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1.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(2): 179-189, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495639

RESUMO

Base editors are RNA-programmable deaminases that enable precise single-base conversions in genomic DNA. However, off-target activity is a concern in the potential use of base editors to treat genetic diseases. Here, we report unbiased analyses of transcriptome-wide and genome-wide off-target modifications effected by cytidine base editors in the liver of mice with phenylketonuria. The intravenous delivery of intein-split cytidine base editors by dual adeno-associated viruses led to the repair of the disease-causing mutation without generating off-target mutations in the RNA and DNA of the hepatocytes. Moreover, the transient expression of a cytidine base editor mRNA and a relevant single-guide RNA intravenously delivered by lipid nanoparticles led to ~21% on-target editing and to the reversal of the disease phenotype; there were also no detectable transcriptome-wide and genome-wide off-target edits. Our findings support the feasibility of therapeutic cytidine base editing to treat genetic liver diseases.


Assuntos
Citidina/genética , DNA/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , RNA/genética , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Vetores Genéticos/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 144008, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293089

RESUMO

This study assessed spatiotemporal changes at Gya Glacier, the associated development of a proglacial lake, and reconstructed the 2014 outburst flood that struck Gya Village in the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh, India. This study analyzed and for the first time modeled a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) event in the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh. Glacier and glacial lakes changes were quantified using remote sensing data supplemented with field observations. Glacier ice-thickness and glacier-bed overdeepenings were modeled using a shear-stress based model, GlabTop (Glacier-bed Topography). The reconstruction of the 2014 GLOF and the potential hazard assessment of Gya Lake were carried out using the hydrodynamic model HEC-RAS; results were validated against ground-collected data. Temporal evaluation of satellite data revealed a 45.6% loss in the total glacier area between 1969 and 2019. The earliest snow-free image available for the region shows that a proglacial lake existed as early as 1969 with an area of 3.06 ha. The lake has expanded to ~11 ha in 2019. Results from the GlabTop model suggest that the lake could grow further up to 12 ha in the future. Field-based geomorphic indicators suggest that the 2014 GLOF event resulted from a piping failure of the frontal moraine destroying numerous agricultural fields, some buildings, downstream infrastructure, and eroded natural channel embankments. The reconstruction of the event revealed that 25% of the lake waters drained out with a peak discharge of 470 m3s-1, inundating an area of ~4 km2 around Gya Village. However, a complete breaching of the terminal moraine could result in an event that would be 5.5 times larger than the 2014 GLOF. Therefore, this study could be useful not only in planning disaster-resilient infrastructure around proglacial lake environments in the cold-arid Ladakh but also in framing mitigation plans to reduce risk for vulnerable downstream communities.

3.
Endocrinology ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248443

RESUMO

Prolactin production is controlled by a complex and temporally dynamic network of factors. Despite this tightly coordinated system, pathological hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrine disorder that is often not understood; thereby highlighting the need to expand our molecular understanding of lactotroph cell regulation. MicroRNA-7 is the most highly expressed microRNA family in the pituitary gland and the loss of the miR-7 family member, miR-7a2, is sufficient to reduce prolactin gene expression in mice. Here, we used conditional loss-of-function and gain-of-function mouse models to characterize the function of miR-7a2 in lactotroph cells. We found that pituitary miR-7a2 expression undergoes developmental and sex hormone-dependent regulation. Unexpectedly, the loss of mir-7a2 induces a premature increase in prolactin expression and lactotroph abundance during embryonic development, followed by a gradual loss of prolactin into adulthood. On the other hand, lactotroph development is delayed in mice overexpressing miR-7a2. This regulation of lactotroph function by miR-7a2 involves complementary mechanisms in multiple cell populations. In mouse pituitary and rat prolactinoma cells, miR-7a2 represses its target Raf1, which promotes prolactin gene expression. These findings shed light on the complex regulation of prolactin production and may have implications for the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying hyperprolactinemia.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20104, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208853

