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1.
Diseases ; 6(4)2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469323

RESUMO

Vaccination remains the most effective and essential prophylactic tool against infectious diseases. Enormous efforts have been made to develop effective vaccines against malaria but successes remain so far limited. Novel adjuvants may offer a significant advantage in the development of malaria vaccines, in particular if combined with inherently immunogenic platforms, such as virus-like particles (VLP). Dioleoyl phosphatidylserine (DOPS), which is expressed on the outer surface of apoptotic cells, represents a novel adjuvant candidate that may confer significant advantage over existing adjuvants, such as alum. In the current study we assessed the potential of DOPS to serve as an adjuvant in the development of a vaccine against malaria either alone or combined with VLP using Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) as a target antigen. TRAP was chemically coupled to VLPs derived from the cucumber mosaic virus fused to a universal T cell epitope of tetanus toxin (CuMVtt). Mice were immunized with TRAP alone or formulated in alum or DOPS and compared to TRAP coupled to CuMVtt formulated in PBS or DOPS. Induced immune responses, in particular T cell responses, were assessed as the major protective effector cell population induced by TRAP. The protective capacity of the various formulations was assessed using a transgenic Plasmodium berghei expressing PfTRAP. All vaccine formulations using adjuvants and/or VLP increased humoral and T cell immunogenicity for PfTRAP compared to the antigen alone. Display on VLPs, in particular if formulated with DOPS, induced the strongest and most protective immune response. Thus, the combination of VLP with DOPS may harness properties of both immunogenic components and optimally enhance induction of protective immune responses.

3.
Surg Oncol ; 27(1): 100-105, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system presents for the first time a specific classification for esophageal carcinomas treated with neoadjuvant therapy (yTNM8). In this single center study, we applied the novel staging system in a "real life" case series and compared the prognostic value of yTNM8 with the preceding 7th edition (TNM7). METHODS: Out of 272 consecutive esophageal carcinomas that were treated during a 15-year period in one surgical center, all 198 cases that had undergone neoadjuvant therapy were reviewed and classified according to TNM7 and yTNM8. RESULTS: 50 ypT0 cases that had no specific staging in TNM7 were included into stages I (ypT0N0M0; n = 42), IIIA (ypT0N1M0; n = 6), IVA (ypT0N3M0; n = 1) and IVB (ypT0N0M1; n = 1) in yTNM8. Both systems showed significant prognostic impact (p < 0.0001 each). yTNM8 was superior regarding prognostication with lower values for goodness-of-fit criteria (Akaike Information Criterion 1589.331 vs 1593.239; and Schwarz Bayesian Criterion 1605.487 vs.1619.088). However, in TNM7, stage IIB tumors had better prognosis than stage IIA tumors, and likewise, stage IIIA tumors better compared to stage II in yTNM8. CONCLUSIONS: yTNM8 allows accurate staging of esophageal carcinomas treated by neoadjuvant therapy, with slightly improved prognostication compared to TNM7. Additional data acquisition will be necessary for further improvement of staging for esophageal carcinomas after neoadjuvant treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esofagectomia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1529-1536.e6, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies is a critical parameter for successful allergen-specific immunotherapy. IgG antibodies can inhibit IgE-mediated mast cell activation through direct allergen neutralization or through the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb. The affinity of IgE antibodies to the allergen has been shown to be critical for cellular activation. OBJECTIVE: Here we addressed the question of affinity thresholds of allergen-specific IgG antibodies for inhibition of mast cell activation using 2 different mAbs against the major cat allergen Fel d 1 both in vitro and in vivo in mice. METHODS: Sequences of the 2 high-affinity mAbs were back-mutated to germline, resulting in low-affinity (10-7 mol/L) antibodies of the exact same specificity. RESULTS: Using these newly generated recombinant antibodies, we demonstrate that low-affinity antibodies are still able to inhibit mast cell activation through FcγRIIb but do not neutralize the allergen. CONCLUSION: Antibody affinity dictates the mechanism of mast cell inhibition, and IgG antibodies triggering the inhibitory FcγRIIb pathway can show a broader cross-reactivity pattern than previously thought. This indicates that allergen-specific immunotherapy generates a larger protective umbrella of inhibitory IgG antibodies than previously appreciated.

