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1.
Nature ; 560(7716): E4, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930352

RESUMO

In this Letter, owing to an error during the production process, the author affiliations were listed incorrectly. Affiliation number 5 (Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York (SUNY)) was repeated, and affiliation numbers 6-8 were incorrect. In addition, the phrase "two oxide thickness variants" should have been "two gate oxide thickness variants". These errors have all been corrected online.

2.
Nature ; 556(7701): 349-354, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670262

RESUMO

Electronic and photonic technologies have transformed our lives-from computing and mobile devices, to information technology and the internet. Our future demands in these fields require innovation in each technology separately, but also depend on our ability to harness their complementary physics through integrated solutions1,2. This goal is hindered by the fact that most silicon nanotechnologies-which enable our processors, computer memory, communications chips and image sensors-rely on bulk silicon substrates, a cost-effective solution with an abundant supply chain, but with substantial limitations for the integration of photonic functions. Here we introduce photonics into bulk silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips using a layer of polycrystalline silicon deposited on silicon oxide (glass) islands fabricated alongside transistors. We use this single deposited layer to realize optical waveguides and resonators, high-speed optical modulators and sensitive avalanche photodetectors. We integrated this photonic platform with a 65-nanometre-transistor bulk CMOS process technology inside a 300-millimetre-diameter-wafer microelectronics foundry. We then implemented integrated high-speed optical transceivers in this platform that operate at ten gigabits per second, composed of millions of transistors, and arrayed on a single optical bus for wavelength division multiplexing, to address the demand for high-bandwidth optical interconnects in data centres and high-performance computing3,4. By decoupling the formation of photonic devices from that of transistors, this integration approach can achieve many of the goals of multi-chip solutions 5 , but with the performance, complexity and scalability of 'systems on a chip'1,6-8. As transistors smaller than ten nanometres across become commercially available 9 , and as new nanotechnologies emerge10,11, this approach could provide a way to integrate photonics with state-of-the-art nanoelectronics.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(23): 233602, 2015 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26684118

RESUMO

The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

4.
Nature ; 528(7583): 534-8, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701054

RESUMO

Data transport across short electrical wires is limited by both bandwidth and power density, which creates a performance bottleneck for semiconductor microchips in modern computer systems--from mobile phones to large-scale data centres. These limitations can be overcome by using optical communications based on chip-scale electronic-photonic systems enabled by silicon-based nanophotonic devices. However, combining electronics and photonics on the same chip has proved challenging, owing to microchip manufacturing conflicts between electronics and photonics. Consequently, current electronic-photonic chips are limited to niche manufacturing processes and include only a few optical devices alongside simple circuits. Here we report an electronic-photonic system on a single chip integrating over 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components that work together to provide logic, memory, and interconnect functions. This system is a realization of a microprocessor that uses on-chip photonic devices to directly communicate with other chips using light. To integrate electronics and photonics at the scale of a microprocessor chip, we adopt a 'zero-change' approach to the integration of photonics. Instead of developing a custom process to enable the fabrication of photonics, which would complicate or eliminate the possibility of integration with state-of-the-art transistors at large scale and at high yield, we design optical devices using a standard microelectronics foundry process that is used for modern microprocessors. This demonstration could represent the beginning of an era of chip-scale electronic-photonic systems with the potential to transform computing system architectures, enabling more powerful computers, from network infrastructure to data centres and supercomputers.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(12): 126407, 2012 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23005969

RESUMO

We consider electron-phonon coupling in crystalline organic semiconductors, using naphthalene for our case study. Employing a first-principles approach, we compute the changes in the selfconsistent Kohn-Sham potential corresponding to different phonon modes and go on to obtain the carrier-phonon coupling matrix elements (vertex functions). We then evaluate perturbatively the quasiparticle spectral residues for electrons at the bottom of the lowest unoccupied (LUMO), and holes at the top of the highest occupied (HOMO), band, obtaining Z(e) ≈ 0.74 and Z(h) ≈ 0.78, respectively. Along with the widely accepted notion that the carrier-phonon coupling strengths in polyacenes decrease with increasing molecular size, our results provide strong microscopic evidence for the previously conjectured nonpolaronic nature of bandlike carriers in these systems.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(25): 250501, 2012 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23368438

RESUMO

We propose an analog quantum simulation of small-polaron physics using a one-dimensional system of trapped ions acted upon by off-resonant standing waves. This system, envisioned as an array of microtraps, in the single-excitation case allows the realization of the antiadiabatic regime of the Holstein model. We show that the strong excitation-phonon coupling regime, characterized by the formation of small polarons, can be reached using realistic values of the relevant system parameters. Finally, we propose measurements of the quasiparticle residue and the average number of phonons in the ground state, experimental probes validating the polaronic character of the phonon-dressed excitation.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(12): 125301, 2008 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18851383

RESUMO

We study bosons in the first excited Bloch band of a double-well optical lattice, recently realized at NIST. By calculating the relevant parameters from a realistic nonseparable lattice potential, we find that in the most favorable cases, the boson lifetime in the first excited band can be several orders of magnitude longer than the typical nearest-neighbor tunneling time scales, in contrast with that of a simple single-well lattice. In addition, for sufficiently small lattice depths, the excited band has minima at nonzero momenta incommensurate with the lattice period, which opens a possibility to realize an exotic superfluid state that spontaneously breaks the time-reversal, rotational, and translational symmetries. We discuss possible experimental signatures of this novel state.

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