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1.
Prostate ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations of the BRCA2 gene are the most frequent alterations found in germline DNA from men with prostate cancer (PrCa), but clinical parameters that could better orientate for BRCA2 mutation screening need to be established. METHODS: Germline DNA from 325 PrCa patients (median age at diagnosis: 57 years old) was screened for BRCA2 mutation. The mutation frequency was compared between three subgroups: patients with an age at diagnosis at 55 years old and under (Group I); a personal or family history of breast, uterine or ovarian cancer (Group II); or a metastatic disease (Group III). Frequency of BRCA2 mutations was established for each combination of phenotypes, and compared between patients meeting or not the criteria for each subgroup using Fisher's exact test. Mutual information, direct effect, elasticity and contribution to the mutational status of each phenotype, taking into account overlap between subgroups, were also estimated using Bayesian algorithms. RESULTS: The proportion of BRCA2 mutation was 5.9% in Group I, 10.9% in Group II and 6.9% in Group III. The frequency of BRCA2 mutation was significantly higher among patients of Group II (p = .006), and reached 15.6% among patients of this group who presented a metastatic disease. Mutual information, direct effect, elasticity and contribution to the mutational status were the highest for phenotype II. Fifteen (71.4%) of the 21 BRCA2 mutation carriers had an aggressive form of the disease. Four (19%) of them died from PrCa after a median follow-up duration of 64.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that a higher frequency of BRCA2 mutation carriers is observed, not only among PrCa patients with young onset or a metastatic disease, but also with a personal or a familial history of breast cancer.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(8): 1895-1909, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368296

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in over 180 loci have been associated with breast cancer (BC) through genome-wide association studies involving mostly unselected population-based case-control series. Some of them modify BC risk of women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation and may also explain BC risk variability in BC-prone families with no BRCA1/2 mutation. Here, we assessed the contribution of SNPs of the iCOGS array in GENESIS consisting of BC cases with no BRCA1/2 mutation and a sister with BC, and population controls. Genotyping data were available for 1281 index cases, 731 sisters with BC, 457 unaffected sisters and 1272 controls. In addition to the standard SNP-level analysis using index cases and controls, we performed pedigree-based association tests to capture transmission information in the sibships. We also performed gene- and pathway-level analyses to maximize the power to detect associations with lower-frequency SNPs or those with modest effect sizes. While SNP-level analyses identified 18 loci, gene-level analyses identified 112 genes. Furthermore, 31 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and 7 Atlas of Cancer Signaling Network pathways were highlighted (false discovery rate of 5%). Using results from the "index case-control" analysis, we built pathway-derived polygenic risk scores (PRS) and assessed their performance in the population-based CECILE study and in a data set composed of GENESIS-affected sisters and CECILE controls. Although these PRS had poor predictive value in the general population, they performed better than a PRS built using our SNP-level findings, and we found that the joint effect of family history and PRS needs to be considered in risk prediction models.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Five to 10% of breast cancers (BCs) occur in a genetic predisposition context (mainly BRCA pathogenic variant). Nevertheless, little is known about immune tumor infiltration, response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), pathologic complete response (pCR) and adverse events according to BRCA status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 1199 invasive BC patients treated with NAC between 2002 and 2012, we identified 267 patients tested for a germline BRCA pathogenic variant. We evaluated pre-NAC and post-NAC immune infiltration (TILs). Response to chemotherapy was assessed by pCR rates. Association of clinical and pathological factors with TILs, pCR and survival was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Among 1199 BC patients: 46 were BRCA-deficient and 221 BRCA-proficient or wild type (WT). At NAC completion, pCR was observed in 84/266 (31%) patients and pCR rates were significantly higher in BRCA-deficient BC (p = 0.001), and this association remained statistically significant only in the luminal BC subtype (p = 0.006). The interaction test between BC subtype and BRCA status was nearly significant (Pinteraction = 0.056). Pre and post-NAC TILs were not significantly different between BRCA-deficient and BRCA-proficient carriers; however, in the luminal BC group, post-NAC TILs were significantly higher in BRCA-deficient BC. Survival analysis were not different between BRCA-carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA mutation status is associated with higher pCR rates and post-NAC TILs in patients with luminal BC. BRCA-carriers with luminal BCs may represent a subset of patients deriving higher benefit from NAC. Second line therapies, including immunotherapy after NAC, could be of interest in non-responders to NAC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947577

