Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 44
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
MBio ; 10(4)2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266863

RESUMO

Preexisting immunity against dengue virus or West Nile virus was previously reported to mediate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a mouse model. We show here that ZIKV-immune plasma samples from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals mediated ZIKV ADE of infection in vitro and in mice. In a lethal infection model with a viral inoculum 10 times higher, both ADE and protection were observed, depending on the amount of infused immune plasma. In a vertical-transmission model, ZIKV-immune plasma infused to timed pregnant mice increased fetal demise and decreased the body weight of surviving fetuses. Depletion of IgG from an immune plasma abolished ADE of infection, and the presence of purified IgG alone mediated ADE of infection. Higher viral loads and proinflammatory cytokines were detected in mice treated with ZIKV-immune plasma samples compared to those receiving control plasma. Together, these data show that passive immunization with homotypic ZIKV antibodies, depending on the concentration, could either worsen or limit a subsequent ZIKV infection.IMPORTANCE Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infection is common to many viruses and is problematic when plasma antibody levels decline to subneutralizing concentrations. ADE of infection is especially important among flaviviruses, many of which are the cause of global health problems. Recently, human plasma samples immune to heterologous flaviviruses were shown to promote Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Here we showed in immunocompromised mouse models that homologous immune plasma samples protect mice from subsequent infection at high antibody concentrations but that they mediate ADE of infection and increase ZIKV pathogenesis in adult mice and fetal demise during pregnancy at low concentrations.

2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006849, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978183

RESUMO

Quantitative viral outgrowth assays (QVOA) use limiting dilutions of CD4+ T cells to measure the size of the latent HIV-1 reservoir, a major obstacle to curing HIV-1. Efforts to reduce the reservoir require assays that can reliably quantify its size in blood and tissues. Although QVOA is regarded as a "gold standard" for reservoir measurement, little is known about its accuracy and precision or about how cell storage conditions or laboratory-specific practices affect results. Owing to this lack of knowledge, confidence intervals around reservoir size estimates-as well as judgments of the ability of therapeutic interventions to alter the size of the replication-competent but transcriptionally inactive latent reservoir-rely on theoretical statistical assumptions about dilution assays. To address this gap, we have carried out a Bayesian statistical analysis of QVOA reliability on 75 split samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 5 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed participants, measured using four different QVOAs at separate labs, estimating assay precision and the effect of frozen cell storage on estimated reservoir size. We found that typical assay results are expected to differ from the true value by a factor of 1.6 to 1.9 up or down. Systematic assay differences comprised a 24-fold range between the assays with highest and lowest scales, likely reflecting differences in viral outgrowth readout and input cell stimulation protocols. We also found that controlled-rate freezing and storage of samples did not cause substantial differences in QVOA compared to use of fresh cells (95% probability of < 2-fold change), supporting continued use of frozen storage to allow transport and batched analysis of samples. Finally, we simulated an early-phase clinical trial to demonstrate that batched analysis of pre- and post-therapy samples may increase power to detect a three-fold reservoir reduction by 15 to 24 percentage points.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1 , Carga Viral/métodos , Latência Viral , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Replicação Viral
3.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 128, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell based therapies, such as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs; also known as mesenchymal stromal cells), are currently under investigation for a number of disease applications. The current challenge facing the field is maintaining the consistency and quality of cells especially for cell dose production for pre-clinical testing and clinical trials. Here we determine how BM-donor variability and thus the derived MSCs factor into selection of the optimal primary cell lineage for cell production and testing in a pre-clinical swine model of trauma induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: We harvested bone marrow and generated three different primary BM-MSCs from Yorkshire swine. Cells from these three donors were characterized based on (a) phenotype (morphology, differentiation capacity and flow cytometry), (b) in vitro growth kinetics and metabolic activity, and (c) functional analysis based on inhibition of lung endothelial cell permeability. RESULTS: Cells from each swine donor exhibited varied morphology, growth rate, and doubling times. All expressed the same magnitude of standard MSC cell surface markers by flow cytometry and had similar differentiation potential. Metabolic activity and growth potential at each of the passages varied between the three primary cell cultures. More importantly, the functional potency of the MSCs on inhibition of endothelial permeability was also cell donor dependent. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that for production of MSCs for cell-based therapy, it is imperative to examine donor variability and characterize derived MSCs for marker expression, growth and differentiation characteristics and testing potency in application dependent assays prior to selection of the optimal cell lineage for large scale expansion and dose production.

