Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 192
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Biomech ; 101: 109637, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037018

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal mechanobiology resulting in penile pathologies continues to be investigated using small scale animals models such as mice. However, species-dependent functional biomechanics of a mouse penis, is not known. In this study, spatial mapping of a mechanosensitive transcription factor, scleraxis (Scx), at ages 4, 5, 6 weeks, and 1 year were generated to identify mechanoactive regions within penile tissues. Reconstructed volumes of baculum collected using micro X-ray computed tomography illustrated significantly increased baculum length with decreased porosity, and increased mineral density (p < 0.05) with age. The bony-baculum was held centrally in the Scx positive corpus cavernosum glandis (CCG), indicating mechanoactivity within the struts in a 6 week old mouse. The struts also were stained positive for fibrillar proteins including collagen and elastin, and globular proteins including protein gene product 9.5, and α-smooth muscle actin. The corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) contained significantly (p < 0.05) more collagen than CCG within the same penis, and both regions contained blood vessels with equivalent innervation at any given age. Comparison of volumes of flaccid and erect penile forms revealed functional characteristics of the CCP. Results of this study provided insights into biomechanical function of the CCG; in that, it is a high-pressure chamber that stiffens the penis and is similar to the human corpus cavernosum.

2.
BJU Int ; 125(2): 284-291, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with renal tract dilatation performed under fluoroscopic guidance vs renal tract dilatation with ultrasound guidance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study, enrolling successive patients undergoing PCNL between July 2015 and March 2018. Included in this retrospective analysis were cases where the renal puncture was successfully obtained with ultrasound guidance. Cases were then grouped according to whether fluoroscopy was used to guide renal tract dilatation or not. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 15.1 including univariate (Fisher's exact test, Welch's t-test) and multivariate analyses (binomial logistic regression, ordinal logistic regression, and linear regression). RESULTS: A total of 176 patients underwent PCNL with successful ultrasonography-guided renal puncture, of whom 38 and 138 underwent renal tract dilatation with fluoroscopic vs ultrasound guidance, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI), preoperative hydronephrosis, stone burden, procedure laterality, number of dilated tracts, and calyceal puncture location between the two groups. Among ultrasound tract dilatations, a higher proportion of patients were placed in the modified dorsal lithotomy position as opposed to prone, and a significantly shorter operating time was observed. Only modified dorsal lithotomy position remained statistically significant after multivariate regression. There were no statistically significant differences in postoperative stone clearance, complication rate, or intra-operative estimated blood loss. A 5-unit increase in a patient's BMI was associated with 30% greater odds of increasingly severe Clavien-Dindo complications. A 5-mm decrease in the preoperative stone burden was associated with 20% greater odds of stone-free status. No variables predicted estimated blood loss with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Renal tract dilatation can be safely performed in the absence of fluoroscopic guidance. Compared to using fluoroscopy, the present study demonstrated that ultrasonography-guided dilatations can be safely performed without higher complication or bleeding rates. This can be done using a variety of surgical positions, and future studies centred on improving dilatation techniques could be of impactful clinical value.

4.
BJU Int ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of kidney injury test (KIT) assay urinary biomarkers to detect kidney stones and quantify stone burden. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 136 spot urine samples from 98 individuals, with and without kidney stone disease, were processed in a predefined assay to measure six DNA and protein markers in order to generate a risk score for the non-invasive detection of nephrolithiasis. From this cohort, 56 individuals had spot, non-timed urine samples collected at the time of radiographically confirmed kidney stones, and 54 demographically matched, healthy controls without kidney stone disease also provided spot, non-timed urine samples. Sixteen individuals with persistent stone disease had more than one urine sample. Using a proprietary microwell-based KIT assay, we measured cell-free DNA (cfDNA), methylated cfDNA, clusterin, creatinine, protein and CXCL10. A KIT stone score was computed across all markers using the prior locked KIT algorithm. The KIT stone score, with a scale of 0 to 100, was then correlated with demographic variables, kidney stone burden, obstructive kidney stone disease, and urine solutes in 24-h urine collections. RESULTS: The scaled KIT stone score, a composite of all six biomarkers, readily discriminated individuals with current or prior radiographically confirmed kidney stones from healthy controls without kidney stone disease (P < 0.001). In individuals with nephrolithiasis, KIT stone score also correlated with radiologically measured stone size (P = 0.017) and differentiated patients with a clinical radiological diagnosis of obstructive nephrolithiasis associated with upper renal tract dilatation (P = 0.001). Stone burden as assessed by KIT stone score, however, did not correlate with the any of the traditional measures of 24-h urine solutes or the 24-h urine supersaturation levels. In patients with persistent stone disease, where multiple urine samples were collected over time and after different interventions, the use of KIT stone score could non-invasively track stone burden over time through a spot urine, non-timed urine sample. CONCLUSIONS: A random, spot urine-based assay, KIT stone score, can non-invasively detect, quantify and monitor current stone burden, and may thus minimize radiographic exposure for kidney stone detection. The KIT stone score assay may also help monitor stone recurrence risk for patients with nephrolithiasis, without the requirement for 24-h urine collections.

