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1.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(1): 116-127, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular responses and fates of the scaffold after bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation using multimodality imaging. BACKGROUND: Serial comprehensive image assessments after BVS implantation in the context of a randomized trial have not yet been reported. METHODS: In the ABSORB Japan trial, 400 patients were randomized to a BVS (n = 266) or a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (n = 134). Through 3 years, patients underwent serial angiography and intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT). RESULTS: Luminal dimension at 3 years was consistently smaller with the BVS than with the cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (mean angiographic minimal luminal diameter 2.04 ± 0.63 mm vs. 2.40 ± 0.56 mm, mean difference -0.37 mm [95% confidence interval: -0.50 to -0.24 mm]; p < 0.001), mainly because of smaller device area (6.13 ± 2.03 mm2 vs. 7.15 ± 2.16 mm2, mean difference -1.04 mm2 [95% confidence interval: -1.66 to -0.42 mm2]; p < 0.001), and larger neointimal area (2.10 ± 0.61 mm2 vs. 1.86 ± 0.64 mm2, mean difference 0.24 mm2 [95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.43 mm2]; p = 0.01) by OCT. BVS-treated vessels did not show previously reported favorable vessel responses, such as positive vessel remodeling, late luminal enlargement, and restoration of vasomotion, although the OCT-based healing score was on average zero (interquartile range: 0.00 to 0.00). At 3 years, intraluminal scaffold dismantling (ISD) was observed in 14% of BVS. On serial OCT, ISD was observed in 6 lesions at 2 years, where the struts had been fully apposed at post-procedure, while ISD was observed in 12 lesions at 3 years, where 8 lesions were free from ISD on 2-year OCT. In 5 cases of very late scaffold thrombosis, strut discontinuities were detected in all 4 cases with available OCT immediately before reintervention. CONCLUSIONS: In this multimodality serial imaging study, luminal dimension at 3 years was smaller with the BVS than with the cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. ISD, suspected to be one of the mechanisms of very late BVS thrombosis, was observed in a substantial proportion of cases at 3 years, which developed between post-procedure and 2 years and even beyond 2 years. (AVJ-301 Clinical Trial: A Clinical Evaluation of AVJ-301 [Absorb™ BVS] in Japanese Population [ABSORB JAPAN]; NCT01844284).

2.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(1): 86-93, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine clinical outcomes between treatment groups over long-term follow-up. BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of a ridaforolimus-eluting stent (RES) was evaluated in the BIONICS (BioNIR Ridaforolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in Coronary Stenosis) and NIREUS (BioNIR Ridaforolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System [BioNIR] European Angiography Study) trials, demonstrating noninferiority of RES in comparison with a zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) regarding 1-year target lesion failure (TLF) and 6-month angiographic late lumen loss, respectively. METHODS: Patient-level data from the BIONICS (N = 1,919) and NIREUS (N = 302) randomized trials were pooled, and outcomes in patients implanted with RES and ZES compared. Broad inclusion criteria allowed enrollment of patients with acute coronary syndromes and complex lesions. The primary endpoint was the 2-year rate of TLF or clinically driven target lesion revascularization. RESULTS: A total of 2,221 patients (age 63.2 ± 10.3 years; 79.7% men) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with RES (n = 1,159) or ZES (n = 1,062) were included. Clinical and angiographic characteristics were similar between groups. At 2 years, the primary endpoint of TLF was similar among patients implanted with RES and ZES (7.0% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.94). Rates of target lesion revascularization (4.8% RES vs. 4.1% ZES; p = 0.41) and target vessel-related myocardial infarction (3.1% RES vs. 3.8% ZES; p = 0.52) did not differ between groups. The overall rate of stent thrombosis was also similar (0.5% RES vs. 0.9% ZES; p = 0.39). CONCLUSIONS: In a pooled analysis of 2 randomized trials, 2-year clinical outcomes were similar between patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with RES and ZES. These results support the long-term safety and efficacy of RES for the treatment of a broad population of patients with coronary artery disease.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the outcomes of BVS use from a single-center experience in which scaffold implantation was guided by intravascular imaging (ultrasound and/or optical coherence tomography) to identify and treat mechanical factors potentially related to BVS failure. BACKGROUND: The Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) has been associated with an unexpectedly high incidence of thrombosis. METHODS: Between 11/2014 and 10/2016, 100 patients were treated with BVS. Intravascular imaging assessment before and after BVS implantation was performed in all cases. RESULTS: Mean age was 58.1 years; 88% were male, 31% had diabetes, and 28% presented with acute coronary syndromes. A total of 171 lesions in 141 vessels were treated with 190 BVS (mean 1.9 scaffolds/patient). Further intervention following intravascular imaging to optimize BVS implantation was required in 31% of patients. Procedure success was 100%. All patients completed a 1-year follow-up. The 1-year rate of target lesion failure was 4%, and there were no cases (0%) of scaffold thrombosis, myocardial infarction, or death. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world experience, the use of intravascular imaging to guide BVS implantation was associated with a high 1-year event-free survival rate, with no scaffold thrombosis.

