 2,8 (0,23) mg/L) (p < 0,05). Conclusão: O uso da farinha de uva como fonte de polifenóis pode desempenhar um importante papel anti-inflamatório e antioxidante em pacientes não diabéticos submetidos à HD. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Fator 1 Nuclear de Hepatócito , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Testes de Precipitina , Plasmídeos/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transfecção , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 490-495, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-731157

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease present selenium (Se) plasma deficiency which is an essential trace element with important biological functions and, the best known biological role is attributed to its presence in the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The Se content of foods depends on soil and some authors have suggested that Amazon soil (North Brazilian region) has high Se concentrations when compared to other regions of Brazil. Objective: The objective of this work was to compare the Se status in hemodialysis (HD) patients from North and Southeast of Brazil. Methods: Thirty-eight patients from Southeast region (22 men and 16 women, 15% diabetic, 53.5 ± 26.4 yrs) were compared to 40 patients from North region (28 men and 12 women, 22.5% diabetic, 63.5 ± 11.9 yrs). Se in plasma was determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation. Results: The plasma Se levels in patients from Southeast region were significantly lower (17.5 ± 11.9 μg/L) when compared to patients from the North (37.1 ± 15.8 μg/L) (p < 0.001). However, both patient groups presented low Se plasma levels when compared to recommended values (60- 120 μg/L). There was no correlation between plasma Se levels and analyzed parameters. Conclusion: We concluded that patients from North (Amazon) region present higher plasma Se levels when compared to the patients from Southeast of Brazil. However, independently of the region, HD patients presented Se deficiency. .


Introdução: Pacientes com Doença Renal Crônica apresentam deficiência de selênio (Se), um elemento essencial, com importantes funções biológicas, como a de ser componente da enzima antioxidante glutationa peroxidase (GPx). A concentração de Se nos alimentos depende de sua concentração no solo e autores relatam que o solo da Amazônia possui elevados níveis de Se. Objetivo: O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar o estado nutricional do Se em pacientes em hemodiálise (HD) das regiões Norte e Sudeste do Brasil. Métodos: Trinta e oito pacientes da região Sudeste (22 homens e 16 mulheres, 15% diabéticos, 53,5 ± 26,4 anos) foram comparados com 40 pacientes da região Norte (28 homens e 12 mulheres, 22,5% diabéticos, 63,5 ± 11,9 anos). O Se no plasma foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica por geração de hidretos acoplados a cela de quartzo. Resultados: Os níveis de Se dos pacientes em HD da região Sudeste foram significativamente menores (17,5 ± 11,9 μg/L) comparados aos pacientes da região Norte (37,1 ± 15,8 μg/L) (p < 0,001). Entretanto, ambos os grupos apresentaram níveis de Se abaixo da recomendação (60-120 μg/L). Não houve associação entre os níveis de Se e os parâmetros analisados. Conclusão: Com base nos resultados, concluímos que os pacientes da região Norte apresentaram elevados níveis de Se quando comparados com os pacientes da região Sudeste do Brasil. Entretanto, independentemente da região, ambos os grupos apresentaram deficiência com relação ao estado nutricional do Se. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Timidina Fosforilase/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Floxuridina/administração & dosagem , Floxuridina/uso terapêutico , Japão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/metabolismo
17.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 46(8): 1655-62, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24729104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) present persistent inflammation and protein-energy wasting (PEW), which contributes to high rates of mortality. This study aimed to assess the effects of a resistance exercise training program (RETP) on inflammation and PEW in HD patients. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients (56.7 % men, 45.9 ± 14.1 years, 23.5 ± 3.9 kg/m(2)) performed 6 months of intradialytic RETP. Plasma adhesion molecules levels (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were measured using the enzyme immunometric assay, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by ELISA. Anthropometric, physical capacity, and PEW (simultaneously presence of: BMI <23 kg/m(2), serum albumin <3.8 g/dL, and reduced arm muscle area) were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a reduction of ICAM-1 [(1,934.1 pg/mL (1,031.8-2,875.0) vs. 1,571.1 pg/mL (447.1-2,985.5), p < 0.05], VCAM-1 [5,259.51 pg/mL (3,967.4-6,682.4) vs. 3,062.11 pg/mL (2,034.0-5,034.4), p < 0.05], and CRP levels (2.3 ± 0.9 to 1.6 ± 0.6 pg/mL, p < 0.001) after 6 months of RETP. Body composition improved, albumin increased (3.7 ± 0.3 to 3.9 ± 0.2, p < 0.05), and the number of patients presenting PEW was decreased (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Resistance exercise program for 6 months seems to be effective in reducing inflammation and PEW of HD patients. The universal trial number of this study is U1111-1139-1326.


Assuntos
Inflamação/terapia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/etiologia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
18.
J Ren Nutr ; 24(5): 286-91, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24480117

RESUMO

Protein-bound uremic toxins (i.e., indoxyl sulfate or p-cresyl sulfate), produced by intestinal bacteria, are accumulated in the plasma of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. These toxins interact negatively with biological functions, having potent oxidative stress-inducing effects and a pathological effect on cardiovascular disease. Recent research in CKD has shown that oxidative stress and inflammation can be compounded by impaired activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-2-related factor)-2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH associating protein-1 (Keap1) pathway, a major cellular defense mechanism. However, to date, many questions arise regarding the role of this system in CKD. For example, protein-bound uremic toxins promote oxidative stress in CKD patients, but their putative effect on the Nrf2-Keap1 system has yet to be examined in these patients. This review will focus on the putative relationship among protein-bound uremic toxins, oxidative stress, and a possible decreased expression of Nrf2 in CKD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cresóis/sangue , Indicã/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Intestinos/microbiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Microbiota/fisiologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 158(1): 105-12, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24504745

RESUMO

Cumulative evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation frequently occurs in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and as a result of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease of antioxidant defenses such as selenium (Se). Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the supplementation of 1 unit of Brazil nut (the richest known food source of Se) a day during 3 months is effective to improve Se status and increase glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in HD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Brazil nut supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation markers in HD patients. Forty HD patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. All patients received one nut per day for 3 months. The Se plasma levels and GPx, 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and lipid profile were determined before and after 3 months of supplementation. The plasma Se and GPx activity increased, while cytokines, 8-OHdG, and 8-isoprostane plasma levels decreased significantly after 3 months supplementation. HDL-c levels increased and LDL-c levels decreased significantly. These data suggest that the consumption of only one Brazil nut per day during 3 months was effective to reduce the inflammation, oxidative stress markers, and the atherogenic risk, thereby increasing the antioxidant defenses in HD patients. Our results indicate that Brazil nut as Se source plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent in HD patients.


Assuntos
Bertholletia/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Diálise Renal , Selênio/uso terapêutico , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Idoso , Citocinas/sangue , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nozes/química , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(2): 772-7, 2014 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25617562

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fructose intake has increased dramatically in consequence of the consumption of fructose-based sweetened foods and beverages. Research suggests that high fructose intake has a strong association with uric acid (UA) levels and worse prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fructose intake on plasma UA levels in nondialysis- dependent CKD patients. METHODS: Fifty-two patients on stages 3-5 (64.2 ± 9.6 years, 24 men, glomerular filtration rate of 30.5 ± 10.3 ml/ min) were divided into two groups: high fructose intake (>50 g/d, n=29, 61.7 ± 9.3 years) and low fructose intake (


Assuntos
Frutose/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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