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome and presents with cytopenias, characteristic physical features, increased chromosomal breaks, and a higher risk of malignancy. Genetic features of this disease vary among different ethnic groups. We aimed to identify the incidence, outcome, overall condition, and genetic features of patients affected with FA in Lebanon to optimize management, identify the most common genes, describe new mutations, and offer prenatal diagnosis and counseling to the affected families. Over a period of 17 years, 40 patients with FA were identified in 2 major diagnostic laboratories in Lebanon. Information was obtained on their clinical course and outcome from their primary physician. DNA was available in 20 patients and was studied for underlying mutations. FANCA seemed to be the most frequent genetic alteration and 2 novel mutations, one each in FANCA and FANCG, were identified. Nine patients developed various malignancies and died. This is the first study looking at clinical and genetic features of FA in Lebanon, and points to the need for establishing a national and regional registry for this condition.

5.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3593-3605, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641407

RESUMO

BRCA2 is a clinically actionable gene implicated in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition that has become a high priority target for improving the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS). Among all BRCA2 VUS, those causing partial/leaky splicing defects are the most challenging to classify because the minimal level of full-length (FL) transcripts required for normal function remains to be established. Here, we explored BRCA2 exon 3 (BRCA2e3) as a model for calibrating variant-induced spliceogenicity and estimating thresholds for BRCA2 haploinsufficiency. In silico predictions, minigene splicing assays, patients' RNA analyses, a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) complementation assay and retrieval of patient-related information were combined to determine the minimal requirement of FL BRCA2 transcripts. Of 100 BRCA2e3 variants tested in the minigene assay, 64 were found to be spliceogenic, causing mild to severe RNA defects. Splicing defects were also confirmed in patients' RNA when available. Analysis of a neutral leaky variant (c.231T>G) showed that a reduction of approximately 60% of FL BRCA2 transcripts from a mutant allele does not cause any increase in cancer risk. Moreover, data obtained from mESCs suggest that variants causing a decline in FL BRCA2 with approximately 30% of wild-type are not pathogenic, given that mESCs are fully viable and resistant to DNA-damaging agents in those conditions. In contrast, mESCs producing lower relative amounts of FL BRCA2 exhibited either null or hypomorphic phenotypes. Overall, our findings are likely to have broader implications on the interpretation of BRCA2 variants affecting the splicing pattern of other essential exons. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that BRCA2 tumor suppressor function tolerates substantial reduction in full-length transcripts, helping to determine the pathogenicity of BRCA2 leaky splicing variants, some of which may not increase cancer risk.

6.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104816, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480311

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease that is mostly transmitted, according to a recessive model with biallelic germline alterations in one of the 22 genes of the FA pathway, or monoallelic alteration of the 23rd FA gene (RAD51). The FA pathway is implicated in interstrand DNA crosslink repair, induces genome stability, and is a potent driver of tumorigenesis. Patients with FA have a 500 to 1000-fold increased risk of developing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients with FA developing an HNSCC, usually have severe radiation toxicities. In this context, the modalities of radiation therapy should be adapted. Some patients with FA present a milder phenotype, especially in the case of medullary FA gene spontaneous reversion. Therefore, in an unusual context of HNSCC, such as no risk factors or a young age, it may be very useful to search anemia or development abnormalities, that may unravel a yet undiagnosed FA disease. Besides, in some young patients with HNSCC who did not suffer from FA, a monoallelic germline alteration in an FA gene could be combined with a second risk factor such as HPV infection or APOBEC alteration. Although several in vitro studies showed that normal cells with monoallelic FA gene alteration may have a particular radiosensitivity, these observations have not been confirmed in vivo in FA heterozygotes patients. Finally, some somatic activating alterations have also been found in HSNCC tumor samples and could be associated with radioresistance.

7.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report a very rare case of familial breast cancer and diffuse gastric cancer, with germline pathogenic variants in both BRCA1 and CDH1 genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such an association.Family description: The proband is a woman diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 52 years. She requested genetic counselling in 2012, at the age of 91 years, because of a history of breast cancer in her daughter, her sister, her niece and her paternal grandmother and was therefore concerned about her relatives. Her sister and maternal aunt also had gastric cancer. She was tested for several genes associated with hereditary breast cancer. RESULTS: A large deletion of BRCA1 from exons 1 to 7 and two CDH1 pathogenic cis variants were identified. CONCLUSION: This complex situation is challenging for genetic counselling and management of at-risk individuals.

