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1.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 59(2): 198-205, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371946

RESUMO

The prevalence of pulmonary methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased over the last 2 decades. Two concentrations-a postdistributive and a trough-are currently used to estimate the area under the curve (AUC) of vancomycin, an antibiotic routinely used to treat these infections, to achieve the target AUC/minimum inhibitory concentration of ≥400 mg·h/L in ensuring optimal dosing of this drug. This study evaluated precision and bias in estimating vancomycin AUCs obtained either from a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model by using a single trough concentration or from standard PK equation-based 2-point monitoring approach. AUCs were either obtained from a single trough concentration-fitted model or derived from a model fitted by 2 concentration points. Children ≥2 years of age with CF received intravenous vancomycin at 2 centers from June 2012 to December 2014. A population PK model was developed in Pmetrics to quantify the between-subject variability in vancomycin PK parameters, define the sources of PK variability, and leverage information from the population to improve individual AUC estimates. Twenty-three children with CF received 27 courses of vancomycin. The median age was 12.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 8.5-16.6) years. From the individual vancomycin PK parameter estimates from the population PK model, median AUC was 622 (IQR 529-680) mg·h/L. Values were not significantly different from the AUC calculated using the standard PK equation-based approach (median 616 [IQR 540-663] mg·h/L) (P = .89). A standard PK equation-based approach using 2 concentrations and a population PK model-based approach using a single trough concentration yielded unbiased and precise AUC estimates. Findings suggest that options exist to implement AUC-based pediatric vancomycin dosing in patients with CF. The findings of this study reveal that several excellent options exist for centers to implement AUC-based pediatric vancomycin dosing for patients with CF.

2.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 8(2): 97-104, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin dosing in neonates is challenging because of the large variation in pharmacokinetics. Existing empiric dosing recommendations use table-based formats, within which a neonate is categorized on the basis of underlying characteristics. The ability to individualize dosing is limited because of the small number of "dose categories," and achieving narrow exposure targets is difficult. Our objective was to evaluate a model-based dosing approach (which we designated Neo-Vanco) designed to individualize empiric vancomycin dosing in neonates. METHODS: Neo-Vanco was developed on the basis of a published, externally validated population pharmacokinetic model. Using a simulation-based methodology, individualized empiric doses that maximize the probability of attaining a 24-hour area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (AUC24/MIC) of >400 while minimizing troughs >20 mg/L are calculated. To evaluate the Neo-Vanco strategy, retrospective data from neonates treated with vancomycin at 2 healthcare systems were used, and empiric dose recommendations from the following 4 sources were examined: Neo-Vanco, Neofax, Red Book, and Lexicomp. Predicted AUC24 and troughs were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Overall, 492 neonates were evaluated (median postmenstrual age, 36 weeks [5th-95th percentiles (90% range), 25-47 weeks]; median weight, 2.4 kg [90% range, 0.6-4.8 kg]). The percentage of neonates predicted to achieve an AUC24/MIC of >400 was 94% with Neo-Vanco, 18% with Neofax, 23% with Red Book, and 55% with Lexicomp (all P < .0001 vs Neo-Vanco). Predicted troughs of >20 mg/L were infrequent and similar across the dosing approaches (Neo-Vanco, 2.8%; Neofax, 1.0% [P = .03]; Red Book, 2.6% [P = .99]; and Lexicomp, 4.1% [P = .27]. CONCLUSION: A model-based dosing approach that individualizes empiric vancomycin dosing was predicted to improve achievement of target exposure levels in neonates. Prospective clinical evaluation is warranted.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/sangue , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/sangue , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199388, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common cold viruses create significant health and financial burdens, and understanding key loci of transmission would help focus control strategies. This study (1) examines factors that influence when individuals transition from a negative to positive test (acquisition) or a positive to negative test (loss) of rhinovirus (HRV) and other respiratory tract viruses in 26 households followed weekly for one year, (2) investigates evidence for intrahousehold and interhousehold transmission and the characteristics of individuals implicated in transmission, and (3) builds data-based simulation models to identify factors that most strongly affect patterns of prevalence. METHODS: We detected HRV, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, influenza and bocavirus with the FilmArray polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC). We used logistic regression to find covariates affecting acquisition or loss of HRV including demographic characteristics of individuals, their household, their current infection status, and prevalence within their household and across the population. We apply generalized linear mixed models to test robustness of results. RESULTS: Acquisition of HRV was less probable in older individuals and those infected with a coronavirus, and higher with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Loss of HRV is reduced with a higher proportion of other household members infected. Within households, only children and symptomatic individuals show evidence for transmission, while between households only a higher number of infected older children (ages 5-19) increases the probability of acquisition. Coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses and bocavirus also show evidence of intrahousehold transmission. Simulations show that age-dependent susceptibility and transmission have the largest effects on mean HRV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Children are most likely to acquire and most likely to transmit HRV both within and between households, with infectiousness concentrated in symptomatic children. Simulations predict that the spread of HRV and other respiratory tract viruses can be reduced but not eliminated by practices within the home.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/transmissão , Rhinovirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Utah/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(1): 46-53, 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28158460