4.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793882

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited data exist regarding procedural and clinical outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with trifurcation disease of the distal left main (LM) coronary artery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with distal LM bifurcation disease randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents in the EXCEL trial were categorized into those with and without trifurcation involvement. Angiographic and procedural characteristics in addition to clinical events through 5-year follow-up after PCI were compared. Among 605 patients with site-reported distal LM disease, 61 patients (10.1%) were identified with trifurcation anatomy. The 5-year primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 16.6% of patients with trifurcation disease compared with 22.5% of patients with distal bifurcation disease only (p=0.32). Ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization rates were also similar (11.9% versus 12.0%, p=0.94). No significant differences in definite or probable stent thrombosis were observed between treatment groups (1.7% versus 2.3%, p=0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the greater inherent complexity, procedural and long-term clinical outcomes following PCI of distal LM trifurcations with everolimus-eluting stents in a modest-sized cohort from the EXCEL trial were similar compared with treatment of distal LM bifurcation disease without trifurcations. These findings support PCI as a treatment strategy for selected patients with distal LM trifurcation disease.

5.
Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of periprocedural anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported conflicting results. Study-level meta-analyses lack granularity to adjust for confounders, explore heterogeneity, or identify subgroups that may particularly benefit or be harmed. OBJECTIVE: To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop an individual patient-data pooled database of RCTs comparing bivalirudin versus heparin. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs in which ≥1,000 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing PCI were randomized to bivalirudin versus heparin. RESULTS: From 738 identified studies, 8 RCTs met the prespecified criteria. The principal investigators of each study agreed to provide patient-level data. The data were pooled and checked for accuracy against trial publications, with discrepancies addressed by consulting with the trialists. Consensus-based definitions were created to resolve differing antithrombotic, procedural, and outcome definitions. The project required 3.5 years to complete, and the final database includes 27,409 patients (13,346 randomized to bivalirudin and 14,063 randomized to heparin). CONCLUSION: We have created a large individual patient database of bivalirudin versus heparin RCTs in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. This endeavor may help identify the optimal periprocedural anticoagulation regimen for patient groups with different relative risks of adverse ischemic versus bleeding events, including those with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation MI, radial versus femoral access, use of a prolonged bivalirudin infusion or glycoprotein inhibitors, and others. Adherence to standardized techniques and rigorous validation processes should increase confidence in the accuracy and robustness of the results.