4.
Transfusion ; 59(6): 1934-1943, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer or other diagnoses associated with chronic anemia often receive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion as outpatients, but the effect of transfusion on functional status is not well demonstrated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To estimate the effect of transfusion on functional status and quality of life, we measured 6-minute walk test distance and fatigue- and dyspnea-related quality-of-life scores before and 1 week after RBC transfusion in 208 outpatients age ≥50 with at least one benign or malignant hematology/oncology diagnosis. To account for potential confounding effects of cancer treatment, patients were classified into two groups based on cancer treatment within 4 weeks of the study transfusion. Minimum clinically important improvements over baseline were 20 meters in walk test distance, 3 points in fatigue score, and 2 points in dyspnea score. RESULTS: The median improvement in unadjusted walk test distance was 20 meters overall and 30 meters in patients not receiving recent cancer treatment. Fatigue scores improved overall by a median of 3 points and by 4 points in patients without cancer treatment. There was no clinically important change in dyspnea scores. In multiple linear regression analysis, patients who maintained hemoglobin (Hb) levels of 8 g/dL or greater at 1 week posttransfusion, who had not received recent cancer treatment, and who did not require hospitalization during the study showed clinically important increases in mean walk test distance. CONCLUSIONS: Red blood cell transfusion is associated with a modest, but clinically important improvement in walk test distance and fatigue score outcomes in adult hematology/oncology outpatients.

5.
Transfusion ; 59(4): 1209-1222, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies suggested that storage age of RBCs is associated with inflammation and thromboembolism. The Red Cell Storage Duration Study (RECESS) trial randomized subjects undergoing complex cardiac surgery to receive RBCs stored for shorter versus longer periods, and no difference was seen in the primary outcome of change in multiple organ dysfunction score. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In the current study, 90 subjects from the RECESS trial were studied intensively using a range of hemostasis, immunologic, and nitric oxide parameters. Samples were collected before transfusion and on Days 2, 6, 28, and 180 after transfusion. RESULTS: Of 71 parameters tested, only 4 showed a significant difference after transfusion between study arms: CD8+ T-cell interferon-γ secretion and the concentration of extracellular vesicles bearing the B-cell marker CD19 were higher, and plasma endothelial growth factor levels were lower in recipients of fresh versus aged RBCs. Plasma interleukin-6 was higher at Day 2 and lower at Days 6 and 28 in recipients of fresh versus aged RBCs. Multiple parameters showed significant modulation after surgery and transfusion. Most analytes that changed after surgery did not differ based on transfusion status. Several extracellular vesicle markers, including two associated with platelets (CD41a and CD62P), decreased in transfused patients more than in those who underwent surgery without transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion of fresh versus aged RBCs does not result in substantial changes in hemostasis, immune, or nitric oxide parameters. It is possible that transfusion modulates the level of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles, which will require study of patients randomly assigned to receipt of transfusion to define.

6.
Transfusion ; 59(5): 1706-1716, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High school students 16 to 18 years-old contribute 10% of the US blood supply. Mitigating iron depletion in these donors is important because they continue to undergo physical and neurocognitive development. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Study objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron depletion in 16- to 18-year-old donors and whether their risk for iron depletion was greater than adult donors. Successful, age-eligible donors were enrolled from high school blood drives at two large US blood centers. Plasma ferritin testing was performed with ferritin less than 12 ng/mL as our primary measure of iron depletion and ferritin less than 26 ng/mL a secondary measure. Multivariable repeated-measures logistic regression models evaluated the role of age and other demographic/donation factors. RESULTS: Ferritin was measured from 4265 enrollment donations September to November 2015 and 1954 follow-up donations through May 2016. At enrollment, prevalence of ferritin less than 12 ng/mL in teenagers was 1% in males and 18% in females making their first blood donation, and 8% in males and 33% in females with prior donations. Adjusted odds for ferritin less than 12 ng/mL were 2.1 to 2.8 times greater in 16- to 18-year-olds than in 19- to 49-year-olds, and for ferritin less than 26 ng/mL were 3.3- to 4.7-fold higher in 16- to 18-year-olds. Progression to hemoglobin deferral was twice as likely in 16- to 18-year-old versus 19- to 49-year-old females. CONCLUSION: Age 16 to 18 years-old is an independent risk factor for iron deficiency in blood donors at any donation frequency. Blood centers should implement alternate eligibility criteria or additional safety measures to protect teenage donors from iron depletion.