RESUMO

Background: Lower procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations are associated with reduced risk of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, but data in children are limited. Methods: We analyzed serum PCT concentrations from children hospitalized with radiographically confirmed CAP enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) Study. Blood and respiratory specimens were tested using multiple pathogen detection methods for typical bacteria (eg, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus), atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae), and respiratory viruses. Multivariable regression was used to assess associations between PCT concentrations and etiology and severity. Results: Among 532 children (median age, 2.4 years; interquartile range [IQR], 1.0-6.3), patients with typical bacteria had higher PCT concentrations (±viruses; n = 54; median, 6.10; IQR, 0.84-22.79 ng/mL) than those with atypical bacteria (±viruses; n = 82; median, 0.10; IQR, 0.06-0.39 ng/mL), viral pathogens only (n = 349; median, 0.33; IQR, 0.12-1.35 ng/mL), or no pathogen detected (n = 47; median, 0.44; IQR, 0.10-1.83 ng/mL) (P < .001 for all). No child with PCT <0.1 ng/mL had typical bacteria detected. Procalcitonin <0.25 ng/mL featured a 96% negative predictive value (95% confidence interval [CI], 93-99), 85% sensitivity (95% CI, 76-95), and 45% specificity (95% CI, 40-50) in identifying children without typical bacterial CAP. Conclusions: Lower PCT concentrations in children hospitalized with CAP were associated with a reduced risk of typical bacterial detection and may help identify children who would not benefit from antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Calcitonina/sangue , Pneumonia Bacteriana/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/sangue , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(2): e34-e36, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549165

RESUMO

We developed an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) stewardship program in a freestanding children's hospital to improve the appropriateness of OPAT prescribing. Introduction of the program enabled expert review of nearly 90% of the patients being prepared for discharge with OPAT and was associated with a 24% reduction in OPAT use.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Administração Intravenosa , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Transferência de Pacientes , Utah
6.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 1: e000147, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177199

RESUMO

Objective: Immunosuppressant therapy plays a pivotal role in transplant success and longevity. Tacrolimus, a primary immunosuppressive agent, is well known to exhibit significant pharmacological interpatient and intrapatient variability. This variability necessitates the collection of serial trough concentrations to ensure that the drug remains within therapeutic range. The objective of this study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model and use it to determine the minimum number of trough samples needed to guide the prediction of an individual's future concentrations. Design setting and patients: Retrospective data from 48 children who received tacrolimus as inpatients at Primary Children's Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah were included in the study. Data were collected within the first 6 weeks after heart transplant. Outcome measures: Data analysis used population PK modelling techniques in NONMEM. Predictive ability of the model was determined using median prediction error (MPE, a measure of bias) and median absolute prediction error (MAPE, a measure of accuracy). Of the 48 children in the study, 30 were used in the model building dataset, and 18 in the model validation dataset. Results: Concentrations ranged between 1.5 and 37.7 µg/L across all collected data, with only 40% of those concentrations falling within the targeted concentration range (12 to 16 µg/L). The final population PK model contained the impact of age (on volume), creatinine clearance (on elimination rate) and fluconazole use (on elimination rate) as covariates. Our analysis demonstrated that as few as three concentrations could be used to predict future concentrations, with negligible bias (MPE (95% CI)=0.10% (-2.9% to 3.7%)) and good accuracy (MAPE (95% CI)=24.1% (19.7% to 27.7%)). Conclusions: The use of PK in dose guidance has the potential to provide significant benefits to clinical care, including dose optimisation during the early stages of therapy, and the potential to limit the need for frequent drug monitoring.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 216(9): 1104-1111, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968668