5.
NPJ Vaccines ; 2: 30, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263885

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies are widely used to treat non-infectious conditions but are costly. Vaccines could offer a cost-effective alternative but have been limited by sub-optimal T-cell stimulation and/or weak vaccine responses in recipients, for example, in elderly patients. We have previously shown that the repetitive structure of virus-like-particles (VLPs) can effectively bypass self-tolerance in therapeutic vaccines. Their efficacy could be increased even further by the incorporation of an epitope stimulating T cell help. However, the self-assembly and stability of VLPs from envelope monomer proteins is sensitive to geometry, rendering the incorporation of foreign epitopes difficult. We here show that it is possible to engineer VLPs derived from a non human-pathogenic plant virus to incorporate a powerful T-cell-stimulatory epitope derived from Tetanus toxoid. These VLPs (termed CMVTT) retain self-assembly as well as long-term stability. Since Th cell memory to Tetanus is near universal in humans, CMVTT-based vaccines can deliver robust antibody-responses even under limiting conditions. By way of proof of concept, we tested a range of such vaccines against chronic inflammatory conditions (model: psoriasis, antigen: interleukin-17), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's, ß-amyloid), and allergic disease (cat allergy, Fel-d1), respectively. Vaccine responses were uniformly strong, selective, efficient in vivo, observed even in old mice, and employing low vaccine doses. In addition, randomly ascertained human blood cells were reactive to CMVTT-VLPs, confirming recognition of the incorporated Tetanus epitope. The CMVTT-VLP platform is adaptable to almost any antigen and its features and performance are ideally suited for the design of vaccines delivering enhanced responsiveness in aging populations.

6.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177964, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562667

RESUMO

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted cytokine that is expressed in various cancer cell lines and human tumor such as colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and melanoma. It plays significant roles in angiogenesis, metastasis, differentiation and cell growth. The expression of PTN in the adult is limited to the hippocampus in an activity-dependent manner, making it a very attractive target for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi) offers great potential as a new powerful therapeutic strategy based on its highly specific and efficient silencing of a target gene. However, efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a significant hurdle for its successful therapeutic application. In this study, we first identified, on a cell-based experiment, applying a 1:1 mixture of two PTN specific siRNA engenders a higher silencing efficiency on both mRNA and protein level than using any of them discretely at the same dose. As a consequence, slower melanoma cells growth was also observed for using two specific siRNA combinatorially. To establish a robust way for siRNA delivery in vivo and further investigate how silence of PTN affects tumor growth, we tested three different methods to deliver siRNA in vivo: first non-targeted in-vivo delivery of siRNA via jetPEI; second lung targeted delivery of siRNA via microbubble coated jetPEI; third tumor cell targeted delivery of siRNA via transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI). As a result, we found that all three in-vivo siRNAs delivery methods led to an evident inhibition of melanoma growth in non-immune deficiency C57BL/6 mice without a measureable change of ALT and AST activities. Both targeted delivery methods showed more significant curative effect than jetPEI. The lung targeted delivery by microbubble coated jetPEI revealed a comparable therapeutic effect with Tf-PEI, indicating its potential application for target delivery of siRNA in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Citocinas/genética , Inativação Gênica , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Animais , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos
7.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 10(2): 283-292, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28203285

RESUMO

Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites (RA) can be treated with repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP), with the insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or with liver transplantation. However, side effects and complications of these therapeutic options, as well as organ shortage, warrant the development of novel treatments. The automated low-flow ascites pump (alfapump®) is a subcutaneously-implanted novel battery-driven device that pumps ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the urinary bladder. Ascites can therefore be aspirated in a time- and volume-controlled mode and evacuated by urination. Here we review the currently available data about patient selection, efficacy and safety of the alfapump and provide recommendations for the management of patients treated with this new method.

8.
Dig Surg ; 31(4-5): 324-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25427835

RESUMO

Small-intestine adhesiolysis can be very time consuming and may be associated with bowel wall damage. The risk for injuries to the small or large bowel resulting in increased morbidity and costs is considerable. Both efficient and gentle dissection of adhesions is important in order to avoid intraoperative perforation or, worse, postoperative intestinal leaks. We present a technique using drops of body-warm isotonic saline solution to create an edematous swelling of the adhesions. This procedure not only protects the bowel from cooling and drying, but also simplifies the dissection and, thus, lowers the risk of intestinal lesions.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Intestino Delgado , Segurança do Paciente , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Dissecação/métodos , Humanos , Aderências Teciduais/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
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