7.
J Gen Virol ; 100(3): 511-522, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676308

RESUMO

The growth rate of new HIV infections in the Philippines was the fastest of any countries in the Asia-Pacific region between 2010 and 2016. To date, HIV-1 subtyping results in the Philippines have been determined by characterizing only partial viral genome sequences. It is not known whether recombination occurs in the majority of unsequenced genome regions. Near-full-length genome (NFLG) sequences were obtained by amplifying two overlapping half genomes from plasma samples collected between 2015 and 2017 from 23 newly diagnosed infected individuals in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the newly characterized sequences were CRF01_AE (14), subtype B (3), CRF01/B recombinants (5) and a CRF01/CRF07/B recombinant (1). All 14 CRF01_AE formed a tight cluster, suggesting that they were derived from a single introduction. The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for CRF01_AE in the Philippines was 1995 (1992-1998), about 10-15 years later than that of CRF01_AE in China and Thailand. All five CRF01/B recombinants showed distinct recombination patterns, suggesting ongoing recombination between the two predominant circulating viruses. The identification of partial CRF07_BC sequences in one CRF01/CRF07/B recombinant, not reported previously in the Philippines, indicated that CRF07_BC may have been recently introduced into that country from China, where CRF07_BC is prevalent. Our results show that the major epidemic strains may have shifted to an increased predominance of CRF01_AE and its recombinants, and that other genotypes such as CRF07_BC may have been introduced into the Philippines.

8.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 57-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major aims of the RBC-Omics study were to evaluate the genomic and metabolomic determinants of spontaneous and stress-induced hemolysis during RBC storage. This study was unique in scale and design to allow evaluation of RBC donations from a sufficient number of donors across the spectrum of race, ethnicity, sex, and donation intensity. Study procedures were carefully piloted, optimized, and controlled to enable high-quality data collection. METHODS: The enrollment goal of 14,000 RBC donors across four centers, with characterization of RBC hemolysis across two testing laboratories, required rigorous piloting and optimization and establishment of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) program. Optimization of WBC elution from leukoreduction (LR) filters, development and validation of small-volume transfer bags, impact of manufacturing and sample-handling procedures on hemolysis parameters, and testing consistency across laboratories and technicians and over time were part of this quality assurance/quality control program. RESULTS: LR filter elution procedures were optimized for obtaining DNA for analysis. Significant differences between standard and pediatric storage bags led to use of an alternative LR-RBC transfer bag. The impact of sample preparation and freezing methods on metabolomics analyses was evaluated. Proficiency testing monitored and documented testing consistency across laboratories and technicians. CONCLUSION: Piloting and optimization, and establishment of a robust quality assurance/quality control program documented process consistency throughout the study and was essential in executing this large-scale multicenter study. This program supports the validity of the RBC-Omics study results and a sample repository that can be used in future studies.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Hemólise/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
9.
Transfusion ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic determinants may underlie the susceptibility of red blood cells (RBCs) to hemolyze in vivo and during routine storage. This study characterized the reproducibility and dynamics of in vitro hemolysis variables from a subset of the 13,403 blood donors enrolled in the RBC-Omics study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: RBC-Omics donors with either low or high hemolysis results on 4°C-stored leukoreduced (LR)-RBC samples from enrollment donations stored for 39 to 42 days were recalled 2 to 12 months later to donate LR-RBCs. Samples of stored LR-RBCs from the unit and from transfer bags were evaluated for spontaneous and stress-induced hemolysis at selected storage time points. Intradonor reproducibility of hemolysis variables was evaluated in transfer bags over two donations. Hemolysis data at serial storage time points were generated on LR-RBCs from parent bags and analyzed by site, sex, race/ethnicity, and donation frequency. RESULTS: A total of 664 donors were successfully recalled. Analysis of intradonor reproducibility revealed that osmotic and oxidative hemolysis demonstrated good and moderate reproducibility (Pearson's r = 0.85 and r = 0.53, respectively), while spontaneous hemolysis reproducibility was poor (r = 0.40). Longitudinal hemolysis in parent bags showed large increases over time in spontaneous (508.6%) and oxidative hemolysis (399.8%) and smaller increases in osmotic (9.4%) and mechanical fragility (3.4%; all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Spontaneous hemolysis is poorly reproducible in donors over time and may depend on site processing methods, while oxidative and osmotic hemolysis were reproducible in donors and hence could reflect consistent heritable phenotypes attributable to genetic traits. Spontaneous and oxidative hemolysis increased over time of storage, whereas osmotic and mechanical hemolysis remained relatively stable.