RESUMO

Exploring features of wood anatomy associated with fire scars found on fossil tree trunks is likely to increase our knowledge of the environmental and ecological processes that occurred in ancient forests and of the role of fire as an evolutionary force. In Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, where Late Triassic fossil trees are exposed, we found 13 examples of fossil logs with external features resembling modern fire scars. One specimen with the unambiguous external features of a fire scar was collected for analysis of its fossilized wood. A light-colored band composed of compressed and distorted tracheids was associated with the scarring event. Cell lumen diameter and cell wall thickness in the pre-scarring fossilized wood show a response similar to that described in modern trees experiencing drought conditions. Tracheids in the post-scarring wood are initially smaller, and then become larger than average following a recovery period, as is often observed in modern conifers following fire. The responses in external morphology and wood anatomy to drought and fire were similar to those of some modern trees and support the view that some forests may have experienced conditions favoring the evolution of fire-adapted traits for more than 200 million years.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5635, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159062

RESUMO

More tree species can increase the carbon storage capacity of forests (here referred to as the more species hypothesis) through increased tree productivity and tree abundance resulting from complementarity, but they can also be the consequence of increased tree abundance through increased available energy (more individuals hypothesis). To test these two contrasting hypotheses, we analyse the most plausible pathways in the richness-abundance relationship and its stability along global climatic gradients. We show that positive effect of species richness on tree abundance only prevails in eight of the twenty-three forest regions considered in this study. In the other forest regions, any benefit from having more species is just as likely (9 regions) or even less likely (6 regions) than the effects of having more individuals. We demonstrate that diversity effects prevail in the most productive environments, and abundance effects become dominant towards the most limiting conditions. These findings can contribute to refining cost-effective mitigation strategies based on fostering carbon storage through increased tree diversity. Specifically, in less productive environments, mitigation measures should promote abundance of locally adapted and stress tolerant tree species instead of increasing species richness.

6.
Cell Rep ; 32(1): 107846, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640216

RESUMO

The ability of pancreatic ß-cells to respond to increased demands for insulin during metabolic stress critically depends on proper ribosome homeostasis and function. Excessive and long-lasting stimulation of insulin secretion can elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, unfolded protein response, and ß-cell apoptosis. Here we show that the diabetes susceptibility gene JAZF1 is a key transcriptional regulator of ribosome biogenesis, global protein, and insulin translation. JAZF1 is excluded from the nucleus, and its expression levels are reduced upon metabolic stress and in diabetes. Genetic deletion of Jazf1 results in global impairment of protein synthesis that is mediated by defects in ribosomal protein synthesis, ribosomal RNA processing, and aminoacyl-synthetase expression, thereby inducing ER stress and increasing ß-cell susceptibility to apoptosis. Importantly, JAZF1 function and its pleiotropic actions are impaired in islets of murine T2D and in human islets exposed to metabolic stress. Our study identifies JAZF1 as a central mediator of metabolic stress in ß-cells.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138287, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408460

RESUMO

On July 8, 1998, the deadliest glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) in Central Asia for at least the last 100 years occurred in the Shakhimardan catchment, Kyrgyzstan. Most of the >100 victims were, however, killed in the Uzbek enclave of Shakhimardan, i.e. in the downstream part of this transboundary catchment. No warnings were issued between the two countries. In addition, due to political tensions, access to the site was impossible and a detailed assessment of the disaster could not be realized until now. Using remote sensing, we show that the lake at the origin of the "Shakhimardan event" appeared in the 1960s and drained periodically, without, however, causing damage to downstream areas before it eventually disappeared in the late 1980s. Based on post-event videos, we conclude that the GLOF-producing depression was again filled with a lake, estimated at 20 ± 1.2 × 103 m2 in area, before the disaster. The lake burst was likely driven by the rapidly rising air temperatures and the melting of snow/ice in late June and early July. The GLOF first travelled as a debris flow for 17 km, then continued as a debris flood in the increasingly flatter channel for another 20 km. Interestingly, the mean weighted channel angle in the areas of erosion was extremely low at 6.7°. The flood continued further downstream for ~100 km from its source. Today, 32 lakes (total area ~300 × 103 m2 in 2018) exist in the catchment, with several of the larger lakes (>5 × 103 m2) showing signs of instability. We therefore call for a systematic monitoring of environments like the Shakhimardan catchment, as well as for the installation of early warning systems at critical sites, with exchange of data between the Kyrgyz and Uzbek disaster risk management units, so as to mitigate existing and evolving GLOF risks.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6715, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317759

