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1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514513

RESUMO

Circadian disruption may play a role in carcinogenesis. Recent research suggests that light at night (LAN), a circadian disruptor, may be a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, LAN has been linked to obesity and diabetes, two risk factors for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here we examine the relationship between LAN and PDAC in an epidemiological study of 464,371 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. LAN was estimated from satellite imagery at baseline (1996) and incident primary PDAC cases were ascertained from state cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between quintiles of LAN and PDAC in the overall population stratified by sex. Over up to 16.2 years of follow-up, a total of 2,502 incident PDAC were identified in the cohort. Higher estimated LAN exposure was associated with an elevated PDAC risk. Compared to those living in areas in the lowest LAN quintile, those in areas in the highest quintile had a 27% increase PDAC risk (HR (95% CI), 1.24 (1.03, 1.49)), with similar risk for men (1.21 (0.96, 1.53)) and women (1.28 (0.94, 1.75)). In addition, stronger associations were observed in normal and overweight groups compared to the obese group (p for interaction = 0.03). Our results support the hypothesis that LAN and circadian disruption may be risk factors for PDAC.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 999-1008, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and 80% of patients present with advanced, incurable disease. Risk markers for pancreatic cancer have been characterized, but combined models are not used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for the disease. METHODS: Within a nested case-control study of 500 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 1,091 matched controls enrolled in four U.S. prospective cohorts, we characterized absolute risk models that included clinical factors (e.g., body mass index, history of diabetes), germline genetic polymorphisms, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Model discrimination showed an area under ROC curve of 0.62 via cross-validation. Our final integrated model identified 3.7% of men and 2.6% of women who had at least 3 times greater than average risk in the ensuing 10 years. Individuals within the top risk percentile had a 4% risk of developing pancreatic cancer by age 80 years and 2% 10-year risk at age 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Risk models that include established clinical, genetic, and circulating factors improved disease discrimination over models using clinical factors alone. IMPACT: Absolute risk models for pancreatic cancer may help identify individuals in the general population appropriate for disease interception.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 157-168, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin is fundamental in two conditions that are epidemic in the United States and globally: obesity and type II diabetes. Given insulin's established mechanistic involvement in energy balance and glucose tolerance, we examined its relationship to common health-related endpoints in a large population-based sample. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a cross-sectional study that uses a complex multistage probability design to obtain a representative sample of the United States population. Adult participants were included from 8 successive 2-year data waves (1999-2014), including 9,224 normal individuals, 7,699 prediabetic, and 3,413 diabetic subjects. The homeostatic model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was available for 20,336 participants and its relationship with demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data was analyzed. We examined the relationship of HOMA-IR to 8 groups of outcome variables: general health, anthropometric/metabolic [waist size, body mass index (BMI)], cardiovascular (blood pressure), lipid [triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)], hepatic [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)], hematologic [white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), platelets], inflammatory (C-reactive protein), and nutritional (vitamins D and C, serum folate, and pyridoxine) variables. RESULTS: HOMA-IR was generally strongly, monotonically, and highly significantly associated with adjusted outcomes in normal subjects, although clinical laboratory values were generally within normal bounds across insulin quartiles. In the normal subset, the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for a quartile change in HOMA-IR for obesity (BMI > 30) was 3.62 (3.30-3.97), and for the highest quintile for the triglyceride/HDL the ratio was 2.00 (1.77-2.26), for GGT it was 1.40 (1.24-1.58), and for WBC it was 1.28 (1.16-1.40). The relationship of HOMA-IR to the various outcomes was broadly similar to that observed in prediabetics and diabetics with a few exceptions. CONCLUSIONS: HOMA-IR levels in a large sample of normal individuals are associated with poorer general health and adverse changes across a wide range of markers. A similar pattern of alterations is observed in prediabetic and diabetic samples. IMPACT: Clinically, checking insulin levels may be helpful to identify patients that merit further observation and are candidates for early interventions.