8.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(8): 843-850, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556071

RESUMO

Importance: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common pediatric intraocular neoplasm. RB is a complex model in which atypical pathogenic variants, modifier genes, imprinting, and mosaicism are known to be associated with the phenotype. In-depth understanding of RB therefore requires large genotype-phenotype studies. Objective: To assess the association between genotype and phenotype in patients with RB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, retrospective cohort study, conducted from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2017, enrolled 1404 consecutive ascertained patients with RB who consulted an oncogeneticist. All patients had their genotype and phenotype recorded. Statistical analysis was performed from July 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: RB1 germline and somatic pathogenic variant types, family history, and disease presentation characteristics (ie, age at diagnosis, sex, laterality, and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification group). Results: Among 1404 patients with RB (734 [52.3%] female; mean [SD] age, 20.2 [21.2] months), 866 cases (61.7%) were unilateral and 538 cases (38.3%) were bilateral. Loss of function variants were found throughout the coding sequence, with 259 of 272 (95.2%) somatic pathogenic variants and 537 of 606 (88.6%) germline pathogenic variants (difference, 6.6%; 95% CI, 4.0%-9.2%; P < .001) after excluding tumor-specific pathogenic variants (ie, promoter methylation and loss of heterozygosity); a novel low-penetrance region was identified in exon 24. Compared with germline pathogenic variants estimated to retain RB protein expression, germline pathogenic variants estimated to abrogate RB protein expression were associated with an earlier mean (SD) age at diagnosis (12.3 [11.3] months among 457 patients vs 16.3 [13.2] months among 55 patients; difference, 4 months; 95% CI, 1.9-6.1 months; P = .01), more frequent bilateral involvement (84.2% among 452 patients vs 65.2% among 45 patients; difference, 18.9%; 95% CI, 14.5%-23.3%; P < .001), and more advanced International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification group (85.3% among 339 patients vs 73.9% among 34 patients; difference: 11.4%; 95% CI, 6.5%-16.3%; P = .047). Among the 765 nongermline carriers of an RB1 pathogenic variant, most were female (419 females [54.8%] vs 346 males [45.2%]; P = .008), and males were more likely to have bilateral RB (23 males [71.4%] vs 12 females [34.3%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that RB risk is associated with the germline pathogenic variant and with maintenance of RB protein and that there is a sex-linked mechanism for nongermline carriers.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 100-103, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335476

RESUMO

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) commercial companies offer genetic tests that are presented as allowing individuals the opportunity to increase their capacities to be in charge of their own healthcare managements. DTC companies deny performing medical tests, yet they provide data based on sequencing multigene panel or whole exome. This contradiction allows these companies to escape the requirements of a regulated medical practice that guarantees the quality of the tests, as well as the information and support for tested individuals. Herein, we illustrate the lack of such requirements by analysing the bad experience of a young man who dealt with DTC health genetic testing companies. There is an emergency for DTC testing to be either deprived of any medically relevant information, or carried out in a legally regulated medical framework.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Testes Genéticos/normas , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Testes Genéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Bioinformatics ; 36(12): 3888-3889, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315385

RESUMO

SUMMARY: We introduce shallowHRD, a software tool to evaluate tumor homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) at low coverage (shallow WGS or sWGS; ∼1X coverage). The tool, based on mining copy number alterations profile, implements a fast and straightforward procedure that shows 87.5% sensitivity and 90.5% specificity for HRD detection. shallowHRD could be instrumental in predicting response to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, to which HRD tumors are selectively sensitive. shallowHRD displays efficiency comparable to most state-of-art approaches, is cost-effective, generates low-storable outputs and is also suitable for fixed-formalin paraffin embedded tissues. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: shallowHRD R script and documentation are available at https://github.com/aeeckhou/shallowHRD. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

11.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 203-209, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172432

RESUMO

CDK12 variants were investigated as a genetic susceptibility to ovarian cancer in a series of 416 unrelated and consecutive patients with ovarian carcinoma and who carry neither germline BRCA1 nor BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The presence of CDK12 variants was searched in germline DNA by massive parallel sequencing on pooled DNAs. The lack of detection of deleterious variants and the observed proportion of missense variants in the series of ovarian carcinoma patients as compared with all human populations strongly suggests that CDK12 is not an ovarian cancer predisposing gene.