10.
J Immunol ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413672

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) constitutes an increasing public health problem. Previous studies have shown that CD8+ T cells play an important role in ZIKV-specific protective immunity. We have previously defined antigenic targets of the ZIKV-specific CD8+ T cell response in humans. In this study, we characterized the quality and phenotypes of these responses by a combined use of flow cytometry and transcriptomic methods, using PBMCs from donors deriving from different geographical locations collected in the convalescent phase of infection. We show that ZIKV-specific CD8+ T cells are characterized by a polyfunctional IFN-γ signature with upregulation of TNF-α, TNF receptors, and related activation markers, such as CD69, as well as a cytotoxic signature characterized by strong upregulation of GZMB and CRTAM. The signature is stable and not influenced by previous dengue virus exposure, geographical location, or time of sample collection postinfection. To our knowledge, this work elucidates the first in-depth characterization of human CD8+ T cells responding to ZIKV infection.

11.
Transfusion ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent whole blood donations increase the prevalence of iron depletion in blood donors, which may subsequently interfere with normal erythropoiesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between donation frequency and red blood cell (RBC) storage stability in a racially/ethnically diverse population of blood donors. STUDY DESIGN: Leukoreduced RBC concentrate-derived samples from 13,403 donors were stored for 39 to 42 days (1-6°C) and then evaluated for storage, osmotic, and oxidative hemolysis. Iron status was evaluated by plasma ferritin measurement and self-reported intake of iron supplements. Donation history in the prior 2 years was obtained for each subject. RESULTS: Frequent blood donors enrolled in this study were likely to be white, male, and of older age (56.1 ± 5.0 years). Prior donation intensity was negatively associated with oxidative hemolysis (p < 0.0001) in multivariate analyses correcting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Increased plasma ferritin concentration was associated with increased RBC susceptibility to each of the three measures of hemolysis (p < 0.0001 for all), whereas self-reported iron intake was associated with reduced susceptibility to osmotic and oxidative hemolysis (p < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Frequent blood donations may alter the quality of blood components by modulating RBC predisposition to hemolysis. RBCs collected from frequent donors with low ferritin have altered susceptibility to hemolysis. Thus, frequent donation and associated iron loss may alter the quality of stored RBC components collected from iron-deficient donors. Further investigation is necessary to assess posttransfusion safety and efficacy in patients receiving these RBC products.

12.
J Immunol Methods ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled preanalytical variables can reduce the accuracy and reproducibility of downstream analytical results from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from EDTA and citrate-anticoagulated blood samples, obtained from healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and infectious conditions. PBMC-derived RNA samples were examined for gene expression changes induced by extended blood pre-centrifugation delays at 4 °C and RT. We used Taqman RTqPCR to evaluate the combination of two target genes for their "diagnostic performance" in identifying EDTA and citrate-anticoagulated PBMC samples with extended pre-centrifugation times. RESULTS: We established the PBMC preanalytical score, a gene expression metric to asses the PBMC quality related to the pre-centrifugation delay at room temperature for different anticoagulants. The PBMC preanalytical score measurement can identify: CONCLUSION: The proposed PBMC preanalytical score may enable objective PBMC sample qualification for downstream applications, which may be influenced by blood precentrifugation delays.