RESUMO

Background: Rhinoviruses (RVs) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens that often cause mild or subclinical infections. Molecular detection of RVs from the upper respiratory tract can be prolonged, complicating etiologic association in persons with severe lower respiratory tract infections. Little is known about RV viremia and its value as a diagnostic indicator in persons hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: Sera from RV-positive children and adults hospitalized with CAP were tested for RV by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Rhinovirus species and type were determined by partial genome sequencing. Results: Overall, 57 of 570 (10%) RV-positive patients were viremic, and all were children aged <10 years (n = 57/375; 15.2%). Although RV-A was the most common RV species detected from respiratory specimens (48.8%), almost all viremias were RV-C (98.2%). Viremic patients had fewer codetected pathogens and were more likely to have chest retractions, wheezing, and a history of underlying asthma/reactive airway disease than patients without viremia. Conclusions: More than 1 out of 7 RV-infected children aged <10 years hospitalized with CAP were viremic. In contrast with other RV species, RV-C infections were highly associated with viremia and were usually the only respiratory pathogen identified, suggesting that RV-C viremia may be an important diagnostic indicator in pediatric pneumonia.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Viremia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
J Infect Dis ; 216(6): 688-696, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934425

RESUMO

Background: The role of human bocavirus (HBoV) in respiratory illness is uncertain. HBoV genomic DNA is frequently detected in both ill and healthy children. We hypothesized that spliced viral capsid messenger RNA (mRNA) produced during active replication might be a better marker for acute infection. Methods: As part of the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, children aged <18 years who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and children asymptomatic at the time of elective outpatient surgery (controls) were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were tested for HBoV mRNA and genomic DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: HBoV DNA was detected in 10.4% of 1295 patients with CAP and 7.5% of 721 controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0-2.0]); HBoV mRNA was detected in 2.1% and 0.4%, respectively (OR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.6-26]). When adjusted for age, enrollment month, and detection of other respiratory viruses, HBoV mRNA detection (adjusted OR, 7.6 [95% CI, 1.5-38.4]) but not DNA (adjusted OR, 1.2 [95% CI, .6-2.4]) was associated with CAP. Among children with no other pathogens detected, HBoV mRNA (OR, 9.6 [95% CI, 1.9-82]) was strongly associated with CAP. Conclusions: Detection of HBoV mRNA but not DNA was associated with CAP, supporting a pathogenic role for HBoV in CAP. HBoV mRNA could be a useful target for diagnostic testing.


Assuntos
Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Bocavirus/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Manejo de Espécimes
9.
Pediatrics ; 139(6)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with high rates of treatment failure in adults. The epidemiology, clinical outcomes, and risk factors for treatment failure associated with MRSA bacteremia in children are poorly understood. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study of children ≤18 years hospitalized with MRSA bacteremia across 3 tertiary care children's hospitals from 2007 to 2014. Treatment failure was defined as persistent bacteremia >3 days, recurrence of bacteremia within 30 days, or attributable 30-day mortality. Potential risk factors for treatment failure, including the site of infection, vancomycin trough concentration, critical illness, and need for source control, were collected via manual chart review and evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 232 episodes of MRSA bacteremia, 72 (31%) experienced treatment failure and 23% developed complications, whereas 5 (2%) died within 30 days. Multivariable analysis of 174 children treated with vancomycin with steady-state vancomycin concentrations obtained found that catheter-related infections (odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.94) and endovascular infections (OR, 4.35; 95% CI: 1.07-17.7) were associated with lower and higher odds of treatment failure, respectively, whereas a first vancomycin serum trough concentration <10 µg/mL was not associated with treatment failure (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.49-3.66). Each additional day of bacteremia was associated with a 50% (95% CI: 26%-79%) increased odds of bacteremia-related complications. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized children with MRSA bacteremia frequently suffered treatment failure and complications, but mortality was low. The odds of bacteremia-related complications increased with each additional day of bacteremia, emphasizing the importance of achieving rapid sterilization.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/microbiologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Vancomicina/sangue , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Vasculares/microbiologia
10.
J Infect Dis ; 215(12): 1873-1882, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520948

RESUMO

Background: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear. Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes (hospital length of stay [LOS], intensive care unit [ICU] admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation) in hospitalized CAP patients from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only). Results: Compared with normal-weight children, odds of ICU admission were higher in children who were overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.8) or obese (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.2), and odds of mechanical ventilation were higher in children with obesity (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6). When stratified by asthma (presence/absence), these findings remained significant only in children with asthma. Compared with normal-weight adults, odds of LOS >3 days were higher in adults who were underweight (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), and odds of mechanical ventilation were lowest in adults who were overweight (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, .3-.9). Conclusions: Children who were overweight or obese, particularly those with asthma, had higher odds of ICU admission or mechanical ventilation. In contrast, adults who were underweight had longer LOS. These results underscore the complex relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/complicações , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Infect Dis ; 215(9): 1407-1415, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28368491

RESUMO

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization. Pathogen identification fails in approximately 20% of children but is critical for optimal treatment and prevention of hospital-acquired infections. We used two broad-spectrum detection strategies to identify pathogens in test-negative children with CAP and asymptomatic controls. Methods: Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from 70 children <5 years with CAP of unknown etiology and 90 asymptomatic controls were tested by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) and pan viral group (PVG) PCR for 19 viral families. Association of viruses with CAP was assessed by adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals controlling for season and age group. Results: RNA-seq/PVG PCR detected previously missed, putative pathogens in 34% of patients. Putative viral pathogens included human parainfluenza virus 4 (aOR 9.3, P = .12), human bocavirus (aOR 9.1, P < .01), Coxsackieviruses (aOR 5.1, P = .09), rhinovirus A (aOR 3.5, P = .34), and rhinovirus C (aOR 2.9, P = .57). RNA-seq was more sensitive for RNA viruses whereas PVG PCR detected more DNA viruses. Conclusions: RNA-seq and PVG PCR identified additional viruses, some known to be pathogenic, in NP/OP specimens from one-third of children hospitalized with CAP without a previously identified etiology. Both broad-range methods could be useful tools in future epidemiologic and diagnostic studies.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Vírus/genética , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
12.
Anesth Analg ; 124(5): 1484-1490, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remimazolam is an ester-based short-acting benzodiazepine currently in clinical trials for IV administration. This study explored the feasibility of delivering remimazolam alone and as an adjunct to remifentanil via inhalation in rodent models. METHODS: Mice were exposed to remimazolam via inhalation; sedation was assessed using time to movement outside a set perimeter. Rats were also exposed to remimazolam aerosol alone and in combination with inhaled remifentanil, and analgesia was quantified by using a tail flick meter. Pulmonary injury was assessed in mice using mechanics measurements. RESULTS: Mice showed significantly increased time to movement outside a set perimeter after 5-minute exposure to increasing concentrations (10-25 mg/mL solutions) of inhaled remimazolam aerosols. Differences in mean (95% confidence interval) time to movement from pretest baseline group (0.05 [0.01-0.09] minutes) were 11 (4-18), 15 (5-26), 30 (19-41), and 109 (103-115) minutes after exposure to remimazolam aerosol of 10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/mL, respectively (P = .007 - P < .0001). Exposure of rats to remimazolam aerosols alone failed to produce sedation or analgesia after a 5-minute exposure. When remimazolam (10 or 25 mg/mL) was administered in combination with 250 µg/mL remifentanil, there was a significant difference in time to tail flick (P < .0001) consistent with a strong analgesic effect. Mean (95% confidence interval) differences in time to tail flick from the pretest baseline group (3.2 [2.5-3.9] seconds) were 14 (10-18) seconds when 250 µg/mL remifentanil was administered with either 10 or 25 mg/mL remimazolam. Remimazolam alone or in combination with remifentanil did not cause lung irritation, bronchospasm, or other adverse pulmonary events to the respiratory tract of mice as assessed by Flexi-Vent pulmonary function tests. CONCLUSIONS: Remimazolam can significantly potentiate the analgesic effect of remifentanil when concurrently delivered via inhalation.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Animais , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Sedação Consciente , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Remifentanil , Mecânica Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 6(3): 231-238, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147712

RESUMO

Background: Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of ambulatory care visits and hospitalizations among children. Because of overlapping signs and symptoms and expensive and inefficient testing methods, the etiology of pediatric diarrhea is rarely established. Methods: We identified children <18 years of age who were evaluated for diarrhea at Primary Children's Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah, between October 2010 and September 2012. Stool specimens submitted for testing were evaluated by using the FilmArray gastrointestinal diagnostic system, which is a rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction platform that can simultaneously detect 23 bacterial, viral, and protozoal agents. Results: A pathogen was detected in 561 (52%) of 1089 diarrheal episodes. The most commonly detected pathogens included toxigenic Clostridium difficile (16%), diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (15%), norovirus GI/GII (11%), and adenovirus F 40/41 (7%). Shiga toxin-producing E coli were detected in 43 (4%) specimens. Multiple pathogens were identified in 160 (15%) specimens. Viral pathogens (norovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, and sapovirus) were more common among children <5 years old than among those 5 to 17 years old (38% vs 16%, respectively; P < .001). Bacterial pathogens were identified most commonly in children 2 to 4 years of age. Children with 1 or more underlying chronic medical conditions were less likely to have a pathogen identified than those without a chronic medical condition (45% vs 60%, respectively; P < .01). Viral pathogens were detected more commonly in the winter, whereas bacterial pathogens were detected more commonly in the summer. Conclusions: Toxigenic C difficile, diarrheagenic E coli, and norovirus were the leading organisms detected among these children with diarrhea. Viral pathogens are identified frequently among young children with acute gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Diarreia/microbiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Estações do Ano , Utah/epidemiologia
15.
Infect Dis Ther ; 5(4): 555-570, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rapid identification of bloodstream pathogens provides crucial information that can improve the choice of antimicrobial therapy for children. Previous impact studies have primarily focused on adults. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of rapid testing in a children's hospital on time to organism identification and antibiotic use in the setting of an established antimicrobial stewardship program. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study over three consecutive time periods (spanning January 2013-August 2015) as our hospital sequentially introduced two rapid testing methods for positive blood cultures. An antimicrobial stewardship program was active throughout the study. In the baseline period, no rapid diagnostic methods were routinely utilized. In the second period (PNAFISH), a fluorescent in situ hybridization test was implemented for gram-positive organisms and in the third a rapid multiplex PCR (rmPCR) test was employed. For children with positive blood cultures, time to organism identification use and duration of select antimicrobial therapies were compared between periods. RESULTS: Positive blood cultures were analyzed. Median overall time to organism identification was 23, 11, and 0 h in the baseline, PNAFISH, and rmPCR periods, respectively (p < 0.001 for both PNAFISH and rmPCR vs. baseline). For gram-negative organisms, only rmPCR performed significantly faster than baseline (p < 0.001). The duration of vancomycin use for coagulase-negative staphylococci was shorter in both the PNAFISH and rmPCR periods (mean 31 h in the baseline period, 12 and 14 h in the PNAFISH and rmPCR periods, respectively). For MSSA bacteremia, use of vancomycin was significantly decreased only in the rmPCR period (32% of patients vs. 64 and 72% in the baseline and PNAFISH periods; mean duration of 9 h vs. 30 and 26 h). There was no difference in use or duration of broad-spectrum gram-negative therapy across the three time periods. CONCLUSION: Rapid diagnostic testing for children with positive blood cultures results in faster time to identification and can influence antibiotic prescribing in the setting of active antimicrobial stewardship particularly for gram-positive pathogens. FUNDING: Merck.

16.
J Biol Chem ; 291(48): 24866-24879, 2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27758864

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared with the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1-I315M and -T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for Ile-585 in activation by particles. In HEK-293 cells, I585V had an inhibitory effect on wild-type TRPV1 expression, activation, and internalization/agonist-induced desensitization. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-8 secretion in response to coal fly ash treatment was reduced for cells heterozygous for TRPV1-I585V. Finally, both the I315M and I585V variants were associated with worse asthma symptom control with the effects of I315M manifesting in mild asthma and those of the I585V variant manifesting in severe, steroid-insensitive individuals. This effect may be due in part to increased transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) expression by lung epithelial cells expressing the TRPV1-I585V variant. These findings suggest that specific molecular interactions control TRPV1 activation by particles, differential activation, and desensitization of TRPV1 by particles and/or other agonists, and cellular changes in the expression of TRPA1 as a result of I585V expression could contribute to variations in asthma symptom control.