6.
Circulation ; 140(23): 1943-1945, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790301
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813531

RESUMO

The incidence, recurrence rate, and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) following hospital discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) are unknown. We sought to determine the 3-year incidence and clinical impact of postdischarge AF in patients with LMCAD treated with PCI or CABG. In the EXCEL trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD were randomized to PCI versus CABG. We analyzed the occurrence of postdischarge AF through 3 years and its time-adjusted association with adverse outcomes. A total of 1,802 patients without AF at baseline comprised the study cohort. Within 3 years, 227 episodes of AF occurred (29 [12.8%] in the PCI arm and 198 [87.2%] in the CABG arm, p <0.0001); of those, 63 (27.7%) occurred following discharge from the index hospitalization in 57 patients. In-hospital AF predicted postdischarge AF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42 to 6.10, p = 0.004). By multivariable analysis, time-updated postdischarge AF was an independent predictor of 3-year cardiovascular death (HR 4.91, 95% CI 1.92 to 12.60, p = 0.0009), stroke (HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.12 to 21.12, p = 0.035), and the composite outcome of death, stroke or myocardial infarction (HR 3.09, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.6-6.11, p = 0.001). Among patients with postdischarge AF, the rate of the primary composite outcome did not vary according to presence or absence of in-hospital AF (21.0% vs 23.8%, p = 0.78). In conclusion, postdischarge AF following CABG or PCI for LMCAD is associated with increased mortality and stroke. In-hospital atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of AF following discharge.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(25): 3164-3173, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856974

RESUMO

Repeat revascularization is a commonly used outcome measure in trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and differences in this outcome often drive the relative risk for the primary endpoint. However, repeat revascularization as an outcome measure has important limitations that complicates its meaningful interpretation, including confounding by indication (driven by varying use of stress testing and thresholds for invasive angiography), differential likelihood of revascularization after graft versus stent failure, uncertainty of the prognostic impact of repeat revascularization, and patient preferences and appraisal of the import of repeat revascularization. Knowledge of these issues will result in better appreciation of the utility of repeat revascularization as a clinically meaningful outcome measure. The authors describe these issues and provide recommendations for the use and assessment of repeat revascularization as an endpoint when comparing different revascularization modalities.

