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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1489-1497, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inverse observational association between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk remains unclear. We assessed whether the association is explained by metabolic aberrations, residual confounding, and within-person variability in smoking, and compared against other smoking-related cancers. METHODS: We investigated the association between BMI, and its combination with a metabolic score (MS) of mid-blood pressure, glucose, and triglycerides, with lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers in 778,828 individuals. We used Cox regression, adjusted and corrected for within-person variability in smoking (status/pack-years), calculated from 600,201 measurements in 221,958 participants. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 20 years, 20,242 smoking-related cancers (6,735 lung cancers) were recorded. Despite adjustment and correction for substantial within-person variability in smoking, BMI remained inversely associated with lung cancer [HR per standard deviation increase, 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.89)]. Individuals with BMI less than 25 kg/m2 and high MS had the highest risk [HR 1.52 (1.44-1.60) vs. BMI ≥25 with low MS]. These associations were weaker and nonsignificant among nonsmokers. Similar associations were observed for head and neck cancers and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, whereas for other smoking-related cancers, we generally observed positive associations with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The increased lung cancer risk with low BMI and high MS is unlikely due to residual confounding and within-person variability in smoking. However, similar results for other cancers strongly related to smoking suggest a remaining, unknown, effect of smoking. IMPACT: Extensive smoking-adjustments may not capture all the effects of smoking on the relationship between obesity-related factors and risk of smoking-related cancers.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 711, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum potassium levels have been positively associated with cardiovascular mortality, but little is known about the association with cancer mortality and death due to other causes. We examined whether serum levels of potassium were associated with long-term mortality in a healthy cohort. METHODS: Oslo Ischemia Study invited 2341 initially healthy men aged 40-59 years with no use of medication to a comprehensive health survey in 1972. Fasting serum level of potassium (mmol/L) was ascertained at baseline for 1989 men. We have complete follow-up for death throughout 2017. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted for multiple confounders. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 30 years (interquartile range 21.2-38.7), 1736 deaths were observed, of which 494 were cancer deaths, 688 cardiovascular deaths, and 536 deaths related to other causes. Restricted cubic spline analysis showed that potassium level was linearly and positively associated with long-term cancer mortality; HR per mmol/L 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.4. Compared with low levels of potassium (≤ 4.0 mmol/L), men with high levels (≥4.6 mmol/L) showed a significantly 78% higher risk of cancer death. A positive linear association was found for all-cause mortality (HR per mmol/L 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8), and for cardiovascular (HR per mmol/L 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) and other cause mortality (HR per mmol/L 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that serum potassium level appears to predict long-term mortality in healthy middle-aged men, and it might imply future surveillance strategies for individuals with high serum potassium levels.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Jejum , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
3.
Cancer Med ; 10(8): 2885-2896, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710775

RESUMO

We recently found a negative association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of localised prostate cancer (PCa), no association with advanced PCa, and a positive association with PCa-specific mortality. In a 15% subpopulation of that study, we here investigated the measures of abdominal adiposity including waist circumference (WC) and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in relation to PCa risk and mortality. We used data from 58,457 men from four Swedish cohorts to assess WC and ABSI in relation to PCa risk according to cancer risk category, including localised asymptomatic and symptomatic PCa and advanced PCa, and PCa-specific mortality. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During, on average, 10 years of follow-up, 3290 men were diagnosed with PCa and 387 died of PCa. WC was negatively associated with the risk of total PCa (HR per 10 cm, 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.99), localised PCa (HR per 10 cm, 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.96) and localised asymptomatic PCa cases detected through a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test (HR per 10 cm, 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94). WC was not associated with the risk of advanced PCa (HR per 10 cm, 1.02, 95% CI 0.93-1.14) or with PCa-specific mortality (HR per 10 cm, 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.19). ABSI showed no associations with the risk of PCa or PCa-specific mortality. While the negative association between WC and the risk of localised PCa was partially driven by PSA-detected PCa cases, no association was found between abdominal adiposity and clinically manifest PCa in our population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Somatotipos , Circunferência da Cintura , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
4.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 66-74, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634882