13.
Transfusion ; 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological and technical variability has been increasingly appreciated as a key factor impacting red blood cell (RBC) storability and, potentially, transfusion outcomes. Here, we performed metabolomics analyses to investigate the impact of factors other than storage duration on the metabolic phenotypes of stored RBC in a multicenter study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Within the framework of the REDS-III (Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III) RBC-Omics study, 13,403 donors were enrolled from four blood centers across the United States and tested for the propensity of their RBCs to hemolyze after 42 days of storage. Extreme hemolyzers were recalled and donated a second unit of blood. Units were stored for 10, 23, and 42 days prior to sample acquisition for metabolomics analyses. RESULTS: Unsupervised analyses of metabolomics data from 599 selected samples revealed a strong impact (14.2% of variance) of storage duration on metabolic phenotypes of RBCs. The blood center collecting and processing the units explained an additional 12.2% of the total variance, a difference primarily attributable to the storage additive (additive solution 1 vs. additive solution 3) used in the different hubs. Samples stored in mannitol-free/citrate-loaded AS-3 were characterized by elevated levels of high-energy compounds, improved glycolysis, and glutathione homeostasis. Increased methionine metabolism and activation of the transsulfuration pathway was noted in samples processed in the center using additive solution 1. CONCLUSION: Blood processing impacts the metabolic heterogeneity of stored RBCs from the largest multicenter metabolomics study in transfusion medicine to date. Studies are needed to understand if these metabolic differences influenced by processing/storage strategies impact the effectiveness of transfusions clinically.

14.
Transfusion ; 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Red Blood Cell (RBC)-Omics study was initiated to build a large data set containing behavioral, genetic, and biochemical characteristics of blood donors with linkage to outcomes of the patients transfused with their donated RBCs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The cohort was recruited from four US blood centers. Demographic and donation data were obtained from center records. A questionnaire to assess pica, restless leg syndrome, iron supplementation, hormone use, and menstrual and pregnancy history was completed at enrollment. Blood was obtained for a complete blood count, DNA, and ferritin testing. A leukocyte-reduced RBC sample was transferred to a custom storage bag for hemolysis testing at Storage Days 39 to 42. A subset was recalled to evaluate the kinetics and stability of hemolysis measures. RESULTS: A total of 13,403 racially/ethnically diverse (12% African American, 12% Asian, 8% Hispanic, 64% white, and 5% multiracial/other) donors of both sexes were enrolled and ranged from 18 to 90 years of age; 15% were high-intensity donors (nine or more donations in the prior 24 mo without low hemoglobin deferral). Data elements are available for 97% to 99% of the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort provides demographic, behavioral, biochemical, and genetic data for a broad range of blood donor studies related to iron metabolism, adverse consequences of iron deficiency, and differential hemolysis (including oxidative and osmotic stress perturbations) during RBC storage. Linkage to recipient outcomes may permit analysis of how donor characteristics affect transfusion efficacy. Repository DNA, plasma, and RBC samples should expand the usefulness of the current data set.

15.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 956462418785264, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103664

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevalence in Pakistan has been increasing in high-risk groups, including people who inject drugs (PWID) and transgender hijra sex workers (TG-HSWs) nationwide. Effective control of HIV requires early diagnosis of the infection. We investigated recency of HIV infections in newly-diagnosed cases in PWID and TG-HSWs. This was an observational study with convenience sampling. Overall, 210 HIV-positive subjects comprising an equal number of PWID and TG-HSWs were included. Antibody avidity was tested using the Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg) EIA (Maxim Biomedical, Inc. Rockville, Maryland, USA). The mean age of study subjects was 29.5 years: PWID, 28.5 years and TG-HSWs, 30.4 years. Study subjects were married, 27%, or unmarried. Eighteen percent of individuals had recently-acquired HIV infections: 19% of PWID and 17% of TG-HSWs. Eighty-two percent of individuals had long-term HIV infections: 81% of PWID and 83% of TG-HSWs. This is the first study identification of recent HIV-1 infections in Pakistan. We show that most newly-diagnosed HIV patients in the high-risk groups studied had long-term infections. There is an urgent need for intervention in these groups to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection to reduce transmission in Pakistan.