7.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1266-1270, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is implicated in pancreatic cancer, and can be modulated by diet and other lifestyle factors. We examined the association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores and pancreatic cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, and examined effect modification by inflammation-related lifestyle factors, including body mass index, cigarette smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. METHODS: Energy-adjusted DII scores (E-DII) were computed on the basis of food frequency questionnaire responses for foods and dietary supplements. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted and effect modification was examined by adding a cross-product of each effect modifier with E-DII quintile in the multivariable-adjusted model. RESULTS: There were 2,824 primary incident pancreatic cancers diagnosed during a median of 13.4 years follow-up, and there was no association between E-DII scores and pancreatic cancer risk among either men [HRQ5vsQ1, 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-1.16] or women (HRQ5vsQ1, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.82-1.21) in the multivariable-adjusted model, and no association was detected by any cancer stage. The E-DII and pancreatic cancer association was not modified by any of the inflammation-related lifestyle factors examined. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large prospective study did not support an association between inflammatory potential of diet and pancreatic cancer, or effect modification by other inflammation-related lifestyle factors. IMPACT: Inflammatory potential of diet may not be related to pancreatic cancer risk. Future cohort studies with more frequent dietary measures could be useful in determining the appropriate timing of dietary intake in relation to pancreatic cancer etiology.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Metabolomics ; 15(4): 48, 2019 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sleep is increasingly being viewed as an issue of public health concern, yet few epidemiologic studies have explored associations between sleep habits and metabolomic profile. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between sleep and blood metabolites. METHODS: We examined the association between sleep and 891 fasting plasma metabolites in a subgroup of 106 participants from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium feeding trial (1997-1999). We produced two sleep variables to analyze, sleep midpoint (median time between bedtime and waketime) and sleep duration, as well as bedtime and wake time. Metabolites were measured using liquid and gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. We assessed associations between sleep variables and log transformed metabolites using linear mixed-effects models. We combined the resulting p-values using Fisher's method to calculate associations between sleep and 38 metabolic pathways. RESULTS: Sixteen pathways were associated (p < 0.05) with midpoint. Only the γ-glutamyl amino acid metabolism pathway reached Bonferroni-corrected threshold (0.0013). Eighty-three metabolites were associated with midpoint (FDR < 0.20). Similar associations were found for wake time. Neither bed time nor duration were strongly associated. The top metabolites (pathways given in brackets) associated with sleep were erythrulose (advanced glycation end-product) (positive association) and several γ-glutamyl pathway metabolites, including CMPF (fatty acid, dicarboxylate), isovalerate (valine, leucine and isoleucine and fatty acid metabolism) and HWESASXX (polypeptide) (inverse association). CONCLUSION: Within our study, several metabolites that have previously been linked to inflammation and oxidative stress (processes involved in diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer) were found to be associated with sleep.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(8): 1056-1067, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800239

RESUMO

Diets with high inflammatory potential are suspected to increase risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). Using pooled analyses, we examined whether this association applies to populations from different geographic regions and population subgroups with varying risks for PC, including variation in ABO blood type. Data from six case-control studies (cases, n = 2414; controls, n = 4528) in the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) were analyzed, followed by replication in five nested case-control studies (cases, n = 1268; controls, n = 4215) from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan). Two polymorphisms in the ABO locus (rs505922 and rs8176746) were used to infer participants' blood types. Dietary questionnaire-derived nutrient/food intake was used to compute energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII®) scores to assess inflammatory potential of diet. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher E-DII scores, reflecting greater inflammatory potential of diet, were associated with increased PC risk in PanC4 [ORQ5 versus Q1=2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.85-2.61, Ptrend < 0.0001; ORcontinuous = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.17-1.24], and PanScan (ORQ5 versus Q1 = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.92-1.66, Ptrend = 0.008; ORcontinuous = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.15). As expected, genotype-derived non-O blood type was associated with increased PC risk in both the PanC4 and PanScan studies. Stratified analyses of associations between E-DII quintiles and PC by genotype-derived ABO blood type did not show interaction by blood type (Pinteraction = 0.10 in PanC4 and Pinteraction=0.13 in PanScan). The results show that consuming a pro-inflammatory diet and carrying non-O blood type are each individually, but not interactively, associated with increased PC risk.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 556, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422604

RESUMO

In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tensinas/genética
12.
Int J Cancer ; 142(12): 2461-2470, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355939