9.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(11): e007982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a potent risk factor for coronary artery disease; however, prior studies describe increased platelet inhibition with clopidogrel among smokers, and some studies report improved outcomes among smokers, a finding described as the smoker's paradox. This study assessed the relationship between platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions among current smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents) was a prospective, multicenter registry of patients treated with coronary drug-eluting stents. Platelet reactivity was assessed by the VerifyNow point-of-care assay; high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) was defined as P2Y12 reaction units >208. A propensity-adjusted multivariable analysis was performed to determine the relationship between current smoking, platelet reactivity, and subsequent adverse events. RESULTS: Among 8582 patients, 22.6% were active smokers at the time of their percutaneous coronary intervention procedure. Current smokers were younger and had fewer comorbidities compared with nonsmokers. Current smokers had lower mean P2Y12 reaction units and lower rates of HPR compared with nonsmokers. Current smokers had similar rates of adverse events compared with nonsmokers. HPR was associated with higher rates of adverse events for both smokers and nonsmokers; however, there was evidence of interaction between smoking status and the effect of HPR. Smokers with HPR had significantly higher rates of stent thrombosis. Adverse event rates were highest among current smokers with HPR. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with lower P2Y12 reaction units and lower rates of HPR on average; however, the combination of current smoking and HPR was associated with high rates of stent thrombosis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00638794.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(11): e006002, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factor control is the cornerstone of managing stable ischemic heart disease but is often not achieved. Predictors of risk factor control in a randomized clinical trial have not been described. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) randomized individuals with at least moderate inducible ischemia and obstructive coronary artery disease to an initial invasive or conservative strategy in addition to optimal medical therapy. The primary aim of this analysis was to determine predictors of meeting trial goals for LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, goal <70 mg/dL) or systolic blood pressure (SBP, goal <140 mm Hg) at 1 year post-randomization. We included all randomized participants in the ISCHEMIA trial with baseline and 1-year LDL-C and SBP values by January 28, 2019. Among the 3984 ISCHEMIA participants (78% of 5179 randomized) with available data, 35% were at goal for LDL-C, and 65% were at goal for SBP at baseline. At 1 year, the percent at goal increased to 52% for LDL-C and 75% for SBP. Adjusted odds of 1-year LDL-C goal attainment were greater with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11 [95% CI, 1.03-1.20] per 10 years), lower baseline LDL-C (OR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.17-1.22] per 10 mg/dL), high-intensity statin use (OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.12-1.51]), nonwhite race (OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.07-1.63]), and North American enrollment compared with other regions (OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.06-1.66]). Women were less likely than men to achieve 1-year LDL-C goal (OR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.58-0.80]). Adjusted odds of 1-year SBP goal attainment were greater with lower baseline SBP (OR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.22-1.33] per 10 mm Hg) and with North American enrollment (OR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.04-1.76]). CONCLUSIONS: In ISCHEMIA, older age, male sex, high-intensity statin use, lower baseline LDL-C, and North American location predicted 1-year LDL-C goal attainment, whereas lower baseline SBP and North American location predicted 1-year SBP goal attainment. Future studies should examine the effects of sex disparities, international practice patterns, and provider behavior on risk factor control.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients on versus not on hemodialysis (HD) and examine whether high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) further impacts outcomes among patients on HD. BACKGROUND: Both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and HPR are predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after PCI. METHODS: Two-year outcomes of patients from the prospective, multicenter ADAPT-DES study (N = 8,582) were analyzed according to HD status at enrollment. All patients underwent platelet function testing with the VerifyNow assay; HPR on clopidogrel was defined as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) >208. RESULTS: Compared with non-HD patients, patients on HD (n = 85) had significantly higher baseline PRU (median 254 vs. 188, p = .001) and more frequently had HPR (61.7% vs. 42.5%, p < .001). HD was associated with increased 2-year rates of MACE (death, myocardial infarction (MI) or definite stent thrombosis (ST); 23.4% vs. 10.7%, p < .001). HD was also strongly associated with 2-year overall mortality, cardiac death, MI, target vessel revascularization, major bleeding, stroke and ST. Following adjustment for HPR and other covariates, HD was independently associated with overall mortality, MI, ST, and major bleeding at 2 years. The relationship between HD status and 2-year MACE was consistent in patients with and without HPR (Pinteraction = .78). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly two-thirds of patients on HD exhibited HPR on clopidogrel, and both HD and HPR were independently associated with 2-year adverse outcomes after DES implantation. However, the deleterious impact of HD on clinical outcomes was present in both patients with and without HPR.

12.
Thromb Res ; 185: 43-48, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756574

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to investigate the thrombogenicity of different DES and BMS in an in vitro system of stent perfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experimental model consisted of a peristaltic pump connected to 4 parallel silicone tubes in which different stents were deployed. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers and the amount of stent surfaced-induced thrombus deposition was determined using 125I-fibrinogen. RESULTS: Compared to Resolute, Biomatrix and Vision, Xience was associated with the lowest amount of stent surface-induced thrombus formation, with a significant difference compared to Vision (125I-fibrinogen median value deposition [IQ range]: 50 ng [25-98] versus 560 ng [320-1520], respectively, p < 0.05), but not to other DES. In the second set of experiments Fluoropolymer-coated BMS not eluting drug was associated with a significant 3-fold reduction in 125I-fibrinogen deposition (245 ng [80-300]) compared to Vision (625 ng [320-760], p < 0.05), but a 7-fold increase compared to Xience (35 ng [20-60], p < 0.05). Finally Xience was associated with a significantly greater absorption of albumin compared to BMS. CONCLUSIONS: In an in vitro system of stent perfusion, Xience was associated with the lowest amount of stent surface-induced thrombus formation compared with Resolute, Biomatrix and Vision, with a noted synergistic effect between the fluoropolymer and the drug.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(21): 2572-2584, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, no specific drug-eluting stent (DES) has fully proven its superiority over others in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of coronary artery stents in STEMI patients in a patient-level network meta-analysis. METHODS: Eligible studies were dedicated randomized controlled trials comparing different stents in STEMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with at least 12 months of clinical follow-up. Of 19 studies identified from the published data, individual patient data were collected in 15 studies with 10,979 patients representing 87.7% of patients in the overall network of evidence. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, reinfarction, or target lesion revascularization. RESULTS: Overall, 8,487 (77.3%) of 10,979 STEMI patients were male and the mean age was 60.7 years. At a median follow-up of 3 years, compared with bare-metal stents (BMS), patients treated with paclitaxel-, sirolimus-, everolimus-, or biolimus-eluting stents had a significantly lower risk of the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs]: 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63 to 0.88], 0.65 [95% CI: 0.49 to 0.85], 0.70 [95% CI: 0.53 to 0.91], and 0.66 [95% CI: 0.49 to 0.88], respectively). The risk of primary endpoint was not different between patients treated with BMS and zotarolimus-eluting stents (adjusted HR: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.51 to 1.38]). Among patients treated with DES, no significant difference in the risk of the primary outcome was demonstrated. Treatment with second-generation DES was associated with significantly lower risk of definite or probable stent thrombosis compared with BMS (adjusted HR: 0.61 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.89]) and first-generation DES (adjusted HR: 0.56 [95% CI: 0.36 to 0.88]). CONCLUSIONS: In STEMI patients, DES were superior to BMS with respect to long-term efficacy. No difference in long-term efficacy and safety was observed among specific DES. Second-generation were superior to first-generation DES in reducing stent thrombosis. (Clinical Outcomes After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] Using Contemporary Drug-Eluting Stent [DES]: Evidence From the Individual Patient Data Network Meta-Analysis; CRD42018104053).

