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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(8): 3642-3653, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704449

RESUMO

Organic matter produced by the sea ice microbial community (SIMCo) is an important link between sea ice dynamics and secondary production in near-shore food webs of Antarctica. Sea ice conditions in McMurdo Sound were quantified from time series of MODIS satellite images for Sept. 1 through Feb. 28 of 2007-2015. A predictable sea ice persistence gradient along the length of the Sound and evidence for a distinct change in sea ice dynamics in 2011 were observed. We used stable isotope analysis (δ13 C and δ15 N) of SIMCo, suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and shallow water (10-20 m) macroinvertebrates to reveal patterns in trophic structure of, and incorporation of organic matter from SIMCo into, benthic communities at eight sites distributed along the sea ice persistence gradient. Mass-balance analysis revealed distinct trophic architecture among communities and large fluxes of SIMCo into the near-shore food web, with the estimates ranging from 2 to 84% of organic matter derived from SIMCo for individual species. Analysis of patterns in density, and biomass of macroinvertebrate communities among sites allowed us to model net incorporation of organic matter from SIMCo, in terms of biomass per unit area (g/m2 ), into benthic communities. Here, organic matter derived from SIMCo supported 39 to 71 per cent of total biomass. Furthermore, for six species, we observed declines in contribution of SIMCo between years with persistent sea ice (2008-2009) and years with extensive sea ice breakout (2012-2015). Our data demonstrate the vital role of SIMCo in ecosystem function in Antarctica and strong linkages between sea ice dynamics and near-shore secondary productivity. These results have important implications for our understanding of how benthic communities will respond to changes in sea ice dynamics associated with climate change and highlight the important role of shallow water macroinvertebrate communities as sentinels of change for the Antarctic marine ecosystem.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cadeia Alimentar , Camada de Gelo , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gelo , Microbiologia da Água
2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 134(1): 706-14, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23862843

RESUMO

The source level of an animal sound is important in communication, since it affects the distance over which the sound is audible. Several measurements of source levels of whale sounds have been reported, but the accuracy of many is limited because the distance to the source and the acoustic transmission loss were estimated rather than measured. This paper presents measurements of source levels of social sounds (surface-generated and vocal sounds) of humpback whales from a sample of 998 sounds recorded from 49 migrating humpback whale groups. Sources were localized using a wide baseline five hydrophone array and transmission loss was measured for the site. Social vocalization source levels were found to range from 123 to 183 dB re 1 µPa @ 1 m with a median of 158 dB re 1 µPa @ 1 m. Source levels of surface-generated social sounds ("breaches" and "slaps") were narrower in range (133 to 171 dB re 1 µPa @ 1 m) but slightly higher in level (median of 162 dB re 1 µPa @ 1 m) compared to vocalizations. The data suggest that group composition has an effect on group vocalization source levels in that singletons and mother-calf-singing escort groups tend to vocalize at higher levels compared to other group compositions.

3.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 122(5): 2893-905, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18189579

RESUMO

Although the songs of humpback whales have been extensively studied, other vocalizations and percussive sounds, referred to as "social sounds," have received little attention. This study presents the social vocalization repertoire of migrating east Australian humpback whales from a sample of 660 sounds recorded from 61 groups of varying composition, over three years. The social vocalization repertoire of humpback whales was much larger than previously described with a total of 34 separate call types classified aurally and by spectrographic analysis as well as statistically. Of these, 21 call types were the same as units of the song current at the time of recording but used individually instead of as part of the song sequence, while the other 13 calls were stable over the three years of the study and were not part of the song. This study provides a catalog of sounds that can be used as a basis for future studies. It is an essential first step in determining the function, contextual use and cultural transmission of humpback social vocalizations.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Baleias/psicologia , Animais , Austrália , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrografia do Som , Fatores de Tempo , Vocalização Animal/classificação
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