13.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1374-1386, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046981

RESUMO

Germline nonsense and canonical splice site variants identified in disease-causing genes are generally considered as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles and classified as pathogenic. However, a fraction of such variants could maintain function through their impact on RNA splicing. To test this hypothesis, we used the alternatively spliced BRCA2 exon 12 (E12) as a model system because its in-frame skipping leads to a potentially functional protein. All E12 variants corresponding to putative LoF variants or predicted to alter splicing (n = 40) were selected from human variation databases and characterized for their impact on splicing in minigene assays and, when available, in patient lymphoblastoid cell lines. Moreover, a selection of variants was analyzed in a mouse embryonic stem cell-based functional assay. Using these complementary approaches, we demonstrate that a subset of variants, including nonsense variants, induced in-frame E12 skipping through the modification of splice sites or regulatory elements and, consequently, led to an internally deleted but partially functional protein. These data provide evidence, for the first time in a cancer-predisposition gene, that certain presumed null variants can retain function due to their impact on splicing. Further studies are required to estimate cancer risk associated with these hypomorphic variants. More generally, our findings highlight the need to exercise caution in the interpretation of putative LoF variants susceptible to induce in-frame splicing modifications. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence that certain presumed loss-of-function variants in a cancer predisposition gene can retain function due to their direct impact on RNA splicing.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
14.
Psychol Health Med ; 25(6): 756-766, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505944

RESUMO

The disclosure of genetic information is an important issue in cancer prevention. This study based on a French national cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (GENEPSO-PS cohort, N=233) aimed to assess the prevalence of parental disclosure of genetic information to children 10 years after genetic testing, with a focus on gender differences. Most participants (n = 193, 131 women) reported having children. A total of 72.0% of offspring had received genetic information (88.8% for adult offspring, p < .001), with no differences according to the gender of the mutation-carrying parent. While female carriers disclosed genetic information more often than male carriers (54.1% versus 38.3%, p = .029), they did so irrespective of the gender of their offspring. Moreover, female carriers who had developed incident cancer after genetic testing disclosed genetic information more frequently than unaffected female carriers (70.7% versus 48.5%, p = .005). A multivariate analysis confirmed the effects of both gender and cancer on disclosure to offspring. The same results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to adult offspring. This study reveals high rates of disclosure of positive BRCA1/2 mutation status to children 10 years after genetic testing, irrespective of the gender of the carrier/offspring. However, female carriers disclosed genetic information more frequently than male carriers.

15.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 29(1): e13173, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a comprehensive assessment of the psychometrics of the "Psychosocial Aspects in Hereditary Cancer" (PAHC) questionnaire in French, German and Spanish. METHODS: Women consecutively approached in Cancer Genetic Clinics completed the PAHC, distress and satisfaction questionnaires at pre-testing (T1) and after test result disclosure (T2). In addition to standard psychometric attributes, we assessed the PAHC ability to respond to change (i.e. improvement or deterioration from T1 to T2) in perceived difficulties and computed minimal important differences (MID) in PAHC scores as compared with self-reported needs for additional counselling. RESULTS: Of 738 eligible counselees, 214 (90%) in France (Paris), 301 (92%) in Germany (Cologne) and 133 (77%) in Spain (Barcelona) completed the PAHC. A six-factor revised PAHC model yielded acceptable CFA goodness-of-fit indexes and good all scales internal consistencies. PAHC scales demonstrated expected conceptual differences with distress and satisfaction with counselling. Different levels of psychosocial difficulties were evidenced between counselees' subgroups and over time (p-values < .05). MID estimates ranged from 8 to 15 for improvement and 9 to 21 for deterioration. CONCLUSION: The PAHC French, German and Spanish versions are reliable and valid for evaluating the psychosocial difficulties of women at high BC risk attending genetic clinics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , França , Testes Genéticos , Alemanha , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diferença Mínima Clinicamente Importante , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Mutat ; 41(3): 608-618, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729086

RESUMO

Nijmegen breakage syndrome caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of the DNA-damage response gene NBN, is characterized by severe microcephaly, cancer proneness, infertility, and karyotype abnormalities. We previously reported NBN variants in siblings suffering from fertility defects. Here, we identify a new founder NBN variant (c.442A>G, p.(Thr148Ala)) in Lebanese patients associated with isolated infertility. Functional analyses explored preserved or altered functions correlated with their remarkably mild phenotype. Transcript and protein analyses supported the use of an alternative transcript with in-frame skipping of exons 4-5, leading to p84-NBN protein with a preserved forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. The level of NBN was dramatically reduced and the MRN complex delocalized to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, ataxia-elangiectasia mutated (ATM) also shifted from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting some interaction between ATM and the MRN complex at a steady state. The ATM pathway activation, attenuated in typical patients with NBS, appeared normal under camptothecin treatment in these new NBN-related infertile patients. Cell cycle checkpoint defect was present in these atypical patients, although to a lesser extent than in typical patients with NBS. In conclusion, we report three new NBN-related infertile patients and we suggest that preserved FHA domain could be responsible for the mild phenotype and intermediate DNA-damage response defects.

17.
Psychooncology ; 29(3): 550-556, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasingly complex genetics counseling requires guidance to facilitate counselees' psychosocial adjustment. We explored networks of inter-relationships among coping strategies and specific psychosocial difficulties in women tested for hereditary breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: Of 752 counselees consecutively approached, 646 (86%) completed questionnaires addressing coping strategies (Brief-COPE) and psychosocial difficulties (PAHC) after the initial genetic consultation (T1), and 460 (61%) of them again after the test result (T2). We applied network analysis comparing partial correlations among these questionnaire scales, according to the type of genetic test - single gene-targeted or multigene panel, test result and, before and after testing. RESULTS: Overall, 98 (21.3%), 259 (56.3%), 59 (12.8%) and 44 (9.6%) women received a pathogenic variant, uninformative negative (panel testing), variant of uncertain significance (VUS) or true negative (targeted testing) result, respectively. In most networks, connections were strongest between avoidance and general negative emotions. Cognitive restructuring was inter-related to lower psychosocial difficulties. Avoidance and familial/social relationship difficulties were strongly related in women receiving a pathogenic variant. Stronger inter-relationships were also noticed between avoidance and worries about personal cancer and concerns about hereditary predisposition in women receiving a VUS result. Differences in the prominence of inter-relationships were observed by type of testing and assessment time. CONCLUSIONS: Network analysis may be fruitful to highlight prominent inter-relationships among coping strategies and psychosocial difficulties, in women tested for HBOC susceptibility, offering guidance for counseling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029926, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES AND SETTING: Advances in multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility has increased the complexity of counselling, requiring particular attention to counselees' psychosocial needs. Changes in psychosocial problems before and after genetic testing were prospectively compared between genetic test results in women tested for breast or ovarian cancer genetic susceptibility in French, German and Spanish clinics. PARTICIPANTS AND MEASURES: Among 752 counselees consecutively approached, 646 (86%) were assessed after the initial genetic consultation (T1), including 510 (68%) affected with breast cancer, of which 460 (61%) were assessed again after receiving the test result (T2), using questionnaires addressing genetic-specific psychosocial problems (Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC)-six scales). Sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected. RESULTS: Seventy-nine (17.2%), 19 (4.1%), 259 (56.3%), 44 (9.6%) and 59 (12.8%) women received a BRCA1/2, another high/moderate-risk pathogenic variant (PV), negative uninformative, true negative (TN) or variant of uncertain significance result (VUS), respectively. On multiple regression analyses, compared with women receiving another result, those with a VUS decreased more in psychosocial problems related to hereditary predisposition (eg, coping with the test result) (ß=-0.11, p<0.05) and familial/social issues (eg, risk communication) (ß=-0.13, p<0.05), almost independently from their problems before testing. Women with a PV presented no change in hereditary predisposition problems and, so as women with a TN result, a non-significant increase in familial/social issues. Other PAHC scales (ie, emotions, familial cancer, personal cancer and children-related issues) were not affected by genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS: In women tested for breast or ovarian cancer genetic risk in European genetics clinics, psychosocial problems were mostly unaffected by genetic testing. Apart from women receiving a VUS result, those with another test result presented unchanged needs in counselling in particular about hereditary predisposition and familial/social issues.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/psicologia , Humanos , Psicologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
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