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735328

RESUMO

The prognostic impact of resting heart rate (RHR) following revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of RHR at discharge on 3-year cardiovascular outcomes following PCI and CABG for LMCAD. In the EXCEL trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. RHR was measured at discharge following the index hospitalization. The principal outcome measure was the composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at 3 years. Among 1,303 patients in sinus rhythm with available ECGs, the median (IQR) discharge RHR was 72 (62to 81) bpm. Median discharge RHR was higher after CABG versus PCI (78 [IQR 70 to 86] versus 65 [IQR 59 to 74] bpm, p <0.0001). At 3 years, 107 patients (8.2%) had a primary composite endpoint event including 61 patients (4.7%) who died. By multivariable analysis, discharge RHR assessed as a continuous variable (per 5 bpm) was an independent predictor at 3 years of the primary composite endpoint of death, MI, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.25, p = 0.0006); the secondary composite endpoint of death, MI, stroke, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19, p = 0.0007); all-cause mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31, p = 0.002); and cardiovascular death (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33, p = 0.046). No significant interactions were present between RHR and treatment with PCI versus CABG for the primary (pint = 0.20) or secondary (pint = 0.47) composite endpoints. In patients with LMCAD undergoing revascularization, an increased RHR at discharge was associated with a higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes at 3 years, irrespective of treatment modality.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759517

RESUMO

The development of aortic valve stenosis is strongly associated with older adults. Patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis frequently have heart failure (HF). We investigated the predictors of mortality after TAVI according to the presence of HF, and specifically HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) versus HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Patients were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample registry from January 2011 to September 2015 using the ICD-9 codes. Patients with HF who underwent TAVI were classified according to whether they were diagnosed with HFrEF or HFpEF. The principal outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Multivariable analysis was used to adjust for potential baseline confounders. Among 11,609 patients undergoing TAVI, 6,368 (54.9%) had baseline HF, including 4,290 (67.4%) with HFpEF and 2,078 (32.6%) with HFrEF. In TAVI patients with HF, in-hospital mortality was also not significantly different in those with HFrEF compared with HFpEF (3.66% vs 3.17%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.53; p = 0.38). Polyvalvular heart disease was an additional independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in HFrEF, whereas age, liver disease, and the absence of depression and anemia were additional independent predictors of mortality in HFpEF. In conclusion, baseline HF in patients undergoing TAVI is prevalent and is more commonly due to HFpEF than HFrEF. Mortality is similar in those with HFrEF and HFpEF. Knowledge of the specific predictors of mortality after TAVI in HF patients may be useful for patient selection and prognostic guidance.