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a central role in pancreatic cancer etiology and can be modulated by diet. We aimed to examine the association between the inflammatory potential of diet, assessed with the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial prospective cohort. Our study included 101,449 participants aged 52-78 years at baseline who completed both baseline questionnaire and a diet history questionnaire. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were computed based on food and supplement intake. Cox proportional hazards models and time dependent Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with participants in the lowest E-DII quintile (most anti-inflammatory scores) as referent. After a median 8.5 years of follow-up, 328 pancreatic cancer cases were identified. E-DII scores were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the multivariable model (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.66-1.35; p-trend = 0.43). Time significantly modified the association (p-interaction = 0.01). During follow up <4 years, there was suggestive evidence of an inverse association between E-DII and pancreatic cancer (HRQ5vsQ1  = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.35-1.02; p-trend = 0.20) while there was a significant positive trend in the follow up ≥4 years (HRQ5vsQ1 = 1.31; 95% CI = 0.83-2.08; p-trend = 0.03). Similar results were observed for E-DII from food only. Our study does not support an association between inflammatory potential of diet and pancreatic cancer risk; however, heterogeneous results were obtained with different follow-up times. These divergent associations may result from the influences of undetected disease in the short-term.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Nutr Rev ; 75(11): 883-908, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025004

RESUMO

Context: Pancreatic cancer has the highest case fatality rate of all major cancers. Objective: A systematic review using PRISMA guidelines was conducted to summarize the associations between dietary patterns and risk of pancreatic cancer. Data Sources: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control and cohort studies published up to June 15, 2016. Study Selection: Eligible studies included a dietary pattern as exposure and pancreatic cancer incidence or mortality as outcome and reported odds ratios, hazard ratios, or relative risks, along with corresponding 95%CIs. Data Extraction: Important characteristics of each study, along with the dietary assessment instrument, the component foods or nutrients included in each dietary pattern or the scoring algorithm of a priori dietary patterns, were presented. For each dietary pattern identified, the estimate of association and the 95%CI comparing the highest versus the lowest category from the model with the most covariate adjustment were reported. Results: A total of 16 studies were identified. Among the 8 studies that examined data-driven dietary patterns, significant positive associations were found between pancreatic cancer risk and the Animal Products, Starch Rich, and Western dietary patterns, with effect estimates ranging from 1.69 to 2.40. Significant inverse relationships were found between risk of pancreatic cancer and dietary patterns designated as Fruits and Vegetables, Vitamins and Fiber, and Prudent, with effect estimates ranging from 0.51 to 0.55. Eight studies of a priori dietary patterns consistently suggested that improved dietary quality was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Better diet quality is associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. The associations between dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer were stronger in case-control studies than in cohort studies and were stronger among men than among women.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Dieta Ocidental , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Carne , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Risco , Amido , Verduras , Vitaminas
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 106(4): 1131-1141, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855223

RESUMO

Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies.Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure.Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions (N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups.Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold (P < 10-5). Adjustment for coinciding change in blood pressure did not substantively alter the association for the top-ranked metabolites.Conclusion: Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Hipertensão/sangue , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aminoácidos/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hipossódica , Feminino , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 9(5)2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468303

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, p < 0.0001). The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(6): 914-922, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28096201

RESUMO

Background: Studies examining associations between circulating concentrations of C-peptide and total adiponectin, two biomarkers related to obesity and insulin secretion and sensitivity and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) risk have shown inconsistent results and included limited numbers of smokers.Methods: We examined associations of these biomarkers and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with PDA, overall, and by smoking status. We conducted a pooled nested case-control analysis in 3 cohorts (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Trial, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, and Cancer Prevention Study-II), with 758 cases (435 current smokers) and 1,052 controls (531 smokers) matched by cohort, age, sex, race, blood draw date and follow-up time. We used conditional logistic regression adjusted for age, smoking, diabetes, and body mass index to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: Circulating C-peptide concentration was not associated with PDA in never or former smokers, but was inversely associated with PDA in current smokers (per SD OR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.84; Pinteraction = 0.005). HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with PDA in never smokers (OR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.81), not associated in former smokers, and positively associated in smokers (OR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.45; Pinteraction = 0.009). Total adiponectin was not associated with PDA in nonsmokers or current smokers.Conclusions: Associations of biomarkers of insulin secretion and sensitivity with PDA differ by smoking status. Smoking-induced pancreatic damage may explain the associations in smokers while mechanisms related to insulin resistance associations in nonsmokers.Impact: Future studies of these biomarkers and PDA should examine results by smoking status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 914-22. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Peptídeo C/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 9(11): 866-874, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27574287

