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1.
Am J Med ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845033

RESUMO

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, use of telehealth services had been limited in cardiovascular care. Potential benefits of telehealth include improved access to care, more efficient care management, reduced costs, the ability to assess patients within their homes while involving key caretakers in medical decisions, maintaining social distancing, and increased patient satisfaction. Challenges include changes in payment models, issues with data security and privacy, potential depersonalization of the patient-clinician relationship, limitations in the use of digital health technologies, and the potential impact on disparities - socioeconomic, gender, age-related, and access to technology and broadband. Implementation and expansion of telehealth from a policy and reimbursement practice standpoint are filled with difficult decisions, yet addressing these are critical to the future of healthcare.

2.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 10781552211004698, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789526

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report the case of a woman who developed hyperlipidemia on lorlatinib therapy found to have minimal change disease. We review therapies for cancer known to alter the lipid profile, in addition to reviewing secondary hyperlipidemia workup. We also propose a mechanism for lorlatinib-induced hyperlipidemia. CASE REPORT: A 63 year old woman with non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma on lorlatinib therapy develops marked hyperlipidemia.Management & outcome: A secondary hyperlipidemia workup is performed which reveals nephrotic range proteinuria. Minimal change disease is found on renal biopsy. The hyperlipidemia was initially responsive to statin therapy, then required addition of ezetimibe. DISCUSSION: This is a case of hyperlipidemia in a patient on lorlatinib. The case highlights that therapies for lung cancer and other malignancies have the potential to alter the lipid profile. We propose minimal change disease as a possible mechanism for lorlatinib-induced dyslipidemia. Additionally, we discuss the crucial aspects of secondary hyperlipidemia workup.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(11): 1451-1453, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736828
4.
Am J Med ; 134(2): e140, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551049
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523335

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Statin-associated side effects (SASEs) can limit statin adherence and present a potential barrier to optimal statin utilization. How standardized reporting of SASEs varies across medical facilities has not been well characterized. METHODS: We assessed facility-level variation in SASE reporting among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease receiving care across the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system from October 1, 2014, to September 30, 2015. The facility rates for SASE reporting were expressed as cases per 1000 patients with ASCVD. Facility-level variation was determined using hierarchical regression analysis to calculate median rate ratios (MRR [95% confidence interval]) by first using an unadjusted model and then adjusting for patient, provider, and facility characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 1,248,158 patients with ASCVD included in our study across 130 facilities, 13.7% had at least one SASE reported. Individuals with a history of SASE were less likely to be on a statin at follow-up compared with those without SASE (72.0% vs 80.8%, p < 0.01). The median (interquartile range) facility rate of SASE reported was 140.5 (109.4-167.7) cases per 1000 patients with ASCVD. Significant facility-level variation in the rate of SASE reported was observed: MRR 1.38 (1.33-1.44) in the unadjusted model and MRR 1.56 (1.47-1.65) in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: Significant facility-level variation in SASE reporting was found within the VA healthcare system suggesting room for improvement in standardized documentation of SASEs among medical facilities. This has the potential to lead to improvement in statin utilization.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463677

RESUMO

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a proven causative factor for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Individuals with genetic conditions associated with lifelong very low LDL-C levels can be healthy. We now possess the pharmacological armamentarium (statins, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors) to reduce LDL-C to an unprecedented extent. Increasing numbers of patients are expected to achieve very low (<30 mg/dL) LDL-C. Cardiovascular event reduction increases log linearly in association with lowering LDL-C, without reaching any clear plateau even when very low LDL-C levels are achieved. It is still controversial whether lower LDL-C levels are associated with significant clinical adverse effects (e.g. new-onset diabetes mellitus or possibly haemorrhagic stroke) and long-term data are needed to address safety concerns. This review presents the familial conditions characterized by very low LDL-C, analyses trials with lipid-lowering agents where patients attained very low LDL-C, and summarizes the benefits and potential adverse effects associated with achieving very low LDL-C. Given the potential for cardiovascular benefit and short-term safe profile of very low LDL-C, it may be advantageous to attain such low levels in specific high-risk populations. Further studies are needed to compare the net clinical benefit of non-LDL-C-lowering interventions with very low LDL-C approaches, in addition to comparing the efficacy and safety of very low LDL-C levels vs. current recommended targets.