RESUMO

To explore the largely unknown etiology of small intestine cancer, we examined metabolic factors and risk of small intestine cancer overall and by subtypes. Among 404 220 women and 403 265 men in six European cohorts, we applied Cox regression with adjustment for smoking and body mass index (BMI), to calculate sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of small intestine cancer by levels of BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. We also calculated HRs for these factors combined (metabolic score; MetS) and used Wald test statistics to investigate pairwise interactions between metabolic factors on risk. We also performed analyses separately per subtype (neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] and adenocarcinomas). During a median follow-up of 16.9 years, 144 women and 195 men were diagnosed with small intestine cancer, including 184 NETs and 99 adenocarcinomas. Among men, no main associations or interactions between metabolic factors were observed in relation to the risk of small intestine cancer. Among women, triglycerides were positively and linearly associated with risk (HR per standard deviation [SD]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.46), and a positive association was also observed for the MetS (HR per SD: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.52). Positive interactions were observed among women between triglycerides and cholesterol (P = .0005), and between MAP and glucose (P = .009), on risk. Glucose was positively associated with adenocarcinomas among women. This large, prospective study suggests that elevated triglycerides, and metabolic factors in interaction, confer an increased risk of small intestine cancer among women, but not among men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Cancer Med ; 10(4): 1431-1438, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between obesity, blood pressure (BP) and bladder cancer (BC) risk and mortality remains unclear, partially due to potential confounding by smoking, the strongest risk factor for BC, and not accounting for tumor stage and grade in such studies. We investigated body mass index (BMI) and BP in relation to BC risk by stage and grade, and BC-specific mortality, including separately among never-smokers aimed at minimizing confounding by smoking. METHODS: We analyzed 338,910 men from three Swedish cohorts, with 4895 incident BC's (940 among never-smokers) during follow-up. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for smoking status. HRs for BMI and BP were corrected for their regression dilution ratios, calculated from 280,456 individuals with 758,641 observations. RESULTS: Body mass index was positively associated with non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC, HR per 5 kg/m2 , 1.10 [1.02-1.19]) and NMIBC grade 3 (HR 1.17 [1.01-1.34]) in the full cohort, with similar effect sizes, albeit non-significant, among never-smokers. Systolic BP was positively associated with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC, HR per 10 mmHg, 1.25 [1.00-1.55]) and BC-specific mortality (HR 1.10 [1.01-1.20]) among never-smokers, with weaker and non-significant associations in the full cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In an analyses of BMI, BP and BC risk by stage and grade among men, we found modest positive associations between BMI and NMIBC and NMIBC grade 3. SBP was positively associated with MIBC and BC-specific mortality in an analysis of never-smokers, which may reflect the association, un-confounded by smoking, also in a broader population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
6.
Int J Cancer ; 148(7): 1637-1651, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038275

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237904

RESUMO

The association between blood pressure (BP) and bladder cancer (BC) risk remains unclear with confounding by smoking being of particular concern. We investigated the association between BP and BC risk among men using conventional survival-analysis, and by Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis in an attempt to disconnect the association from smoking. We additionally investigated the interaction between BP and N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) rs1495741, an established BC genetic risk variant, in the association. Populations consisting of 188,167 men with 502 incident BC's in the UK-biobank and 27,107 men with 928 incident BC's in two Swedish cohorts were used for the analysis. We found a positive association between systolic BP and BC risk in Cox-regression survival analysis in the Swedish cohorts, (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD]: 1.14 [95% confidence interval 1.05-1.22]) and MR analysis (odds ratio per SD: 2-stage least-square regression, 7.70 [1.92-30.9]; inverse-variance weighted estimate, 3.43 [1.12-10.5]), and no associations in the UK-biobank (HR systolic BP: 0.93 [0.85-1.02]; MR OR: 1.24 [0.35-4.40] and 1.37 [0.43-4.37], respectively). BP levels were positively associated with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC) (HRs: systolic BP, 1.32 [1.09-1.59]; diastolic BP, 1.27 [1.04-1.55]), but not with non-muscle invasive BC, which could be analyzed in the Swedish cohorts only. There was no interaction between BP and NAT2 in relation to BC on the additive or multiplicative scale. These results suggest that BP might be related to BC, more particularly MIBC. There was no evidence to support interaction between BP and NAT2 in relation to BC in our study.