RESUMO

Insulin resistance likely increases the risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver cancer, but long-term prospective studies with measured fasting glucose and insulin are lacking. We evaluated the associations of prediagnostic fasting glucose, insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with liver cancer and CLD mortality in a prospective study of Finnish male smokers with extended follow-up time (≤22 years) and information on known risk factors using data from 138 incident primary liver cancer cases, 216 CLD deaths, and 681 matched controls. Fasting glucose and insulin were measured in baseline serum. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age, alcohol, education, smoking, body mass index, and hepatitis B and C viral status. Among those without self-reported diabetes, glucose was positively associated with liver cancer [quartile 3 vs. quartile 1 (Q3/Q1): OR = 1.88; 1.03-3.49; Q4/Q1: OR = 2.40; 1.33-4.35; Ptrend = 0.002], and undiagnosed, biochemically defined, diabetes was associated with higher risk of liver cancer (OR = 2.95; 1.46-5.96) and CLD mortality (OR = 1.88; 1.00-3.56). Serum insulin and HOMA-IR were also positively associated with liver cancer (Q4/Q1: OR = 3.41; 1.74-6.66; Ptrend < 0.0001; OR = 3.72; 1.89-7.32, Ptrend < 0.0001, respectively) and CLD (OR = 2.51; 1.44-4.37; Ptrend = 0.0002; OR = 2.31; 1.34-3.97; Ptrend = 0.001, respectively), with stronger associations observed for liver cancer diagnosed >10 years after baseline. In conclusion, elevated fasting glucose and insulin and insulin resistance were independently associated with risk of liver cancer and CLD mortality, suggesting a potentially important etiologic role for insulin and glucose dysregulation even in the absence of diagnosed diabetes. Cancer Prev Res; 9(11); 866-74. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Dieta , Método Duplo-Cego , Finlândia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , alfa-Tocoferol/uso terapêutico , beta Caroteno/uso terapêutico
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 104(3): 686-93, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27534643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nonessential amino acid cysteine is known to be involved in many antioxidant and anticarcinogenic pathways. Cysteinylglycine is a pro-oxidant metabolite of glutathione and a precursor of cysteine. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between serum cysteine and cysteinylglycine and risk of gastric adenocarcinomas, esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention study of male Finnish smokers aged 50-69 y at baseline. DESIGN: In total, 170 gastric adenocarcinomas, 68 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 270 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry) were matched one-to-one with cancer-free control subjects on age and the date of serum collection. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs with the use of a multivariate-adjusted conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Cysteine had a U-shaped association with gastric adenocarcinomas; a model that included a linear and a squared term had a significant global P-test (P = 0.036). Serum cysteinylglycine was inversely associated with adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia (OR for above the median compared with below the median: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.70; n = 38 cases) but not for other sites. Both cysteine and cysteinylglycine were not associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: We observed associations between serum cysteine and cysteinylglycine with upper gastrointestinal cancer risk. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings. This trial was registered at clininicaltrials.gov as NCT00342992.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Cisteína/sangue , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Dipeptídeos/sangue , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Cisteína/deficiência , Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/etiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(10)2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147231

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence and mortality are higher among African Americans (AAs) than among other population groups. The prevalence of obesity is also elevated among AAs, but few studies have examined risk of this cancer in relation to body size among AAs. We combined data from seven prospective cohorts tracking mortality among 239 597 AA adults and used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death because of MM according to body mass index (BMI) at cohort entry, adjusted for age (as time-scale) and sex. Relative to those with normal BMIs (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), mortality increased monotonically as BMI increased, with hazard ratios reaching 1.43 (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.97) for BMIs of 35 kg/m(2) or greater. The findings suggest that obesity is a risk factor for MM and a contributor to the elevated rates and rising incidence trends of MM among AAs in the United States.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mieloma Múltiplo/etnologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Obesidade/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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