5.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599714

RESUMO

Ultrasonography has emerged as an alternative to fluoroscopy for image-guided guided PCNL (F-PCNL), ultrasound-guided PCNL (US-PCNL) is easier to learn and reduces radiation exposure to patients and providers. Despite these advantages, uptake of ultrasound-guided PCNL (US-PCNL) in Canada has been almost nonexistent, largely because it is not incorporated into urologists' training. In this article, we seek to familiarize Canadian urologists with this approach by describing our step-by-step technique for US-PCNL. Additionally, we provide keys to successful implementation of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in many countries. Compared to fluoroscopy-this technique.

6.
Urology ; 133: 245-246, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound guidance for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has gained acceptance amongst urologists given its numerous advantages over fluoroscopy. While traditionally performed in the prone position, this video demonstrates a step-by-step approach to performing PCNL in the supine position, solely under ultrasound guidance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Once in the modified supine (Galdakao-modified Valdivia) position, important anatomic landmarks are identified. It is important to first orient the ultrasound probe such that its cranial side corresponds to the left of the ultrasound screen. After optimizing a target calyx, keeping the needle in the imaging plane of the probe facilitates renal access. Tract dilation under ultrasound guidance is then achieved by keeping the wire and dilators in the same imaging plane. RESULTS: The 11th and 12th ribs, paraspinous muscle, iliac crest, midaxillary line, and costal margin are the anatomic landmarks that orient the probe to the location of the kidney. Placing the ultrasound probe in the midaxillary line, parallel to the 11th rib allows the operator to identify key renal landmarks: the renal cortex, peri-pelvic fat, collecting system, kidney stone with its associated postacoustic shadow, and the intended target calyx. Controlling the needle is easiest in the longitudinal view, as the needle can be visualized from skin to target. Dilation under ultrasound relies on keeping the wire in view. The tip of the 10-French dilator is based on the location where the wire image disappears as the dilator advances. The balloon dilator tip is visualized on ultrasound reaching the appropriate depth just inside the collecting system, at which time balloon inflation results in complete dilation of the tract. CONCLUSIONS: This video provides a step-by-step approach demonstrating that PCNL can be performed in the supine position using only ultrasound-guidance. This approach facilitates renal access in this position and obviates the need for radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Dilatação , Humanos , Decúbito Dorsal
7.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008318, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415568

RESUMO

Elevated uric acid (UA) is a key risk factor for many disorders, including metabolic syndrome, gout and kidney stones. Despite frequent occurrence of these disorders, the genetic pathways influencing UA metabolism and the association with disease remain poorly understood. In humans, elevated UA levels resulted from the loss of the of the urate oxidase (Uro) gene around 15 million years ago. Therefore, we established a Drosophila melanogaster model with reduced expression of the orthologous Uro gene to study the pathogenesis arising from elevated UA. Reduced Uro expression in Drosophila resulted in elevated UA levels, accumulation of concretions in the excretory system, and shortening of lifespan when reared on diets containing high levels of yeast extract. Furthermore, high levels of dietary purines, but not protein or sugar, were sufficient to produce the same effects of shortened lifespan and concretion formation in the Drosophila model. The insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway has been shown to respond to changes in nutrient status in several species. We observed that genetic suppression of ILS genes reduced both UA levels and concretion load in flies fed high levels of yeast extract. Further support for the role of the ILS pathway in modulating UA metabolism stems from a human candidate gene study identifying SNPs in the ILS genes AKT2 and FOXO3 being associated with serum UA levels or gout. Additionally, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) gene rescued the reduced lifespan and concretion phenotypes in Uro knockdown flies. Thus, components of the ILS pathway and the downstream protein NOX represent potential therapeutic targets for treating UA associated pathologies, including gout and kidney stones, as well as extending human healthspan.