RESUMO

Recently revised ice core chronologies for Greenland have newly identified one of the largest sulfate deposition signals of the last millennium as occurring between 1108 and 1113 CE. Long considered the product of the 1104 CE Hekla (Iceland) eruption, this event can now be associated with substantial deposition seen in Antarctica under a similarly revised chronology. This newly recognized bipolar deposition episode has consequently been deemed to reveal a previously unknown major tropical eruption in 1108 CE. Here we show that a unique medieval observation of a "dark" total lunar eclipse attests to a dust veil over Europe in May 1110 CE, corroborating the revised ice-core chronologies. Furthermore, careful evaluation of ice core records points to the occurrence of several closely spaced volcanic eruptions between 1108 and 1110 CE. The sources of these eruptions remain unknown, but we propose that Mt. Asama, whose largest Holocene eruption occurred in August 1108 CE and is credibly documented by a contemporary Japanese observer, is a plausible contributor to the elevated sulfate in Greenland. Dendroclimatology and historical documentation both attest, moreover, to severe climatic anomalies following the proposed eruptions, likely providing the environmental preconditions for subsistence crises experienced in Western Europe between 1109 and 1111 CE.

9.
Am J Bot ; 107(4): 607-617, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239494

RESUMO

PREMISE: Mountain ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate change. However, only a very small number of studies exist so far using annually resolved records of alpine plant growth spanning the past century. Here we aimed to identify the effects of heat waves and drought, driven by global warming, on annual radial growth of Rhododendron ferrugineum. METHODS: We constructed two century-long shrub ring-width chronologies from R. ferrugineum individuals on two adjacent, north- and west-facing slopes in the southern French Alps. We analyzed available meteorological data (temperature, precipitation and drought) over the period 1960-2016. Climate-growth relationships were evaluated using bootstrapped correlation functions and structural equation models to identify the effects of rising temperature on shrub growth. RESULTS: Analysis of meteorological variables during 1960-2016 revealed a shift in the late 1980s when heat waves and drought increased in intensity and frequency. In response to these extreme climate events, shrubs have experienced significant changes in their main limiting factors. Between 1960 and 1988, radial growth on both slopes was strongly controlled by the sum of growing degree days during the snow free period. Between 1989 and 2016, August temperature and drought have emerged as the most important. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing air temperatures have caused a shift in the growth response of shrubs to climate. The recently observed negative effect of high summer temperature and drought on shrub growth can, however, be buffered by topographic variability, supporting the macro- and microrefugia hypotheses.


Assuntos
Secas , Temperatura Alta , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137875, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199381

RESUMO

In September 2014, the Kashmir valley (north-west India) experienced a massive flood causing significant economic losses and fatalities. This disaster underlined the high vulnerability of the local population and raised questions regarding the resilience of Kashmiris to future floods. Although the magnitude of the 2014 flood has been considered unprecedented within the context of existing measurements, we argue that the short flow series may lead to spurious misinterpretation of the probability of such extreme events. Here we use a millennium-long record of past floods in Kashmir based on historical and tree-ring records to assess the probability of 2014-like flood events in the region. Our flood chronology (635 CE-nowadays) provides key insights into the recurrence of flood disasters and propels understanding of flood variability in this region over the last millennium, showing enhanced activity during the Little Ice Age. We find that high-impact floods have frequently disrupted the Kashmir valley in the past. Thus, the inclusion of historical records reveals large flood hazard levels in the region. The newly gained information also underlines the critical need to take immediate action in the region, so as to reduce the exposure of local populations and to increase their resilience, despite existing constraints in watershed management related to the Indus Water Treaty.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Previsões , Probabilidade
11.
Heliyon ; 6(2): e03386, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072064