Assuntos
Asma , Brônquios/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio , Cinza de Carvão/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial , Adolescente , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/biossíntese , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canal de Cátion TRPA1 , Canais de Cátion TRPV/biossíntese , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/biossíntese , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/genética
17.
Pediatrics ; 138(4)2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27688362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial morbidity and excessive care variation are seen with pediatric pneumonia. Accurate risk-stratification tools to guide clinical decision-making are needed. METHODS: We developed risk models to predict severe pneumonia outcomes in children (<18 years) by using data from the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study, a prospective study of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations conducted in 3 US cities from January 2010 to June 2012. In-hospital outcomes were organized into an ordinal severity scale encompassing severe (mechanical ventilation, shock, or death), moderate (intensive care admission only), and mild (non-intensive care hospitalization) outcomes. Twenty predictors, including patient, laboratory, and radiographic characteristics at presentation, were evaluated in 3 models: a full model included all 20 predictors, a reduced model included 10 predictors based on expert consensus, and an electronic health record (EHR) model included 9 predictors typically available as structured data within comprehensive EHRs. Ordinal regression was used for model development. Predictive accuracy was estimated by using discrimination (concordance index). RESULTS: Among the 2319 included children, 21% had a moderate or severe outcome (14% moderate, 7% severe). Each of the models accurately identified risk for moderate or severe pneumonia (concordance index across models 0.78-0.81). Age, vital signs, chest indrawing, and radiologic infiltrate pattern were the strongest predictors of severity. The reduced and EHR models retained most of the strongest predictors and performed as well as the full model. CONCLUSIONS: We created 3 risk models that accurately estimate risk for severe pneumonia in children. Their use holds the potential to improve care and outcomes.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Tempo de Internação , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Choque/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sinais Vitais
18.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 14(8): 731-46, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections (IFI), including aspergillosis, candidiasis, Scedosporium infection, and Fusarium infection. IFI often occur in immunocompromised patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. AREAS COVERED: The objective of this review is to summarize the pharmacodynamic properties of voriconazole and to provide considerations for potential optimal dosing strategies. Studies have demonstrated superior clinical response when an AUC/MIC >25 or Cmin/MIC >1 is attained in adult patients, correlating to a trough concentration range as narrow as 2-4.5 mg/L; however, these targets are poorly established in the pediatric population. Topics in this discussion include voriconazole use in multiple age groups, predisposing patient factors for IFI, and considerations for clinicians managing IFI. Expert commentary: The relationship between voriconazole dosing and exposure is not well defined due to the large inter- and intra-subject variability. Development of comprehensive decision support tools for individualizing dosing, particularly in children who require higher dosing, will help to increase the probability of achieving therapeutic efficacy and decrease sub-therapeutic dosing and adverse events.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/genética , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/imunologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Voriconazol/administração & dosagem , Voriconazol/farmacocinética , Voriconazol/farmacologia
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 63(5): 619-626, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Red Queen hypothesis is an evolutionary theory that describes the reciprocal coevolution of competing species. We sought to study whether introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13, respectively) altered pneumococcal serotype dynamics among children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) as predicted by the Red Queen hypothesis. METHODS: This study examined pneumococcal isolates (n = 641) obtained from children <18 years of age hospitalized with IPD from 1997 to 2014 in Utah. A review of the literature also identified several additional studies conducted in the United States and Europe that were used to test the external generalizability of our Utah findings. Simpson's index was used to quantify pneumococcal serotype diversity. RESULTS: In Utah, the introduction of PCV7 and PCV13 was associated with rapid increases in serotype diversity (P < .001). Serotypes rarely present before vaccine introduction emerged as common causes of IPD. Diversity then decreased (P < .001) as competition selected for the fittest serotypes and new evolutionary equilibriums were established. This pattern was also observed more broadly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Spain. CONCLUSIONS: This vaccine-driven example of human/bacterial coevolution appears to confirm the Red Queen hypothesis, which reveals a limitation of serotype-specific vaccines and offers insights that may facilitate alternative strategies for the elimination of IPD.


Assuntos
Vacina Pneumocócica Conjugada Heptavalente , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorogrupo , Utah/epidemiologia
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