Assuntos
Gota/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Gota/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidases/genética , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Urato Oxidase/genética , Urato Oxidase/metabolismo
8.
J Endourol ; 33(12): 1032-1034, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220925

RESUMO

Background: Recent data indicate that kidney stone formers (KSFs) may have increased biomineralization at anatomic sites throughout the body compared with nonstone formers (NSFs). The objective of this study is to compare the volume of nonrenal systemic calcifications between KSF and NSF by using a standardized system to analyze calcifications in the abdominal aorta (AA) and splenic artery (SA). Methods: The NSF cohort was obtained from a kidney donor's prospectively maintained database. One hundred ninety-seven NSF were matched to 197 KSF based on age, gender, and body mass index. Noncontrast CT scans were evaluated and semiautomated CT software was utilized to provide an AA and SA calcification Agatston score. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used on continuous variables and chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test on categorical variables. Odds ratios (ORs) were given for a variable's influence on the formation of stones or calcifications. Results: AA and SA calcifications were more prevalent in the KSF group (p = 0.011 and p = 0.027, respectively). KSFs were 1.9 times more likely to have intermediate or severe AA calcification than NSFs (OR = 1.9, p = 0.004). Severe AA calcifications had even a greater association (OR = 3.1, p = 0.019). KSFs were also more likely to have SA, but this did not reach statistical significance (OR = 3.7, p = 0.103). Conclusion: Patients with increased systemic calcifications, specifically aortic or splenic calcifications, may be at an increased risk for future kidney stone formation. Patients with these imaging findings and additional risk factors for stone disease may be counseled on the future risk of stones.

9.
J Endourol ; 33(9): 742-749, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044624

RESUMO

Introduction: American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for total stone burden greater than 20 mm, yet it is unclear if the number of stones affects adherence to this guideline. We aim to assess the impact of stone multiplicity on the choice of ureteroscopy (URS) vs PCNL as a first-line therapy for patients with high burden (>20 mm), and examine whether the AUA guideline-discordant care impacts patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU) database, a prospectively collected registry of patients with stone disease. Multivariate logistic regression (MLR) was used to estimate the association between stone multiplicity and the decision to perform URS for high stone burden (>20 mm) patients. MLR was further used to estimate the association between performing URS and the following outcomes: stone-free rate, need for a second operation, and complications. Postoperative hospital stay was compared between patients receiving URS vs PCNL using Student's t-test. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients were included in this analysis. For patients with total stone burden exceeding 20 mm, those with more than three stones had roughly nine times the likelihood of undergoing URS over PCNL compared with patients with a single stone (adjusted odds ratio 9.21, confidence interval [95% CI] 2.55-40.58, p = 0.001). Stone-free rates, Clavien-Dindo scores, and frequency of second-look operations did not differ significantly between URS and PCNL patients. URS patients were discharged an average of 1.26 days earlier than patients who received PCNL (95% CI 0.72-1.81, p < 0.001). Discussion: Stone multiplicity strongly predicts which patients with stone burden >20 mm will undergo URS and who will undergo PCNL. These deviations from AUA guidelines do not appear to worsen patient outcomes. These results suggest that careful consideration of each patient may warrant deviation from guidelines.