RESUMO

The systematic killing of trees is usually aimed at eradicating pests or alien plant species susceptible to harm existing natural ecosystems. In some cases, trees may become the subject of dispute between neighbors, which sometimes ends in tree death after months or years of dispute. In this paper, we analyze a case of clandestine tree killing and look into ways through which evidence left by delinquents can be analyzed a posteriori with state-of-the-art approaches. The investigation presented here looks at a series of old-growth trees that were supposedly poisoned inside a protected, nineteenth century grove in Switzerland. After the sudden, unexplained death of several old Black poplar (Populus nigra) trees along the main alley in fall 2015 and their subsequent removal, the dying of five additional, neighboring Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and English walnut (Juglans regia) trees in 2016 promptly triggered a suite of criminal investigations at the property. During an initial inspection, a large number of boreholes was found in the root plates of the dying trees. We present findings obtained from tree-ring, wood anatomical and dendrogeochemical investigations performed on root, stem and leave material from the assumedly poisoned trees and show that massive amounts of chemical elements - supposedly in the form organic pesticides with high Al, As, Fe, Cr, Ni contents, aluminum phosphides or glyphosate-based pesticides - were injected into 36 boreholes drilled into the roots around September 2016. Results obtained in this study are currently used in criminal investigations, and are a nice example of how scientific detectives can help their "real World" colleagues in identifying delinquents.

12.
Environ Int ; 135: 105357, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864024

RESUMO

The Bernese Alps are a region that is very prone for the initiation of thunderstorms. In fact, the flow and convergence of air and water vapor from the Swiss Plateau to the Swiss Alps is frequently favouring the formation of isolated rainfall events, which then may cause loss and damage in settlements. Due to the complex topography of the Bernese Alps, the forecasting and nowcasting of heavy convective precipitation remain challenging. A critical need therefore exists for the development of new forecasting tools so as to improve the predictability of convective precipitation events, also with the aim to alert first responders and to subsequently reduce damage. This study aims at developing an empirical index for the forecasting of heavy precipitation events in the Bernese Alps by using two reanalysis datasets, ECMWF's ERA-Interim and NASA's MERRA-2; in addition, the ICON-EU model is employed here to test and verify the index for the 2018 summer period. Our approach is based on the calculation of several convective indices as well as on the assessment of their relative forecast skills using a dichotomous scheme. The Heavy Precipitation Index (HPI) is then defined by combining the best performing combination of convective indices. HPI is aimed at forecasting heavy precipitation events over the Bernese Alps. We show that the combination of several indices, including DCI or KI, have a better capability to forecast heavy precipitation in the Bernese Alps than has the commonly used CAPE. Therefore, HPI should be seen as a pre-alert index when it comes to assist first responders in situations of crisis and in the process of decision making.


Assuntos
Chuva , Estações do Ano
13.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(1): 40-45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844189

RESUMO

According to the competitive exclusion principle, species with low competitive abilities should be excluded by more efficient competitors; yet, they generally remain as rare species. Here, we describe the positive and negative spatial association networks of 326 disparate assemblages, showing a general organization pattern that simultaneously supports the primacy of competition and the persistence of rare species. Abundant species monopolize negative associations in about 90% of the assemblages. On the other hand, rare species are mostly involved in positive associations, forming small network modules. Simulations suggest that positive interactions among rare species and microhabitat preferences are the most probable mechanisms underpinning this pattern and rare species persistence. The consistent results across taxa and geography suggest a general explanation for the maintenance of biodiversity in competitive environments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Geografia
14.
Am J Bot ; 106(12): 1536-1544, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758552

RESUMO

PREMISE: Fire scars on trees are created by excessive heat from a fire that kills the vascular cambium. Although, fires are one of the most important forest disturbances in Patagonia, the effects of fire on tree physiology and wood anatomy are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that abnormal functioning of the cambium after a fire will induce anatomical changes in the wood. We also assumed that these anatomical changes would affect xylem safety transport. METHODS: We quantified wood anatomical traits in Nothofagus pumilio, the dominant subalpine tree species of Patagonia, using two approaches: time and distance. In the first, anatomical changes in tree rings were compared before, during, and after fire occurrence. In the second, the spatial extent of these changes was evaluated with respect to the wound by measuring anatomical traits in sampling bands in two directions (0° and 45°) with respect to the onset of healing. RESULTS: Reductions in lumen diameter and vessel number were the most conspicuous changes associated with fire damage and observed in the fire ring and subsequent post-fire rings. In addition, the fire ring had more rays than in control rings. In terms of distance, anatomical changes were only restricted to short distances from the wound. CONCLUSIONS: Post-fire changes in wood anatomical traits were confined close to the wound margins. These changes might be associated with a defense strategy related to the compartmentalization of the wound and safety of water transport.


Assuntos
Câmbio , Fogo , Fagales , Madeira , Xilema
15.
Cell Rep ; 29(2): 283-300.e8, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597092

RESUMO

The regulation of hepatic gene expression has been extensively studied at the transcriptional level; however, the control of metabolism through posttranscriptional gene regulation by RNA-binding proteins in physiological and disease states is less understood. Here, we report a major role for the hormone-sensitive RNA-binding protein (RBP) APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF) in the generation of hepatocyte-specific and alternatively spliced transcripts. Among these transcripts are isoforms for the dominant and high-affinity fructose-metabolizing ketohexokinase C and glycerol kinase, two key metabolic enzymes that are linked to hepatic gluconeogenesis and found to be markedly reduced upon hepatic ablation of A1cf. Consequently, mice lacking A1CF exhibit improved glucose tolerance and are protected from fructose-induced hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and development of obesity. Our results identify a previously unreported function of A1CF as a regulator of alternative splicing of a subset of genes influencing hepatic glucose production through fructose and glycerol metabolism.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Frutose/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , RNA/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Genoma , Gluconeogênese , Homeostase , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14560, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601991

RESUMO

Landslides are frequently triggered by extreme meteorological events which has led to concern and debate about their activity in a future greenhouse climate. It is also hypothesized that dry spells preceding triggering rainfall may increase slope predisposition to sliding, especially in the case of clay-rich soils. Here we combined dendrogeomorphic time series of landslides and climatic records to test the possible role of dry spells and extreme downpours on process activity in the Outer Western Carpathians (Central Europe). To this end, we tested time series of past frequencies and return periods of landslide reactivations at the regional scale with a Generalized Linear Mixed (GLM) model to explore linkages between landslide occurrences and triggering climate variables. Results show that landslide reactivations are concentrated during years in which spring and summer precipitation sums were significantly higher than usual, and that triggering mechanisms vary between different types of landslides (i.e. complex, shallow or flow-like). The GLM model also points to the susceptibility of landslide bodies to the combined occurrence of long, dry spells followed by large precipitation. Such situations are likely to increase in frequency in the future as climate models predict an enhancement of heatwaves and dry spells in future summers, that would be interrupted by less frequent, yet more intense storms, especially also in mountain regions.

17.
Cell Rep ; 28(11): 2892-2904.e7, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509750

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) contribute to vital cellular processes including cell cycle regulation. Loss of CDKs is associated with impaired insulin secretion and ß cell survival; however, the function of CDK8 in ß cells remains elusive. Here, we report that genetic ablation of Cdk8 improves glucose tolerance by increasing insulin secretion. We identify OSBPL3 as a CDK8-dependent phosphoprotein, which acts as a negative regulator of insulin secretion in response to glucose. We also show that embryonic gene silencing of neuropeptide Y in ß cells is compromised in Cdk8-null mice, leading to continued expression into adulthood. Cdk8 ablation in ß cells aggravates apoptosis and induces de novo expression of neuropeptides upon oxidative stress. Moreover, pancreatic islets exposed to stress display augmented apoptosis in the presence of these same neuropeptides. Our results reveal critical roles for CDK8 in ß cell function and survival during metabolic stress that are in part mediated through de novo expression of neuropeptides.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/genética , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/embriologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , RNA-Seq , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Environ Int ; 127: 291-304, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951945