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(3): 363-364, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325990
8.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(2): 186-192, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with phenotypic severe hypercholesterolemia (SH), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) ≥ 190 mg/dl, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or adults 40-75 years with diabetes with risk factors or 10-year ASCVD risk ≥20% benefit from maximally tolerated statin therapy. Rural patients have decreased access to specialty care, potentially limiting appropriate treatment. HYPOTHESIS: Prior visit with cardiology will improve treatment of severe hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: We used an electronic medical record-based SH registry defined as ever having an LDL-c ≥ 190 mg/dl since January 1, 2000 (n = 18 072). We excluded 3205 (17.7%) patients not alive or age 20-75 years. Patients defined as not seen by cardiology if they had no visit within the past 3 years (2017-2019). RESULTS: We included 14 867 patients (82.3%; mean age 59.7 ± 10.3 years; 58.7% female). Most patients were not seen by cardiology (n = 13 072; 72.3%). After adjusting for age, sex, CVD, hypertension, diabetes and obesity, patients seen by cardiology were more likely to have any lipid-lowering medication (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.29-1.65), high-intensity statin (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.61-2.03), or proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor (OR = 5.96, 95% CI: 3.34-10.65) compared to those not seen by cardiology. Mean recent LDL-c was lower in patients seen by cardiology (126.8 ± 51.6 mg/dl vs. 152.4 ± 50.2 mg/dl, respectively; p < .001). CONCLUSION: In our predominantly rural population, a visit with cardiology improved the likelihood to be prescribed any statin, a high-intensity statin, or PCSK9 inhibitor. This more appropriately addressed their high life-time risk of ASCVD. Access to specialty care could improve SH patient's outcomes.

9.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189626

RESUMO

The US Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning in 2012 regarding the association of statin use with cognitive impairment. This may deter patients and practitioners from using statins for guideline-directed indications. Large studies have not shown an increase in cognitive impairment with statin use. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to October 2019. We present an up-to-date systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies examining the association between statin use and cognitive status in a population aged ≥60 years. Twenty-four studies with 1,404,459 participants were included in the review. Twenty-one were prospective observational studies, and 3 were RCTs. All 3 RCTs, which ranged from 3.2 to 5.6 years of follow-up, showed no significant association between statin use and adverse cognitive effects (odds ratio [OR] 1.03 [0.82-1.30]) and (OR 1.0 [0.61-1.65]). The mean difference in the Mini-Mental State Examination was insignificant (0.06 [-0.04 to 0.16]) in the third RCT. The follow-up for observational studies ranged from 3 to 15 years. Ten observational studies showed reduced incidence of dementia. Seven showed no association with incident dementia. Three studies showed decline in cognition was similar, whereas one showed slower decline with statin use. There was no evidence of adverse cognitive effects, including incidence of dementia, deterioration in global cognition, or specific cognitive domains associated with statin use in individuals aged ≥60 years. Future studies should examine this association in studies with longer follow-up periods.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017915, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170055

RESUMO

Background Despite guideline recommendations and clinical trial data suggesting benefit, statin therapy use in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains suboptimal. The aim of this study was to understand clinician and patient views on statin therapy, statin-associated side effects (SASEs), SASE management, and communication around statin risks and benefits. Methods and Results We conducted qualitative interviews of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who had SASEs (n=17) and clinicians who regularly prescribe statins (n=20). We used directed content analysis, facilitated by Atlas.ti software, to develop and revise codebooks for clinician and patient interviews. The most relevant codes were "pile sorted" into 5 main topic domains: (1) SASEs vary in severity, duration, and time of onset; (2) communication practices by clinicians around statins and SASEs are variable and impacted by clinician time limitations and patient preconceived notions of SASEs; (3) although a "trial and error" approach to managing SASEs may be effective in allowing clinicians to keep patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease on a statin, it can be frustrating for patients; (4) outside sources, such as the media, internet, social networks, and social circles, influence patients' perceptions and often impact the risk benefit discussion; and (5) a decision aid would be beneficial in facilitating clinician decision-making around SASEs and discussion of SASEs with the patients. Conclusions Statin use among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains suboptimal because of various patient- and clinician-related factors. The development of a decision aid to facilitate discussion of SASEs, clinician decision-making, and SASE management may improve statin use in this high-risk population.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e016744, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998625