10.
Urology ; 131: 57-63, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine social factors associated with advanced stone disease (defined as unilateral stone burden >2 cm) at time of presentation to a regional stone referral center. Little is known about social determinants of urolithiasis. We hypothesize that socioeconomic factors impact kidney stone severity at intake to referral centers. METHODS: A retrospective review of the prospectively collected data from the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter from 2015 to 2018 was conducted to evaluate patient characteristics predictive of having a large (>2 cm) unilateral kidney stone. Data on patient age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, race, language, education level, infection, distance, income, referring regional urologist density, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and stone analysis were evaluated. RESULTS: Complete imaging and patient variable data was present in 650 of 1142 patients including 197 patients with unilateral stone burden >2 cm. On multivariate analysis, obesity, lower education level, increased distance from the referral center, and symptoms of infection predicted for unilateral stone burden greater than 2 cm. Among 191 patients with stone analysis data present, stone type, income, and urologist density predicted for unilateral stone burden greater than 2 cm. CONCLUSION: In addition to known biological risk factors, patients with lower education levels and from regions of lower mean income were found to be more likely to present to our tertiary care center with stone burden greater than 2 cm. More research is needed to elucidate the social and societal determinants of advanced stone disease and the impact this has on population costs for stone treatment.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Cálculos Ureterais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Ureterais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Endourol ; 33(7): 619-624, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030576

RESUMO

Purpose: Kidney stone patients routinely have CT scans during diagnostic work-up before being referred to a tertiary center. How often these patients exceed the recommended dose limits for occupational radiation exposure of >100 mSv for 5 years and >50 mSv in a single year from CT alone remains unknown. This study aimed to quantify radiation doses from CTs received by stone patients before their evaluation at a tertiary care stone clinic. Methods: From November 2015 to March 2017, consecutive new patients enrolled into the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU™) had the dose-length product of every available CT abdomen/pelvis within 5 years of their initial visit recorded, allowing for an effective dose (EDose) calculation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with exceeding recommended dose limits. Models were created to test radiation reducing effects of low-dose and phase-reduction CT protocols. Results: Of 343 noncontrast CTs performed, only 29 (8%) were low-dose CTs (calculated EDose <4 mSv). Among 389 total patients, 101 (26%) and 25 (6%) had an EDose >20 mSv and >50 mSv/year, respectively. Increased body mass index, number of scans, and multiphase scans were associated with exceeding exposure thresholds (p < 0.01). The implementation of a low-dose CT protocol decreased the estimated number of scans contributing to overexposure by >50%. Conclusions: Stone patients referred to a tertiary stone center may receive excessive radiation from CT scans alone. Unnecessary phases and underutilization of low-dose CT protocols continue to take place. Enacting new approaches to CT protocols may spare stone patients from exceeding recommended dose limits.

12.
Int J Med Robot ; 15(1): e1963, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare perioperative outcomes of robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RaPN) with open partial nephrectomy (OPN). METHODS: Systematically search through PubMed, Embase, ClinicalKey, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov for eligible studies was performed to April 11, 2018. A meta-analysis was conducted for studies comparing RaPN and OPN. Confounding variables were assessed by meta-regression or subgroup analysis. RESULTS: This study included 34 studies with 60 808 patients. Meta-analysis revealed less blood loss, less transfusion, longer operative time, less postoperative complications, lower readmission rate, shorter length of stay, and less estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline in RaPN groups. The superiority of RaPN in blood loss was attenuated with highly complex renal masses. The superiority of RaPN in intraoperative complications was strengthened with renal hilar control. The advantage of RaPN in surgical margin was increased in patient with body mass index (BMI) < 28. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with OPN, RaPN provided lower morbidities and better renal function preservation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Duração da Cirurgia , Readmissão do Paciente , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
14.
J Endourol ; 33(1): 9-15, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore regional adoption of ureteroscopy (URS) over extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the state of California (CA) and to identify factors associated with this adoption over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) public data to identify URS and SWL procedures performed for renal and ureteral stones from 2005 to 2016. The level of analysis was the region wherein each procedure was performed, defined by the 19 CA labor market regions. OSHPD data were supplemented with the Area Health Resource File to provide information on regional characteristics. Generalized linear regression was used to determine procedural rates adjusted for age, gender and race. Choropleth time series maps were used to illustrate adoption of URS by region over time. RESULTS: A total of 328,795 URS and SWL procedures were identified from 2005 to 2016. The number of URS procedures surpassed the number of SWL procedures in 2011. Fourteen regions became URS predominant by 2016 and were characterized as having a higher per capita income, higher percentages with a college education and lower percentage of female heads-of-household (all p-values <0.05). A higher percentage of patients in these regions were male and had private or Medicare insurance (p = 0.03 for both). CONCLUSIONS: From 2005 to 2016, most CA regions adopted URS as the primary renal and ureteral stone management strategy. These regions demonstrated characteristics of higher socioeconomic status compared to regions that remained SWL predominant. A better understanding of such differences in practice patterns will allow urologists to better negotiate for the capital expenditures required to conform to evolving standards of care and allow patients the ability to make more informed decisions on where they receive care.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Ureteroscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , California , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Renda , Seguro Saúde , Rim , Cálculos Renais/economia , Litotripsia/economia , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Cálculos Ureterais/economia , Ureteroscopia/economia
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14157, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242165