RESUMO

Extreme precipitation events with high local precipitation intensities, heavy snowfall or extensive freezing rain can have devastating impacts on society and economy. Not only is the quantitative forecast of such events sometimes difficult and associated with large uncertainties, also are the potential consequences highly complex and challenging to predict. It is thus a demanding task to anticipate or nowcast the impacts of extreme precipitation, even more so in situations where human lives or critical infrastructure might be at risk. In recent years, the term "cascading effects" has been increasingly used to describe events in which an initial trigger leads to a sequence of consequences with significant magnitude. We here analyze three examples for different precipitation types where the initial triggering event generated a cascade of events and impacts, namely a convective precipitation event in the Swiss Prealps, a freezing rain in Slovenia, and a heavy snowfall episode in Catalonia. With the aim to improve process understanding of complex precipitation-triggered events, we assess the prediction of the selected events and analyze the cascading effects that caused diverse impacts. To this end, we use a framework of cascading effects which should ultimately allow the development of a better design risk assessment and management strategies. Our findings confirm that damage of extreme precipitation events is clearly related to the knowledge of potential cascading effects. Major challenges of predicting cascading effects are the high complexity, the interdependencies and the increasing uncertainty along the cascade. We propose a framework for cascading effects including two approaches: (i) one to analyze cascading effects during past extreme precipitation events, which then serves as a basis for a (ii) more generalized approach to increase the preparedness level of operational services before and during future extreme precipitation events and to anticipate potential cascading effects of extreme precipitation. Both approaches are based on pathway schemes that can be used in addition to numerical models or hazard maps to analyze and predict potential cascading effects, but also as training tools.


Assuntos
Chuva , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
19.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663651

RESUMO

Sheet erosion is among the crucial drivers of soil degradation. Erosion is controlled by environmental factors and human activities, which often lead to severe environmental impacts. The understanding of sheet erosion is, consequently, a worldwide issue with implications for both environment and economies. However, the knowledge on how erosion evolves in space and time is still limited, as well as its effects on the environment. Below, we explain a new dendrogeomorphological protocol for deriving eroded soil thickness (Ex) by acquiring accurate microtopographic data using both terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and microtopographic profile gauges. Additionally, standard dendrogeomorphic procedures, dependent on anatomical variations in root rings, are utilized to establish the timing of exposure. Both TLS and microtopographic profile gauges are used to obtain ground surface profiles, from which Ex is estimated after the threshold distance (TD) is determined, i.e., the distance between the root and the sediment knickpoint, which allows defining the lowering of the ground surface caused by sheet erosion. For each profile, we measured the height between the topside of the root and a virtual plane tangential to the ground surface. In this way, we intended to avoid small-scale impacts of soil deformation, which may be due to pressures exerted by the root system, or by the arrangement of exposed roots. This may provoke small amounts of soil sedimentation or erosion depending on how they physically affect the surface runoff. We demonstrate that an adequate microtopographic characterization of exposed roots and their associated ground surface is very valuable to obtain accurate erosion rates. This finding could be utilized to develop the best management practices designed to eventually halt or perhaps, at least, lessen soil erosion, so that more sustainable management policies can be put into practice.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Laboratórios
20.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1436(1): 206-216, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968302

RESUMO

In this study, we analyze the linkage between atmosphere and ocean modes and winter flood variability over the 20th century based on long-term flow-discharge series, historical archives, and tree-ring records of past floods in the North Atlantic Basin (NAB). The most extreme winter floods occurred in 1936 and had strong impacts on either side of the Atlantic. We hypothesize that the joint effects of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which is closely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation, play a significant role when describing flood variability in North America and Europe since 1900. Statistical modeling supports the assumption that the response of flood anomalies over the NAB to AO phases is subsidiary of SST phases. Besides, we shed light on the extraordinarily winter flood of 1936 that was characterized by very high SSTs over both the Atlantic and Pacific (>98th percentile) and very low, negative values of AO (<1st percentile). This outstanding winter flood episode was most likely characterized by stratospheric polar vortex anomalies, which can usually be linked to an increased probability of storms in western and southwestern Europe and increased snowfall events in eastern North America. By assessing the flood anomalies over the NAB as a coupled AO and SST function, one could further the understanding of such large-scale events and presumably improve anticipation of future extreme flood occurrences.


Assuntos
Inundações/história , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Oceano Atlântico , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , América do Norte
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