RESUMO

Background The American Heart Association 2020 Impact Goals aimed to promote population health through emphasis on cardiovascular health (CVH). We examined the association between nondietary CVH metrics and patient-reported outcomes among a nationally representative sample of US adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results We included adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey between 2006 and 2015. CVH metrics were scored 1 point for each of the following: not smoking, being physically active, normal body mass index, no hypertension, no diabetes mellitus, and no dyslipidemia, or 0 points if otherwise. Diet was not assessed in Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Patient-reported outcomes were obtained by telephone survey and included questions pertaining to patient experience and health-related quality of life. Regression models were used to compare patient-reported outcomes based on CVH, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. There were 177 421 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey participants (mean age, 45 [17] years) representing ~187 million US adults without cardiovascular disease. About 12% (~21 million US adults) had poor CVH. Compared with individuals with optimal CVH, those with poor CVH had higher odds of reporting poor patient-provider communication (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.24), poor healthcare satisfaction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.08-1.22), poor perception of health (odds ratio, 5.89; 95% CI, 5.35-6.49), at least 2 disability days off work (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.48), and lower health-related quality of life scores. Conclusions Among US adults without cardiovascular disease, meeting a lower number of ideal CVH metrics is associated with poor patient-reported healthcare experience, poor perception of health, and lower health-related quality of life. Preventive measures aimed at optimizing ideal CVH metrics may improve patient-reported outcomes among this population.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The log linear association between on-treatment LDL-C levels and ASCVD events is amplified in higher risk patient subgroups of statin versus placebo trials. OBJECTIVES: Update previous systematic review to evaluate how the log linear association influences the magnitude of cardiovascular risk reduction from intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMED, Clinical trials.gov, and author files were searched from 1/1/2005 through 10/30/2019 for subgroup analyses of cardiovascular outcomes trials of moderate versus high intensity statin, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 mAbs with an ASCVD endpoint (nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, cardiovascular death). Annualized ASCVD event rates were used to extrapolate 5-year ASCVD risk for each treatment group reported in subgroup analyses, which were grouped into a priori risk groups according to annualized placebo/control rates of ≥4%, 3-3.9%, or <3% ASCVD risk. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Weighted least-squares regression was used to fit linear and log-linear models. RESULTS: Systematic review identified 96 treatment subgroups from 2 trials of moderate versus high intensity statin, 2 trials of a PCSK9 mAb versus placebo, and 1 trial of ezetimibe versus placebo. A log linear association between on-treatment LDL-C and ASCVD risk represents the association between on-treatment LDL-C levels and ASCVD event rates, especially in higher risk subgroups. Greater relative and absolute cardiovascular risk reductions from LDL-C lowering were observed when baseline LDL-C was >100 mg/dl and in extremely high risk ASCVD patient groups. CONCLUSIONS: Greater cardiovascular and mortality risk reduction benefits from intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be expected in those with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl, or in extremely high risk patient groups. When baseline LDL-C <100 mg/dl, the log linear association between LDL-C and event rates suggests that treatment options other than further LDL-C lowering should also be considered for optimal risk reduction.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 135: 174-176, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866450

RESUMO

Cardiac memory is a common cause of deep T-wave inversions (TWI) in the anterior precordial leads and can be difficult to distinguish from alternative causes of TWI such as myocardial ischemia. Cardiac memory is generally a benign condition except in the setting of prolonged QT when it can contribute to the precipitation of torsades de pointes. Herein, we describe the presentation and clinical course of a case of cardiac memory due to intermittent left bundle branch block (LBBB) that presented asymptomatically to our outpatient cardiology clinic with deep anterior TWI. We discuss common causes of and mechanisms underlying cardiac memory and how to distinguish it from alternative causes of TWI based on 12-lead electrocardiogram. In conclusion, intermittent LBBB is an under-recognized cause of cardiac memory that can present as deep anterior TWI mimicking cardiac ischemia, and awareness of this clinical entity may help prevent unnecessary invasive and expensive testing on otherwise healthy patients.

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 133: 1-6, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807385

RESUMO

The 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines for secondary prevention identified a group of "very high risk" (VHR) patients, those with multiple major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events or 1 major ASCVD event with multiple high-risk features. A second group, "high risk" (HR), was defined as patients without any of the risk features in the VHR group. The incidence and relative risk differences of these 2 groups in a nontrial population has not been well characterized. Using the Northwestern Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse, we compared the incidence of VHR and HR patients as well as their relative risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a single-center, large, academic, retrospective cohort study. Total 1,483 patients with acute coronary events from January 2014 to December 2016 were risk stratified into VHR and HR groups. International Classification of Diseases versions 9 and 10 were used to assess for composite events of unstable angina pectoris, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, or ST-elevation myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death with a median follow-up of 3.3 years. VHR patients were found to have 87 ± 5.4 composite events per 1,000 patient-years compared with HR patients who had 33 ± 5.1 events per 1,000 patient-years (p <0.001). VHR group had increased risk of future events as compared to the HR group (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio 1.66 [1.01 to 2.74], p = 0.047). In conclusion, these results support the stratification of patients into the VHR and HR risk groups for secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(9): e000094, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762254

RESUMO

It is critical that diet quality be assessed and discussed at the point of care with clinicians and other members of the healthcare team to reduce the incidence and improve the management of diet-related chronic disease, especially cardiovascular disease. Dietary screening or counseling is not usually a component of routine medical visits. Moreover, numerous barriers exist to the implementation of screening and counseling, including lack of training and knowledge, lack of time, sense of futility, lack of reimbursement, competing demands during the visit, and absence of validated rapid diet screener tools with coupled clinical decision support to identify actionable modifications for improvement. With more widespread use of electronic health records, there is an enormous unmet opportunity to provide evidence-based clinician-delivered dietary guidance using rapid diet screener tools that must be addressed. In this scientific statement from the American Heart Association, we provide rationale for the widespread adoption of rapid diet screener tools in primary care and relevant specialty care prevention settings, discuss the theory- and practice-based criteria of a rapid diet screener tool that supports valid and feasible diet assessment and counseling in clinical settings, review existing tools, and discuss opportunities and challenges for integrating a rapid diet screener tool into clinician workflows through the electronic health record.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1673-1678, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669405

RESUMO

The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines recently published its 2018 recommendations on management of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in people with diabetes. For primary prevention, moderate-intensity statin therapy is recommended for those aged 40-75 years, with a preference for high-intensity statin treatment for older subjects and for those with higher estimated risk or risk-enhancing factors following a patient-clinician discussion. Statin therapy may be reasonable in adults <40 years or >75 years of age where there is less evidence for benefit. For people with diabetes and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, high-intensity statin therapy is recommended. The majority of these subjects have very high risk, and an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL is recommended. If this target is not achieved, ezetimibe and/or a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor may be added.

17.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(9): 46, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671475

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robust evidence is emerging regarding the contribution of sex-specific risk factors to a woman's unique risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This review summarizes the available literature regarding the association of sex-specific risk factors and ASCVD in women. RECENT FINDINGS: The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association Guidelines recommend estimation of 10-year risk of a first ASCVD event using the 2013 Pooled Cohort Equations. This can be further personalized by identifying sex-specific risk factors present in a woman's history. There are multiple vulnerable periods across a woman's life course that are associated with increased risk of ASCVD. Risk factors across the reproductive life course that have been shown to correlate with higher risk for future ASCVD include early menarche, adverse pregnancy outcomes (such as pre-eclampsia or preterm birth), and early natural or surgical menopause. In addition, certain conditions that are more common among women, including autoimmune diseases, history of chest irradiation, and certain chemotherapies, also need to be considered. Finally, risk assessment can be refined with subclinical disease imaging (coronary calcium score) if there remains uncertainty about clinical management with lipid-lowering therapies for primary prevention after inclusion of these risk enhancers. Risk assessment for ASCVD in women requires a personalized approach that incorporates sex-specific risk factors to guide primary prevention measures, such as lipid-lowering therapies. Coronary calcium score imaging may also help further refine risk assessment, but no clinical trials conducted to date have addressed this question.

19.
Am J Med ; 133(11): 1322-1327, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins are the first-line therapy for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, there are secondary prevention patients who are either intolerant to maximal statin therapy or do not get adequate effects from a high-intensity statin. While data exist for the additional LDL-C-lowering effects of ezetimibe, there are no data on additional LDL-C lowering of bile acid sequestrants when combined with statin therapy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the LDL-C-lowering effects of bile acid sequestrants when added to statin therapy. METHODS: Databases (Medline via PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing statin therapy to statin therapy with the addition of bile acid sequestrants. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. A meta-regression was performed to estimate the mean difference in LDL-C between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Without controlling for other variables, data suggest that combining statin with bile acid sequestrant increases the percentage change in LDL-C by 16.2 points, on average, compared with statin use alone. CONCLUSION: In patients unable to tolerate an adequate statin dosage, bile acid sequestrants offer a viable alternative with additional LDL-C-lowering benefit.

20.
Adv Nutr ; 11(5): 1071-1078, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361757

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity among youth in the USA is currently >18% with projections that more than half of today's children will be obese as adults. The growth trajectory of children more likely to become obese is determined by weight in earliest childhood, and childhood body mass index (BMI) tracks through adolescence and adulthood. Childhood consequences of obesity include increased risk of asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, orthopedic disorders, and reduced academic performance. Health implications of obesity in adulthood include premature coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, stroke, and certain cancers, contributing to the leading causes of adult mortality. Early childhood obesity is influenced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity and environmental obesogens, and is associated with poverty, food insecurity, and poor nutritional quality. New strategies for primordial prevention of early childhood obesity require focusing attention on growth parameters during the first 2 y of life, with support for increasing the duration of breastfeeding, and improvements in dietary quality and availability, particularly the reduced consumption of added sugars. Reducing the prevalence of obesity among adolescent females and reducing exposure to environmental obesogens may reduce the prevalence of transgenerational obesity. The reduction of early childhood obesity could improve population health, quality of life, and longevity throughout the life course.

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