RESUMO

Nephrocalcinosis often begins on a calcium phosphate deposit, at the tip of the medullo-papillary complex (MPC) known as Randall's plaque (RP). Contextualizing proximally observed biominerals within the MPC has led us to postulate a mechanobiological switch that can trigger interstitial biomineralization at the MPC tip, remote from the intratubular biominerals. Micro X-ray computed tomography scans of human MPCs correlated with transmission and scanning electron micrographs, and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry demonstrated novel findings about anatomically-specific biominerals. An abundance of proximal intratubular biominerals were associated with emergence of distal interstitial RP. The fundamental architecture of the MPC and mineral densities at the proximal and distal locations of the MPC differed markedly. A predominance of plate-like minerals or radially oriented plate-like crystallites within spheroidal minerals in the proximal intratubular locations, and core-shell type crystallites within spheroidal minerals in distal interstitial locations were observed. Based on the MPC anatomic location of structure-specific biominerals, a biological switch within the mineral-free zone occurring between the proximal and distal locations is postulated. The "on" and "off" switch is dependent on changes in the pressure differential resulting from changes in tubule diameters; the "Venturi effect" changes the "circumferential strain" and culminates in interstitial crystal deposits in the distal tubule wall in response to proximal tubular obstruction. These distal interstitial mineralizations can emerge into the collecting system of the kidney linking nephrocalcinosis with nephrolithiasis.


Assuntos
Biomineralização/fisiologia , Medula Renal/fisiologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Humanos , Medula Renal/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Nefrocalcinose/metabolismo , Nefrocalcinose/fisiopatologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
16.
J Endourol Case Rep ; 4(1): 133-135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131978

RESUMO

Background: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) has emerged as an accepted standard of care for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This surgery relies on morcellation of the prostate adenoma once enucleation of the transition zone has been completed. Caution is required during this portion of the operation, as engaging bladder mucosa within the morcellator can result in bladder injury, a rare but potentially catastrophic complication of HoLEP. Morcellation of the prostatic tissue can be additionally challenging if visualization is poor from either equipment failure or increased bleeding from a highly vascularized prostate. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 66-year-old Caucasian man with an estimated 158 g prostate who underwent HoLEP at our institution. Enucleation was uneventful; however, upon placement of the nephroscope to begin morcellation, it was immediately evident that the lens of the nephroscope was damaged as there was extremely poor visualization. Without a replacement nephroscope available, this would have normally resulted in aborting the case and returning another day to complete the morcellation. Concurrent bladder ultrasonography was performed and allowed for additional visual feedback to the operator, helping guide the morcellator to safely engage the enucleated adenoma and complete the operation. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates the ability of performing the morcellation portion of HoLEP mainly with the visualization provided by concurrent bladder ultrasonography. By providing additional imaging feedback to the operator, ultrasound can be a complementary tool to assist in safely performing morcellation in situations of suboptimal cystoscopic visualization during HoLEP.