Assuntos
Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2187-2194, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a period of rapid prostatic growth, yet is understudied for susceptibility for future risk of prostate cancer. We examined cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in late adolescence in relation to long-term prostate cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted of all 699,125 Swedish military conscripts during 1972-1985 (97%-98% of 18-year-old men) in relation to risk of prostate cancer overall, aggressive prostate cancer, and prostate cancer mortality during 1998-2017 (ages 50-65 years). CRF was measured by maximal aerobic workload, and prostate cancer was ascertained using the National Prostate Cancer Register. Muscle strength was examined as a secondary predictor. RESULTS: In 38.8 million person-years of follow-up, 10,782 (1.5%) men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, height, weight, and family history of prostate cancer, high CRF was associated with a slightly increased risk of any prostate cancer [highest vs. lowest quintile: incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19; P = 0.008], but was neither significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer (1.01; 0.85-1.21; P = 0.90) nor prostate cancer mortality (1.24; 0.73-2.13; P = 0.42). High muscle strength also was associated with a modestly increased risk of any prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: IRR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23; P < 0.001), but neither with aggressive prostate cancer (0.88; 0.74-1.04; P = 0.14) nor prostate cancer mortality (0.81; 0.48-1.37; P = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: High CRF or muscle strength in late adolescence was associated with slightly increased future risk of prostate cancer, possibly related to increased screening, but neither with risk of aggressive prostate cancer nor prostate cancer mortality. IMPACT: These findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing aggressive from indolent prostate cancer and assessing for potential detection bias.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(12): 3328-3338, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525555

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for advanced, but not localised, prostate cancer (PCa), and for poor prognosis. However, the detection of localised PCa through asymptomatic screening might influence these associations. We investigated height and body mass index (BMI) among 431 902 men in five Swedish cohorts in relation to PCa risk, according to cancer risk category and detection mode, and PCa-specific mortality using Cox regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. Height was positively associated with localised intermediate-risk PCa (HR per 5 cm, 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05), while overweight and obesity were negatively associated with localised low- and intermediate-risk PCa (HRs per 5 kg/m2 , 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.90, and 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). However, these associations were partially driven by PCa's detected by asymptomatic screening and, for height, also by symptoms unrelated to PCa. The HR of localised PCa's, per 5 kg/m2 , was 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.92 for screen-detected PCa's and 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.01 for PCa's detected through lower urinary tract symptoms. BMI was positively associated with PCa-specific mortality in the full population and in case-only analysis of each PCa risk category (HRs per 5 kg/m2 , 1.11-1.22, P for heterogeneity = .14). More active health-seeking behaviour among tall and normal-weight men may partially explain their higher risk of localised PCa. The higher PCa-specific mortality among obese men across all PCa risk categories in our study suggests obesity as a potential target to improve the prognosis of obese PCa patients.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1654-1664, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. METHODS: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR≥5vs1 = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; P trend in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk. IMPACT: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , História Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 261, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a dose-response relationship between physical activity and risk of diabetes has been demonstrated, few studies have assessed the relative importance of different measures of physical activity on diabetes risk. The aim was to examine the association between different self-reported measures of physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Out of 26,615 adults (45-74 years, 60% women) in the population-based Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 3791 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. Leisure-time (17 activities), occupational and domestic physical activity were assessed through a questionnaire, and these and total physical activity were investigated in relation to type 2 diabetes risk. RESULTS: All physical activity measures showed weak to modest associations with type 2 diabetes risk. The strongest association was found in the lower end of leisure-time physical activity in dose-response analysis at levels approximately below 22 MET-hrs/week (300 min/week) representing around 40% of the population. Compared with the lowest quintile, the moderate leisure-time physical activity category had a 28% (95% CI: 0.71, 0.87) decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Total physical activity showed a similar, but weaker, association with diabetes risk as to that of leisure-time physical activity. Domestic physical activity was positively and linearly related to diabetes risk, HR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.25) comparing highest to lowest quintile. There was no association between occupational physical activity and diabetes risk. CONCLUSION: A curvilinear association was observed between leisure-time physical activity and risk of diabetes. Beyond a threshold level of approximately 22 MET-hrs/week or 300 min/week, no additional risk reduction was observed with increase in physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Autorrelato , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2680-2693, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 193-204, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of insulin resistance as a mediator in the association of body mass index (BMI) with site-specific cancer risk has, to our knowledge, never been systematically quantified. METHODS: Altogether 510 471 individuals from six European cohorts, with a mean age of 43.1 years, were included. We used the triglyceride glucose product (TyG index) as a surrogate measure for insulin resistance. We fitted Cox models, adjusted for relevant confounders, to investigate associations of TyG index with 10 common obesity-related cancers, and quantified the proportion of the effect of BMI mediated through TyG index on the log-transformed hazard ratio (HR) scale. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 17.2 years, 16 052 individuals developed obesity-related cancers. TyG index was associated with the risk of cancers of the kidney HR per one standard deviation increase 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.20], liver (1.13, 1.04 to 1.23), pancreas (1.12, 1.06 to 1.19), colon (1.07, 1.03 to 1.10) and rectum (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14). Substantial proportions of the effect of BMI were mediated by TyG index for cancers of the pancreas (42%), rectum (34%) and colon (20%); smaller proportions for kidney (15%) and liver (11%). Little or no mediation was observed for breast (postmenopausal), endometrial and ovarian cancer. Results were similar for males and females, except for pancreatic cancer where the proportions mediated were 20% and 91%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The TyG index was associated with increased risk of cancers of the digestive system and substantially mediated the effect of BMI, suggesting that insulin resistance plays a promoting role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancers.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 58-67, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815851