16.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(8)2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793968

RESUMO

Detection of acute HIV infection is critical for HIV public health and diagnostics. Clinical fourth-generation antigen (Ag)/antibody (Ab) combination (combo) and p24 Ag immunoassays have enhanced detection of acute infection compared to Ab-alone assays but require ongoing evaluation with currently circulating diverse subtypes. Genetically and geographically diverse HIV clinical isolates were used to assess clinical HIV diagnostic, blood screening, and next-generation assays. Three-hundred-member panels of 20 serially diluted well-characterized antibody-negative HIV isolates for which the researchers were blind to the results (blind panels) were distributed to manufacturers and end-user labs to assess the relative analytic sensitivity of currently approved and preapproved clinical HIV fourth-generation Ag/Ab combo or p24 Ag-alone immunoassays for the detection of diverse subtypes. The limits of detection (LODs) of virus were estimated for different subtypes relative to confirmed viral loads. Analysis of immunoassay sensitivity was benchmarked against confirmed viral load measurements on the blind panel. On the basis of the proportion of positive results on 300 observations, all Ag/Ab combo and standard sensitivity p24 Ag assays performed similarly and within half-log LODs, illustrating the similar breadth of reactivity and diagnostic utility. Ultrasensitive p24 Ag assays achieved dramatically increased sensitivities, while the rapid combo assays performed poorly. The similar performance of the different commercially available fourth-generation assays on diverse subtypes supports their use in broad geographic settings with locally circulating HIV clades and recombinant strains. Next-generation preclinical ultrasensitive p24 Ag assays achieved dramatically improved sensitivity, while rapid fourth-generation assays performed poorly for p24 Ag detection.

17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 23(6): 855-864.e7, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805095

RESUMO

The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas established ZIKV as a major public health threat and uncovered its association with severe diseases, including microcephaly. However, genetic epidemiology in some at-risk regions, particularly Central America and Mexico, remains limited. We report 61 ZIKV genomes from this region, generated using metagenomic sequencing with ZIKV-specific enrichment, and combine phylogenetic, epidemiological, and environmental data to reconstruct ZIKV transmission. These analyses revealed multiple independent ZIKV introductions to Central America and Mexico. One introduction, likely from Brazil via Honduras, led to most infections and the undetected spread of ZIKV through the region from late 2014. Multiple lines of evidence indicate biannual peaks of ZIKV transmission in the region, likely driven by varying local environmental conditions for mosquito vectors and herd immunity. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ZIKV transmission in Central America and Mexico challenges arbovirus surveillance and disease control measures.

18.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 56(7): 1054-1062, 2018 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longer pre-centrifugation times alter the quality of serum and plasma samples. Markers for such delays in sample processing and hence for the sample quality, have been identified. METHODS: Twenty cytokines in serum, EDTA plasma and citrate plasma samples were screened for changes in concentration induced by extended blood pre-centrifugation delays at room temperature. The two cytokines that showed the largest changes were further validated for their "diagnostic performance" in identifying serum or plasma samples with extended pre-centrifugation times. RESULTS: In this study, using R&D Systems ELISA kits, EDTA plasma samples and serum samples with a pre-centrifugation delay longer than 24 h had an IL16 concentration higher than 313 pg/mL, and an IL8 concentration higher than 125 pg/mL, respectively. EDTA plasma samples with a pre-centrifugation delay longer than 48 h had an IL16 concentration higher than 897 pg/mL, citrate plasma samples had an IL8 concentration higher than 21.5 pg/mL and serum samples had an IL8 concentration higher than 528 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These robust and accurate tools, based on simple and commercially available ELISA assays can greatly facilitate qualification of serum and plasma legacy collections with undocumented pre-analytics.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA