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1.
Int J Drug Policy ; 77: 102666, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171107

RESUMO

Alcohol labels are one strategy for raising consumer awareness about the negative consequences of alcohol, but evidence to inform labels is limited. This quasi-experimental study sought to test the real-world impact of strengthening health messages on alcohol container labels on consumer attention, message processing (reading, thinking, and talking with others about labels), and self-reported drinking. Alcohol labels with a cancer warning, national drinking guidelines, and standard drink information were implemented in the intervention site, and usual labelling practices continued in the comparison site. Changes in key indicators of label effectiveness were assessed among a cohort of adult drinkers in both the intervention and comparison sites using three waves of surveys conducted before and at two time-points after the alcohol label intervention. Generalized Estimating Equations with difference-in-difference terms were used to examine the impact of the label intervention on changes in outcomes. Strengthening health messages on alcohol container labels significantly increased consumer attention to [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=17.2, 95%CI:8.2,36.2] and processing of labels (e.g., reading labels: AOR=2.6, 95%CI:1.8,3.7), and consumer reports of drinking less due to the labels (AOR=3.7, 95%CI: 2.0,7.0). Strengthening health messages on alcohol containers can achieve their goal of attracting attention, deepening engagement, and enhancing motivation to reduce alcohol use. Strengthening alcohol labelling policies should be a priority for alcohol control globally.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936173

RESUMO

Knowledge that alcohol can cause cancer is low in Canada. Alcohol labels are one strategy for communicating alcohol-related harms, including cancer. Extending existing research observing an association between knowledge of the alcohol-cancer link and support for alcohol policies, this study examined whether increases in individual-level knowledge that alcohol is a carcinogen following an alcohol labelling intervention are associated with support for alcohol polices. Cancer warning labels were applied to alcohol containers at the intervention site, and the comparison site did not apply cancer labels. Pre-post surveys were conducted among liquor store patrons at both sites before and two-and six-months after the intervention was stopped due to alcohol industry interference. Limiting the data to participants that completed surveys both before and two-months after the cancer label stopped, logistic regression was used to examine the association between increases in knowledge and support for policies. Support for pricing and availability policies was low overall; however, increases in individual-level knowledge of the alcohol-cancer link was associated with higher levels of support for pricing policies, specifically, setting a minimum unit price per standard drink of alcohol (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.11-3.12). Improving knowledge that alcohol can cause cancer using labels may increase support for alcohol policies. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/16320.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 206: 107739, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785997
4.
Can J Public Health ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Policy makers require evidence-based estimates of the economic costs of substance use-attributable lost productivity to set strategies aimed at reducing substance use-related harms. Building on a study by Rehm et al. (2006), we provide estimates of workplace costs using updated methods and data sources. METHODS: We estimated substance use-attributable productivity losses due to premature mortality, long-term disability, and presenteeism/absenteeism in Canada between 2007 and 2014. Lost productivity was estimated using a hybrid prevalence and incidence approach. Substance use prevalence data were drawn from three national self-report surveys. Premature mortality data were from the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database, and long-term disability and workplace interference data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey. RESULTS: In 2014, the total cost of lost productivity due to substance use was $15.7 billion, or approximately $440 per Canadian, an increase of 8% from 2007. Substances responsible for the greatest economic costs were alcohol (38% of per capita costs), tobacco (37%), opioids (12%), other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (4%), other CNS stimulants (3%), cannabis (2%), cocaine (2%), and finally other psychoactive substances (2%). CONCLUSION: In 2014, alcohol and tobacco represent three quarters of substance use-related lost productivity costs in Canada, followed by opioids. These costs provide a valuable baseline that can be used to assess the impact of future substance use policy, practice, and other interventions, especially important given Canada's opioid crisis and recent cannabis legalization.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817638

RESUMO

The existence and potential level of cardioprotection from alcohol use is contested in alcohol studies. Assumptions regarding the risk relationship between alcohol use and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) are critical when providing advice for national drinking guidelines and for designing alcohol harm monitoring systems. We use three meta-analyses regarding alcohol use and IHD risk to investigate how varying assumptions lead to differential estimates of alcohol-attributable (AA) deaths and weighted relative risk (RR) functions, in Australia and Canada. Alcohol exposure and mortality data were acquired from administrative sources and AA fractions were calculated using the International Model of Alcohol Harms and Policies. We then customized a recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) analysis to inform drinking guidelines internationally. Australians drink slightly more than Canadians, per person, but are also more likely to identify as lifetime abstainers. Cardioprotective scenarios resulted in substantial differences in estimates of net AA deaths in Australia (between 2933 and 4570) and Canada (between 5179 and 8024), using GBD risk functions for all other alcohol-related conditions. Country-specific weighted RR functions were analyzed to provide advice toward drinking guidelines: Minimum risk was achieved at or below alcohol use levels of 10 g/day ethanol, depending on scenario. Consumption levels resulting in 'no added' risk from drinking were found to be between 10 and 15 g/day, by country, gender, and scenario. These recommendations are lower than current guidelines in Australia, Canada, and some other high-income countries: These guidelines may be in need of downward revision.

6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107587, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600617

RESUMO

AIM: To establish whether the population-level pattern of cannabis use by quantity is similar to the distributions previously reported for alcohol, in which a small subset of drinkers accounts for a majority of total population alcohol consumption. METHOD: The current study pooled Waves 1-3 of the 2018 National Cannabis Survey (n = 18,900; 2584 past-three-month cannabis users), a set of stratified, population-based surveys designed to assess cannabis consumption and related behaviors in Canada. Each survey systematically measured self-reported cannabis consumption by quantity across seven of the major cannabis-product types. In order to enable the conversion of self-reported consumption of non-flower cannabis products into a standard joint equivalent (SJE: equal to 0.5 g of dried cannabis), we created conversion metrics for physical production equivalencies across cannabis products. RESULTS: Similar to the findings in the alcohol literature, study results show that cannabis consumption is highly concentrated in a small subset of users: the upper 10% of cannabis users accounted for approximately two-thirds of all cannabis consumed in the country. Males reported consuming more cannabis by volume than females (approximately 60% versus 40%), with young males (15-34 years old) being disproportionately represented in the heaviest-using subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the cannabis used in Canada is consumed by a relatively small population of very heavy cannabis users. Future research should attempt to identify the characteristics of the heaviest-using groups, as well as how population-level cannabis consumption patterns relate to the calculus of cannabis-related harms in society.

7.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 38(7): 750-757, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599075

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is increasing evidence suggesting the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages is associated with risks over and above alcohol use on its own; however, research in this area remains limited. We examined whether gender differences existed in the relationship between the combined use of alcohol and caffeine (Alc + Caff) and risk for injury. DESIGN AND METHODS: This emergency department study utilised case-control and case-crossover analyses to examine in situ session specific Alc + Caff use and injury risk for men and women, while controlling for socio-demographic variables, dose of alcohol and caffeine, other substance use, risk-taking propensity and context. The sample comprised 2804 individuals aged 18-years or older who presented to three hospital emergency departments in British Columbia. RESULTS: A relationship between Alc + Caff use and increased risk of injury was confirmed. Further, gender differences were found in the risk relationship between Alc + Caff use and injury. Women were found to have a higher risk injury propensity following Alc + Caff use in both the case-control (OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.78, 5.84) and case-crossover analyses (OR = 3.21, 95% CI = 1.69, 6.12), relative to men (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.30, 2.30; OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.86). These results remained even after controlling for demographic factors, risk-taking, context and other substance use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Women may be at higher risk of injury than men following the consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeine. The findings offer support for differential low-risk drinking guidelines for men and women and the restriction and regulation of the sale and availability of caffeinated alcoholic beverages.

8.
Int J Drug Policy ; 67: 58-62, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959410

RESUMO

Alcohol policy in North America is dominated by moderation and abstinence-based modalities that focus on controlling population-level alcohol consumption and modifying individual consumption patterns to prevent and reduce alcohol-related harms. However, conventional alcohol policies and interventions do not adequately address harms associated with high-risk drinking among individuals experiencing severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) and structural vulnerability such as poverty and homelessness. In this commentary we address this gap in alcohol harm reduction, and highlight the lack of, and distinct need for, alcohol-specific harm reduction for people experiencing structural vulnerability and severe AUD. These individuals, doubly impacted by structural oppression and severe AUD, engage in various high-risk drinking practices that contribute to a unique set of harms that conventional abstinence-based treatments and interventions fail to adequately attend to. Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) have been established to address these multiple intersecting harms, and though gaining momentum across Canada, have had a hard time finding their place within the harm reduction movement. We illustrate how MAPs play a crucial role in the harm reduction movement in their ability to not only address high-risk drinking practices among structurally marginalized individuals, but to respond to harms associated with broader structural inequities such as poverty and homelessness.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Pobreza , Canadá , Humanos
9.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(1): 63-68, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use causes approximately 10% of deaths among adults ages 20-65 in the United States. Although previous research has demonstrated differential age-related risk relationships, it is difficult to estimate the magnitude of selection bias attributable to premature mortality based on existing cohort studies, the average age of which is greater than 50 years. The objective of our study was to assess the distribution of mortality-related harms and benefits from alcohol among adults ages 20 and older in comparison with the distribution among those older than age 50. METHOD: Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Alcohol-Related Disease Impact software application from 2006-10 were used to determine the distribution of alcohol-attributable deaths (AADs) and the years of potential life lost (YPLLs) that was caused or prevented by alcohol for 54 conditions by 15-year age groupings (20-34, 35-49, 50-64, 65+) in the United States. We also determined the proportion of net deaths and YPLLs occurring in each age group, overall and by cause of death. RESULTS: Adults ages 20-49 years experienced 35.8% of the deaths and 58.4% of the YPLLs caused by alcohol, whereas the same group accrued only 4.5% of AADs and 14.2% of YPLLs gained. Overall, 46.3% of the total net deaths and 64.7% of the net YPLLs occurred among those ages 20-49; adding net deaths occurring among those ages 20-49 to those occurring after age 50 would result in an 86.3% relative increase in net deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Because of premature mortality, alcohol-mortality associations based on cohort studies may underestimate negative health consequences compared with those observed among the general population.

10.
Can J Diet Pract Res ; 80(3): 111-115, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724112

RESUMO

We estimated calorie intake from alcohol in Canada, overall and by gender, age, and province, and provide evidence to advocate for mandatory alcohol labelling requirements. Annual per capita (aged 15+) alcohol sales data in litres of pure ethanol by beverage type were taken from Statistics Canada's CANSIM database and converted into calories. The apportionment of consumption by gender, age, and province was based on data from the Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drug Survey. Estimated energy requirements (EER) were from Canada's Food Guide. The average drinker consumed 250 calories, or 11.2% of their daily EER in the form of alcohol, with men (13.3%) consuming a higher proportion of their EER from alcohol than women (8.2%). Drinkers consumed more than one-tenth of their EER from alcohol in all but one province. By beverage type, beer contributes 52.7% of all calories derived from alcohol, while wine (20.8%); spirits (19.8%); and ciders, coolers, and other alcohol (6.7%) also contribute substantially. The substantial caloric impact of alcoholic drinks in the Canadian diet suggests that the addition of caloric labelling on these drinks is a necessary step.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1400, 2018 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Government alcohol monopolies were created in North America and Scandinavia to limit health and social problems. The Swedish monopoly, Systembolaget, reports to a health ministry and controls the sale of all alcoholic beverages with > 3.5% alcohol/volume for off-premise consumption, within a public health mandate. Elsewhere, alcohol monopolies are being dismantled with evidence of increased consumption and harms. We describe innovative modelling techniques to estimate health outcomes in scenarios involving Systembolaget being replaced by 1) privately owned liquor stores, or 2) alcohol sales in grocery stores. The methods employed can be applied in other jurisdictions and for other policy changes. METHODS: Impacts of the privatisation scenarios on pricing, outlet density, trading hours, advertising and marketing were estimated based on Swedish expert opinion and published evidence. Systematic reviews were conducted to estimate impacts on alcohol consumption in each scenario. Two methods were applied to estimate harm impacts: (i) alcohol attributable morbidity and mortality were estimated utilising the International Model of Alcohol Harms and Policies (InterMAHP); (ii) ARIMA methods to estimate the relationship between per capita alcohol consumption and specific types of alcohol-related mortality and crime. RESULTS: Replacing government stores with private liquor stores (Scenario 1) led to a 20.0% (95% CI, 15.3-24.7) increase in per capita consumption. Replacement with grocery stores (Scenario 2) led to a 31.2% (25.1-37.3%) increase. With InterMAHP there were 763 or + 47% (35-59%) and 1234 or + 76% (60-92%) more deaths per year, for Scenarios 1 and 2 respectively. With ARIMA, there were 850 (334-1444) more deaths per year in Scenario 1 and 1418 more in Scenario 2 (543-2505). InterMAHP also estimated 10,859 or + 29% (22-34%) and 16,118 or + 42% (35-49%) additional hospital stays per year respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There would be substantial adverse consequences for public health and safety were Systembolaget to be privatised. We demonstrate a new combined approach for estimating the impact of alcohol policies on consumption and, using two alternative methods, alcohol-attributable harm. This approach could be readily adapted to other policies and settings. We note the limitation that some significant sources of uncertainty in the estimates of harm impacts were not modelled.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Comércio/organização & administração , Privatização , Política Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Addiction ; 113(12): 2245-2249, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estimated alcohol consumption from national self-report surveys is often only 30-40% of official estimates based on sales or taxation data. Global burden of disease (GBD) estimates for alcohol adjust survey estimates up to 80% of total per capita consumption. This assumes that cohort studies needed to estimate relative risks for disease suffer less from under-reporting than typical national surveys. However, there is limited evidence on which to base that assumption. This paper aims to assess the extent of underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies concerning alcohol and mortality compared with official total consumption estimates. DESIGN: Comparisons of estimated per capita consumption from a comprehensive sample of cohort studies against official estimates by country and year. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1 876 046 participants in 40 cohort studies from 18 countries on alcohol use and all-cause mortality identified by systematic review. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol consumption data from the cohort studies were converted into usual grams of ethanol per day and then to total age 15+ per capita consumption. Matched estimates were sourced from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Observatory. FINDINGS: The cohort studies had mean coverages of age 15+ per capita alcohol consumption of 61.71% (ranging from 29.19% for Russia to 96.53% for Japan), after weighting estimates by sample size for within-country estimates and by number of studies per country for the overall estimate. Regional estimates were higher for the United States (66.22%) and lower for western European countries (55.35%). CONCLUSIONS: Underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies is less than in typical population surveys. Because some under-coverage is caused by under-sampling heavier drinkers, the current practice of uplifting survey estimates to 80% of total population consumption in global burden of disease studies appears to be appropriate.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comércio , Autorrelato , Impostos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos
14.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37(7): 874-878, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is a paucity of data on volume of alcohol use from Muslim majority countries. We aimed to present estimation methods for alcohol consumption with the use of survey data for these societies and provide an estimation for age 15+ per capita consumption of pure alcohol for Iran. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Iranian Mental Health Survey was a nationally representative household survey on individuals aged 15-64 years, with a multistage, cluster sampling design. We used the 'Last Week' method and 'Quantity-Frequency' methods for gathering data on alcohol consumption and combined these to provide more complete estimates. RESULTS: The response rate was 85.7%. From the total of 7840 respondents, 5.7% and 1% reported past 12 months and past week alcohol use, respectively. The highest estimation for age 15+ per capita consumption of pure alcohol was yielded by the 'combination method' (0.108 L ethanol/person/year) followed by the Quantity-Frequency method (0.079 L). The 'Last Week' method provided the lowest estimate (0.059 L). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Unlike in surveys of non-Muslim countries, frequency of drinking from recent recall (last week) was much lower than from recall of usual drinking in the last year. We conclude that 0.108 L (SE = 0.03) is the best survey-based estimate of age 15+ per capita consumption, which translates to about 5 750 000 L of national consumption per year in Iran. However, this method is still likely to under-estimate per capita consumption due to evidence of under-reporting in the survey.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Islamismo/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37 Suppl 1: S132-S139, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: People with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing are vulnerable to multiple harms related to drinking and homelessness. Managed Alcohol Programs (MAP) aim to reduce harms of severe alcohol use without expecting cessation of use. There is promising evidence that MAPs reduce acute and social harms associated with alcohol dependence. The aim of this paper is to describe MAPs in Canada including key dimensions and implementation issues. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirteen Canadian MAPs were identified through the Canadian Managed Alcohol Program Study. Nine key informant interviews were conducted and analysed alongside program documents and reports to create individual case reports. Inductive content analysis and cross case comparisons were employed to identify six key dimensions of MAPs. RESULTS: Community based MAPs have a common goal of preserving dignity and reducing harms of drinking while increasing access to housing, health and social services. MAPs are offered as both residential and day programs with differences in six key dimensions including program goals and eligibility, food and accomodation, alcohol dispensing and administration, funding and money management, primary care services and clinical monitoring, and social and cultural connections. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: MAPs consist of four pillars with the alcohol intervention provided alongside housing interventions, primary care services, social and cultural interventions. Availability of permanent housing and re-establishing social and cultural connections are central to recovery and healing goals of MAPs. Additional research regarding Indigenous and gendered approaches to program development as well as outcomes related to chronic harms and differences in alcohol management are needed.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Redução do Dano , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Canadá , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
17.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37 Suppl 1: S357-S365, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431280

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The province of Saskatchewan, Canada introduced minimum prices graded by alcohol strength in April 2010. As previous research found this intervention significantly decreased alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable morbidity, we aim to test the association between the intervention and the rate of emergency department (ED) visits in four alcohol-related injury categories [motor vehicle collisions (MVC), assaults, falls and total alcohol-related injuries]. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on ED visits in the city of Regina were obtained from the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test the immediate and lagged effects of the pricing intervention on rates of alcohol-related nighttime. ED visits and controlled for daytime rates of ED visits, economic variables, linear and seasonal trends, and auto-regressive and moving average effects. RESULTS: The implementation of an alcohol minimum pricing strategy in Saskatchewan was associated with decreased MVC-related ED visits for women aged 26 and over after a 6 month lag period (-39.4%, P < 0.001). There was no significant abrupt effect of this intervention on ED visits of four injury types in any of four gender-age categories; however, rates of ED visits among young males for MVCs and assaults decreased substantially during this study. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The minimum pricing policy change led to a lagged decrease in motor vehicle-collision-related ED visits for women older than 25. Of note, there did not appear to be an instantaneous effect on the rate of alcohol-related injury ED visits immediately after the policy implementation nor lagged effects for other gender-age groups.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Saskatchewan , Adulto Jovem
18.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37 Suppl 1: S174-S183, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We investigated coping strategies used by alcohol-dependent and unstably housed people when they could not afford alcohol, and how managed alcohol program (MAP) participation influenced these. The aim of this study was to investigate potential negative unintended consequences of alcohol being unaffordable. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 175 MAP residents in five Canadian cities and 189 control participants from nearby shelters were interviewed about the frequency they used 10 coping strategies when unable to afford alcohol. Length of stay in a MAP was examined as a predictor of negative coping while controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, housing stability, spending money and drinks per day. Multivariate binary logistic and linear regression models were used. RESULTS: Most commonly reported strategies were re-budgeting (53%), waiting for money (49%) or going without alcohol (48%). A significant proportion used illicit drugs (41%) and/or drank non-beverage alcohol (41%). Stealing alcohol or property was less common. Long-term MAP participants (>2 months) exhibited lower negative coping scores than controls (8.76 vs. 10.63, P < 0.001) and were less likely to use illicit drugs [odds ratio (OR) 0.50, P = 0.02], steal from liquor stores (OR 0.50, P = 0.04), re-budget (OR 0.36, P < 0.001) or steal property (OR 0.40, P = 0.07). Long-term MAP participants were also more likely to seek treatment (OR 1.91, P = 0.03) and less likely to go without alcohol (OR 0.47, P = 0.01). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: People experiencing alcohol dependence and housing instability more often reduced their alcohol consumption than used harmful coping when alcohol was unaffordable. MAP participation was associated with fewer potentially harmful coping strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Alcoolismo/economia , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37 Suppl 1: S159-S166, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Managed alcohol programs (MAP) are intended for people with severe alcohol-related problems and unstable housing. We investigated whether MAP participation was associated with changes in drinking patterns and related harms. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy-five MAP participants from five Canadian cities (Hamilton, Ottawa, Toronto, Thunder Bay and Vancouver) and 189 same-city controls were assessed for alcohol consumption, health, safety and harm outcomes. Length of stay in a MAP was investigated as a predictor of drinking patterns, non-beverage alcohol consumption and related harms. Statistical controls were included for housing stability, age, gender, ethnic background and city of residence. Negative binomial regression and logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Recently admitted MAP participants (≤2 months) and controls were both high consumers of alcohol, predominantly male, of similar ethnic background, similarly represented across the five cities and equally alcohol dependent (mean Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire = 29.7 and 31.4). After controlling for ethnicity, age, sex, city and housing stability, long-term MAP residents (>2 months) drank significantly more days (+5.5) but 7.1 standard drinks fewer per drinking day than did controls over the last 30 days. Long-term MAP residents reported significantly fewer alcohol-related harms in the domains of health, safety, social, legal and withdrawal. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Participation in a MAP was associated with more frequent drinking at lower quantities per day. Participation was associated with reduced alcohol-related harms over the past 30 days. Future analyses will examine outcomes longitudinally through follow-up interviews, police and health care records.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Redução do Dano , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Canadá , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(1): 58-67, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were completed studying the effect of changes in the physical availability of take-away alcohol on per capita alcohol consumption. Previous reviews examining this topic have not focused on off-premise outlets where take-away alcohol is sold and have not completed meta-analyses. METHOD: Systematic reviews were conducted separately for policies affecting the temporal availability (days and hours of sale) and spatial availability (outlet density) of take-away alcohol. Studies were included up to December 2015. Quality criteria were used to select articles that studied the effect of changes in these policies on alcohol consumption with a focus on natural experiments. Random-effects meta-analyses were applied to produce the estimated effect of an additional day of sale on total and beverage-specific consumption. RESULTS: Separate systematic reviews identified seven studies regarding days and hours of sale and four studies regarding density. The majority of articles included in these systematic reviews, for days/hours of sale (7/7) and outlet density (3/4), concluded that restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol reduces per capita alcohol consumption. Meta-analyses studying the effect of adding one additional day of sale found that this was associated with per capita consumption increases of 3.4% (95% CI [2.7, 4.1]) for total alcohol, 5.3% (95% CI [3.2, 7.4]) for beer, 2.6% (95% CI [1.8, 3.5]) for wine, and 2.6% (95% CI [2.1, 3.2]) for spirits. The small number of included studies regarding hours of sale and density precluded meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that decreasing the physical availability of take-away alcohol will decrease per capita consumption. As decreasing per capita consumption has been shown to reduce alcohol-related harm, restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol would be expected to result in improvements to public health.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio/economia , Cerveja/economia , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , Vinho/economia
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