RESUMO

Apart from the consistently observed differential association between obesity and breast cancer risk by menopausal status, the associations between obesity and other metabolic imbalances with risks of cancers have not been systematically investigated across the age-course. We created two random 50-50% cohorts from six European cohorts comprising 813,927 individuals. In the "discovery cohort", we used Cox regression with attained age as time-scale and tested interactions between body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, and attained age in relation to cancer risk. Results with a p-value below 0.05 were additionally tested in the "replication cohort" where a replicated result was considered evidence of a linear interaction with attained age. These findings were investigated by flexible parametric survival models for any age-plateaus in their shape of associations with cancer risk across age. Consistent with other studies, BMI was negatively related to breast cancer risk (n cases = 11,723) among younger (premenopausal) women. However, the association remained negative for several years after menopause and, although gradually weakening over age, the association became positive only at 62 years of age. This linear and positive age-interaction was also found for triglycerides and breast cancer, and for BMI and triglycerides in relation to liver cancer among men (n cases = 444). These findings are unlikely to be due to chance owing to the replication. The linear age-interactions in breast cancer may suggest an influence by other age-related factors than menopause; however, further investigation of age-related effect modifiers in both breast and liver cancer is needed.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1198-1207, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077359

RESUMO

The extent to which a favorable lifestyle may lower cancer risk in subjects with a family history of cancer is unknown. We conducted a prospective study in two Swedish cohorts, the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS; n = 25,604) and the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP; n = 16,216). The association between a favorable lifestyle (based on nonsmoking, normal weight, absence of excessive drinking, regular physical activity and healthy diet) and cancer incidence and mortality risk was assessed using Cox regression stratified by family history of cancer (all types). A favorable lifestyle was associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18-26%) and 40% (95% CI: 36-44%) lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality, respectively, compared to an unfavorable lifestyle. No significant effect modification by family history was observed but there was a null association between lifestyle and cancer incidence among subjects with two or more affected first-degree relatives. The observed relative risk estimates comparing an unfavorable with a favorable lifestyle corresponded to standardized 10-year cancer incidence rates of 11.2 vs. 9.5% in the MDCS, and 4.4 vs. 3.2% in the MPP, and a reduction in 20-year cancer mortality rate from 11.7% to 7.4% in the MDCS and 6.7% to 3.9% in the MPP. Improved adherence to cancer prevention recommendations may reduce cancer incidence and mortality risk in the general population, however, further studies are needed to assess the impact of lifestyle on cancer incidence among subjects with strong familial or polygenic risk for specific cancers.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Anamnese , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 929-942, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050823

RESUMO

Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5-25 kg/m2 : HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25-3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15-6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99-6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35-14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76-18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04-3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/classificação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação
17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(6): 1872-1885, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers. Adult weight gain has been associated with increased cancer risk, but studies on timing and duration of adult weight gain are relatively scarce. We examined the impact of BMI (body mass index) and weight changes over time, as well as the timing and duration of excess weight, on obesity- and non-obesity-related cancers. METHODS: We pooled health data from six European cohorts and included 221 274 individuals with two or more height and weight measurements during 1972-2014. Several BMI and weight measures were constructed. Cancer cases were identified through linkage with national cancer registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) of cancer with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from time-dependent Cox-regression models. RESULTS: During follow-up, 27 881 cancer cases were diagnosed; 9761 were obesity-related. The HR of all obesity-related cancers increased with increasing BMI at first and last measurement, maximum BMI and longer duration of overweight (men only) and obesity. Participants who were overweight before age 40 years had an HR of obesity-related cancers of 1.16 (95% CI 1.02, 1.32) and 1.15 (95% CI 1.04, 1.27) in men and women, respectively, compared with those who were not overweight. The risk increase was particularly high for endometrial (70%), male renal-cell (58%) and male colon cancer (29%). No positive associations were seen for cancers not regarded as obesity-related. CONCLUSIONS: Adult weight gain was associated with increased risk of several major cancers. The degree, timing and duration of overweight and obesity also seemed to be important. Preventing weight gain may reduce the cancer risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 957-966, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191956

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is thought to play a role in tumour development. Previous prospective studies have shown that higher circulating concentrations of IGF-I are associated with a higher risk of cancers at specific sites, including breast and prostate. No prospective study has examined the association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk. A nested case-control study of 1,221 melanoma cases and 1,221 controls was performed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a prospective cohort of 520,000 participants recruited from 10 European countries. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for incident melanoma in relation to circulating IGF-I concentrations, measured by immunoassay. Analyses were conditioned on the matching factors and further adjusted for age at blood collection, education, height, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, marital status, physical activity and in women only, use of menopausal hormone therapy. There was no significant association between circulating IGF-I concentration and melanoma risk (OR for highest vs lowest fifth = 0.93 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 1.22]). There was no significant heterogeneity in the association between IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk when subdivided by gender, age at blood collection, BMI, height, age at diagnosis, time between blood collection and diagnosis, or by anatomical site or histological subtype of the tumour (Pheterogeneity≥0.078). We found no evidence for an association between circulating concentrations of IGF-I measured in adulthood and the risk of melanoma.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197830, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is suggested to underlie development of other metabolic aberrations, but longitudinal relationships between metabolic factors at various ages has not been studied in detail. METHODS: Data from 27,379 men and 32,275 women with in total 122,940 health examinations in the Västerbotten Intervention Project, Sweden and the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Prevention Programme, Austria were used to investigate body mass index (BMI), mid-blood pressure, and fasting levels of glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol at baseline in relation to 10-year changes of these factors and weight. We included paired examinations performed 10±2 years apart and used them for longitudinal analysis with linear regression of changes between the ages 30 and 40, 40 and 50, or 50 and 60 years. RESULTS: Higher levels of BMI were associated with increases in glucose and mid-blood pressure as well as triglycerides levels, and, to a lesser extent, decreases in cholesterol levels. For instance, per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI at age 40, glucose at age 50 increased by 0.24 mmol/l (95%CI: 0.22-0.26) and mid-blood pressure increased by 1.54 mm Hg (95%CI: 1.35-1.74). The strongest association observed was between BMI at age 30 and mid-blood pressure, which was 2.12 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.79-2.45) increase over ten years per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI level. This association was observed at an age when blood pressure levels on average remained stable. Other associations than those with BMI at baseline were much weaker. However, triglyceride levels were associated with future glucose changes among individuals with elevated BMI, particularly in the two older age groups. CONCLUSION: BMI was most indicative of long-term changes in metabolic factors, and the strongest impact was observed for increases in blood pressure between 30 and 40 years of age. Our study supports that lifestyle interventions preventing metabolic aberrations should focus on avoiding weight increases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Cancer ; 143(12): 3071-3082, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756343

RESUMO

Previous studies on metabolic factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have shown inconsistent results and have commonly not investigated associations separately by sex, smoking, and tumor invasiveness. Among 811,633 participants in six European cohorts, we investigated sex-specific associations between body mass index (BMI), mid-blood pressure (BP, [systolic + diastolic]/2), plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and risk of BC overall, non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) and muscle invasive BC (MIBC). Among men, we additionally assessed additive interactions between metabolic factors and smoking on BC risk. During follow-up, 2,983 men and 754 women were diagnosed with BC. Among men, triglycerides and BP were positively associated with BC risk overall (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD]: 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.27] and 1.09 [1.02-1.17], respectively), and among women, BMI was inversely associated with risk (HR: 0.90 [0.82-0.99]). The associations for BMI and BP differed between men and women (pinteraction ≤ 0.005). Among men, BMI, cholesterol and triglycerides were positively associated with risk for NMIBC (HRs: 1.09 [95% CI 1.01-1.18], 1.14 [1.02-1.25], and 1.30 [1.12-1.48] respectively), and BP was positively associated with MIBC (HR: 1.23 [1.02-1.49]). Among women, glucose was positively associated with MIBC (HR: 1.99 [1.04-3.81]). Apart from cholesterol, HRs for metabolic factors did not significantly differ between MIBC and NMIBC, and there were no interactions between smoking and metabolic factors on BC. Our study supports an involvement of metabolic aberrations in BC risk. Whilst some associations were significant only in certain sub-groups, there were generally no significant differences in associations by smoking or tumor invasiveness.


Assuntos
Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Noruega/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
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