17.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763982

RESUMO

AIMS: The impact of final kissing balloon inflation FKBI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of bifurcation lesions on long-term clinical outcomes remains controversial. We sought to determine the impact of FKBI on 4-year outcomes after PCI of distal left main (LM) bifurcation lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EXCEL trial compared PCI with everolimus-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with LM disease. We examined 4-year clinical outcomes after PCI of distal LM bifurcation lesions according to use of FKBI. The primary endpoint was the composite rate of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. The major secondary endpoint was the composite rate of death, MI, stroke, or ischemia-driven revascularization (IDR). Among 948 patients randomized to PCI, 759 had distal LM lesions treated, 430 of which were treated with 1 stent and 329 of which were treated with 2 or more stents. The 4-year rates of the primary and major secondary endpoints were similar with versus without FKBI in both the 1-stent and ≥2-stent groups in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, the performance of FKBI after PCI of distal LM bifurcation lesions was not associated with improved 4-year clinical outcomes regardless of whether 1 stent or ≥2 stents were implanted.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The SYNTAX score II (SSII) was developed from the SYNTAX trial to predict the 4-year all-cause mortality after left main or multivessel disease revascularization and to facilitate the decision-making process. The SSII provides the following treatment recommendations: (i) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (equipoise risk), (ii) CABG preferred (excessive risk for PCI) or (iii) PCI preferred (excessive risk for CABG). We sought to externally validate SSII and to investigate the impact of not abiding by the SSII recommendations in the randomized EXCEL trial of PCI versus CABG for left main disease. METHODS: The calibration plot of predicted versus observed 4-year mortality was constructed from individual values of SSII in EXCEL. To assess overestimation versus underestimation of predicted mortality risk, an optimal fit regression line with slope and intercept was determined. Prospective treatment recommendations based on SSII were compared with actual treatments and all-cause mortality at 4 years. RESULTS: SSII variables were available from EXCEL trial in 1807/1905 (95%) patients. For the entire cohort, discrimination was possibly helpful (C statistic = 0.670). SSII-predicted all-cause mortality at 4 years overestimated the observed mortality, particularly in the highest-risk percentiles, as confirmed by the fit regression line [intercept 2.37 (1.51-3.24), P = 0.003; slope 0.67 (0.61-0.74), P < 0.001]. When the SSII-recommended treatment was CABG, randomized EXCEL patients treated with PCI had a trend towards higher mortality compared with those treated with CABG (14.1% vs 5.3%, P = 0.07) in the as-treat population. In the intention-to-treat population, patients randomized to PCI had higher mortality compared with those randomized to CABG (15.1% vs 4.1%, P = 0.02), when SSII recommended CABG. CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial of patients with left main disease, the SSII-predicted 4-year mortality overestimated the 4-year observed mortality with a possibly helpful discrimination. Non-compliance with SSII CABG treatment recommendations (i.e. randomized to PCI) was associated with higher 4-year all-cause mortality.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2102-2112, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623769

RESUMO

Most major clinical trials in cardiology report time-to-event outcomes using the Cox proportional hazards model so that a treatment effect is estimated as the hazard ratio between groups, accompanied by its 95% confidence interval and a log-rank p value. But nonproportionality of hazards (non-PH) over time occurs quite often, making alternative analysis strategies appropriate. This review presents real examples of cardiology trials with different types of non-PH: an early treatment effect, a late treatment effect, and a diminishing treatment effect. In such scenarios, the relative merits of a Cox model, an accelerated failure time model, a milestone analysis, and restricted mean survival time are examined. Some post hoc analyses for exploring any specific pattern of non-PH are also presented. Recommendations are made, particularly regarding how to handle non-PH in pre-defined Statistical Analysis Plans, trial publications, and regulatory submissions.

20.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 16(12): 702-703, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597955
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