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1.
Medwave ; 19(6)31-07-2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1008024

RESUMO

Resumen Las revisiones sistemáticas de literatura constituyen una de las principales metodologías utilizadas en la validación de las propiedades saludables de los alimentos, o factores alimentarios, que afectan la fisiología humana. Esta herramienta, basada en la evidencia obtenida a través de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados realizados con un diseño experimental adecuado, permite concluir si existe una relación causal entre el producto consumido y un efecto beneficioso para la salud, principio que sustenta el calificativo de los alimentos como "funcionales". Se presentan y analizan las características y la forma en la que las revisiones sistemáticas pueden contribuir a que las agencias regulatorias aprueben un mensaje saludable (health claim), dirigido al consumidor.


Abstract Systematic literature reviews are one of the main methodologies used to substantiate the health properties of foods and food constituents purported to affect human physiology. This tool is based on scientific evidence obtained from correctly performed randomized controlled trials. Systematic reviews make it possible to conclude whether there is a causal relationship between food consumed and health effects observed, thus supporting the use of the term "functional foods." We present and analyze the prinicpal characteristics of, and ways by which, systematic reviews can contribute to the regulatory approval of health claims directed to consumers.

2.
Medwave ; 18(6): https://www.medwave.cl/link.cgi/Medwave/Estudios/Investigacion/7314, 31-10-2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-948393

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción La facoéresis es el procedimiento en que se extrae quirúrgicamente el cristalino para tratar las cataratas. La pérdida endotelial corneal es una complicación reconocida. Si bien se han descrito diversos factores asociados a este daño, la experiencia del cirujano ha sido poco explorada. Objetivos Evaluar la asociación entre la experiencia del cirujano y otras variables asociadas a la pérdida celular endotelial en el contexto de la facoéresis. Métodos Se analizaron registros clínicos de 198 cirugías de cataratas, evaluando el efecto de la experiencia del cirujano y otras variables asociadas: energía disipada acumulada, tipo de viscoelástico empleado, uso de azul tripán, cantidad de fluídica, tiempo de ultrasonido, energía de facoemulsificación combinada y recuento celular endotelial pre y postoperatorio. Resultados No se observaron diferencias en el conteo postoperatorio de células endoteliales. Los oftalmólogos con más de cinco años de experiencia presentaron menor uso de azul tripán pero mayor cantidad de energía disipada acumulada en cada procedimiento, mientras que los oftalmólogos con menor experiencia utilizaron mayor cantidad de fluídica. Conclusiones Aunque hubo diferencias en el manejo de algunos factores influyentes sobre la pérdida endotelial cornal según la experiencia de los oftalmólogos, no se hallaron diferencias en relación a dicha pérdida como resultado final.


Abstract Introduction Phacoeresis is the procedure through which the lens is surgically removed to treat cataracts. A corneal endothelial loss is a recognized sequel. Although several factors associated with this harm have been described, the surgeon's prior experience has been scarcely evaluated. Objectives To assess the association between the surgeon's experience and other variables associated with a corneal endothelial cell loss in the context of phacoeresis. Methods Clinical records of 198 patients undergoing cataract operations were prospectively reviewed. The experience of the surgeon and other variables were recorded, including cumulative dissipated energy, viscoelastic type, the use of trypan blue, amount of fluidics, ultrasound time, combined phacoemulsification energy, and pre- and postoperative corneal endothelial cell counts. Results No differences were observed in the postoperative corneal endothelial cell count between surgeons with more or less than five years of experience. Nevertheless, ophthalmologists with more than five years' experience used less trypan blue, but more cumulative dissipated energy in each procedure, while less experienced ophthalmologists used less fluidics. Conclusions Although there were differences in the surgical management regarding the surgeons' experience in factors known to influence corneal endothelial cell loss, no differences in endothelial cell loss were observed as an outcome.

3.
Biol Cybern ; 42(3): 215-9, 1982.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7059623

RESUMO

Experiments were performed to clarify the role of the background motion on the retina in the phenomenon of mislocation of brief visual stimuli during smooth eye tracking. It was found that these visual stimuli were mislocated also relative to a moving background during steady eye fixation. The magnitude of mislocation during pursuit eye movements and during steady fixation was influenced by the stimulus intensity, the background/eye velocity and the place of stimulus presentation in respect to the background; the influence having the same features in both cases. However, the magnitudes of mislocation under the two conditions were quantitatively different. The validity of a hypothesis that the eye movement itself plays no role in the process of localization, and, that this process is based on retinal information only, is considered.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg ; 8(3): 28-33, 1982.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7170993

RESUMO

Distances were presented to the right and left halves of the visual field during steady fixation of a central point. Two methods of evaluation were used: direct scaling and the method of limits. A small but statistically significant difference was found between the estimates of distances presented to the left and to the right of the fixation point by direct scaling. No difference was found when the method of limits was used. The results are interpreted as evidence for the existence of functional asymmetry connected with the computation-and-speech ability of the hemispheres. No evidence for perception asymmetry could be found.


Assuntos
Percepção de Distância/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estatística como Assunto
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