17.
Connect Tissue Res ; 59(sup1): 102-110, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745818

RESUMO

Purpose/Aim: The most common kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate forms on interstitial calcium phosphate mineral known as a Randall's plaque (RP). Due to limited information about events leading to the initial deposition of nanometer size interstitial calcium phosphate pre-clusters, there continues to be a debate on the initial site of calcium phosphate deposition and factors leading to stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT), and light and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize human renal pyramids and five representative kidney stones with identifiable stems. Mineral densities of mineralized aggregates within these specimens were correlated with micro- and ultra-structures as seen using light and electron microscopy techniques. RESULTS: The earliest detectable biominerals in the human renal papilla were proximal intratubular plate-like calcium phosphate deposits. Unoccluded tubules in stems connected to calcium phosphate stones were observed by electron microscope and X-ray micro-CT. These tubules were similar in diameter (30-100 µm) and shape to those observed in the distal regions of the renal papilla. CONCLUSIONS: Observations were patterned through a novel and unified theory of stepwise-architecture guided biomineralization (a combination of smaller structures leading to a larger but similar structural framework). A plausible stepwise progression in renal biomineralization is proposed; proximal intratubular calcium phosphate deposits can lead to interstitial yet calcium phosphate rich RP and mature into a stem on which a calcium oxalate stone grows within the collecting system of a kidney.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálculos Renais , Medula Renal , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Medula Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Renal/metabolismo
18.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(5): 767-773, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734978

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To delineate the relationship between sleep apnea and subsequent risk of nephrolithiasis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of a general population sample from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012. Patients with sleep apnea without prior diagnosis of nephrolithiasis (n = 7,831) were identified and subsequent development of nephrolithiasis was compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 31,293) without sleep apnea. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate the association between sleep apnea and subsequent nephrolithiasis development. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of nephrolithiasis remained significantly increased in the sleep apnea group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-1.48; P < .001). Compared to controls, elevated HRs of nephrolithiasis were observed for male patients (HR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.09-1.36; P < .001) and those aged 20-39 years (HR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.09-1.49; P < .01) and 40-59 years (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.34, P < .05) in the sleep apnea cohort. Risk of nephrolithiasis in patients with sleep apnea increased significantly with concomitant metabolic-related comorbidities, gouty arthritis, and urinary tract infection. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep apnea is associated with an increased subsequent risk of the development of nephrolithiasis. Young male patients with sleep apnea and concomitant comorbidities are at the greatest risk for nephrolithiasis formation.


Assuntos
Nefrolitíase/etiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Artrite Gotosa/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Endourol Case Rep ; 4(1): 39-41, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662958

RESUMO

Laparoscopic heminephrectomy was performed in a 64-year-old woman with a chronically obstructed horseshoe kidney moiety. More than 3000 cc of pyonephrosis was drained through two percutaneous nephrostomy tubes for infection control before left moiety laparoscopic resection. This case report attests to the feasibility of laparoscopic resection of a massively obstructed horseshoe kidney when performed in a staged manner after prolonged drainage. Since an incision was required for removal of the large specimen, ligation of the horseshoe isthmus was completed through the same incision after hilar control and laparoscopic mobilization of the moiety were completed.

20.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 27(4): 236-242, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697409

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kidney stones form as a result of heterogeneous nucleation on a calcium phosphate lesion in the renal papilla known as Randall's plaque. Stone disease has plagued humans for millennia with relatively little progress made in the realm of prevention. An understanding of the historical aspects of research into Randall's plaque is necessary to interpret novel correlative imaging discoveries. Focus for the past several decades has been on the distal papillary tip, and the overlooked Anderson-Carr-Randall progression is revitalized with novel supporting evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel correlative techniques of three-dimensional micro-XCT imaging combined with electron and light microscopy techniques have revealed that the earliest mineralization event in the papilla is a distinct event that occurs proximal to the region where Randall's plaque has traditionally been identified. SUMMARY: The history of Randall's plaque research and the Anderson-Carr-Randall progression is reviewed. Proximal intratubular mineral deposits in normal and Randall's plaque affected papillae may be a target for future therapeutic interventions for nephrolithiasis. Further collaboration between nephrologists and urologists is necessary to cure this debilitating disease.


Assuntos
Medula Renal/metabolismo , Nefrolitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefrolitíase/metabolismo , Pesquisa Biomédica , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cristalização , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Cálculos Renais/ultraestrutura , Medula Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microtomografia por Raio-X
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA