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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) among young individuals is increasing, but the phenotypic characteristics, causes and clinical outcomes in this group have not been well described. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, 8712 ACS patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and were prospectively enrolled. We defined a young patient as female <50 years and male <45 years. The causes of ACS were defined by an adjudication committee. The primary endpoint was the patient-oriented composite endpoint (POCE) of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or any revascularization at 12 months. RESULTS: Among 8712 ACS patients, 472 (5.4%) patients were young (26% female). The main cause of ACS in young patients was atherosclerosis (86.5%), followed by coronary artery embolism (9%), and spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) (4.5%). POCE occurred less frequently in young compared to old patients (8.5% vs. 16.7%, hazard ratio 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.35-0.66), p < 0.001). The rates of the individual components of the POCE were lower in young including all-cause mortality (3.2% versus 9.5%, 0.32 (0.19-0.54), p < 0.001), myocardial infarction (1.9% versus 3.7%, 0.49 (0.25-0.95), p = 0.035) and any revascularization (5.1% versus 7.4%, 0.65 (0.43-0.97), p = 0.037). Young patients with SCAD had a higher rate of death as compared to those with atherosclerosis, mainly attributed to cardiac deaths. CONCLUSIONS: One out of 20 ACS patients undergoing PCI was young and the principal cause was atherosclerosis. Young carry a lower risk for future events compared to older ACS patients. The underlying cause leading to ACS should be considered in appropriate risk stratification of young patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. NCT02241291.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been associated with a dismal prognosis. However, scarce data exist on IE perivalvular extension (PEE) in such patients. METHODS: This multicenter study included a total of 579 patients who had the diagnosis of definite IE at a median of 171 (53-421) days following TAVR. PEE was defined as the presence of an intracardiac abscess, pseudoaneurysm or fistula confirmed by transthoracic/transophageal echocardiography, computed tomography or peri-operative findings. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients (18.1%) were diagnosed with PEE (perivalvular abscess, pseudoaneurysm, fistula, or a combination in 87, 7, 7, and 4 patients, respectively). A history of chronic kidney disease (ORadj: 2.08; 95% CI: [1.27-3.41], p=0.003) and IE secondary to coagulase-negative staphylococci (ORadj: 2.71; 95% CI: [1.57-4.69], p<0.001) was associated with an increased risk of PEE. Surgery was performed at index IE episode in 34 patients (32.4%) with PEE (vs. 15.2% in patients without PEE, p<0.001). In-hospital and 2-year mortality rates among PEE-IE patients were 36.5% and 69.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with an increased mortality risk were the occurrence of other complications (stroke post-TAVR, acute renal failure, septic shock) and the lack of surgery at index IE hospitalization (padj<0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: PEE occurred in about one fifth of IE post-TAVR patients, with the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci and chronic kidney disease determining an increased risk. Patients with PEE-IE exhibited very high early and late mortality rates, and surgery during IE hospitalization seemed to be associated with better outcomes.

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) remains a frequent and underappreciated adverse event after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) despite remarkable progress in device technology and implantation technique. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the impact of mild PVR after TAVI on five-year clinical outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective TAVI registry, PVR prior to discharge was retrospectively assessed in an echocardiographic core laboratory. Patients with ≥moderate PVR were excluded. Mild PVR was categorised into mild and mild-to-moderate PVR using a recently proposed unifying 5-class grading scheme. RESULTS: A total of 1,128 patients undergoing TAVI between 2007 and 2015 were enrolled. Of these, 560 patients had mild PVR, including 433 with mild (5-class) PVR and 127 with mild-to-moderate PVR. Patients with mild PVR were older (83 years vs 82 years, p=0.013) and had a higher surgical risk compared to patients with none/trace PVR (STS-PROM: 6.49±4.68 vs 5.41±3.48, p<0.001). At five years, patients with mild PVR had a higher risk of mortality than those with none/trace PVR (54.6% vs 43.8%; HRadjusted 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06-1.50). When applying the 5-class grading scheme, only mild-to-moderate PVR was associated with an increased risk of mortality at five years (mild PVR: HRadjusted 1.19, 95% CI: 0.99-1.43, mild-to-moderate PVR: HRadjusted 1.56, 95% CI: 1.20-2.02). The effect of mild PVR on five-year mortality was consistent across major subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Mild PVR was associated with an increased risk of mortality at five years after TAVI. The detrimental effect was primarily driven by mild-to-moderate PVR using the 5-class grading scheme. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. NCT01368250.

4.
Am Heart J ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascending aortic root anatomy is routinely evaluated on pre-procedural multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). However, its clinical significance has not been adequately studied. We aimed to investigate the impact of the sinus of Valsalva (SOV) dimension on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: In a prospective TAVI registry, we retrospectively assessed SOV dimensions by pre-procedural MDCT. Patients were stratified according to tertiles of SOV diameter indexed to body surface area (SOVi). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 1 year. RESULTS: Among 2066 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI between August 2007 and June 2018, 1554 patients were eligible for the present analysis. Patients in the large SOVi group were older (83 ± 6 vs. 82 ± 6 vs. 81 ± 6; P <0.001) and had a higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (6.3 ± 3.8 vs. 5.1 ± 3.1 vs.4.9 ± 3.5; P <0.001) than those in the other groups. Patients in the large SOVi group had a higher incidence of moderate or severe paravalvular regurgitation (11.9% vs. 4.5% vs. 3.5%; P <0.001). At 1 year, a large SOVi was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.19-2.21; P = 0.002) and major or life-threatening bleeding (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65; P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Dilatation of the aortic root at the SOV was associated with adverse outcomes after TAVI. The assessment of the aortic root should be integrated into the risk stratification system in patients undergoing TAVI.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(23): e023129, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816730

RESUMO

Background Complete revascularization reduces cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) and multivessel disease. The optimal time point of non-target-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early (<4 weeks) versus late (≥4 weeks) staged PCI of non-target-vessels in patients with ACS scheduled for staged PCI after hospital discharge. Methods and Results All patients with ACS undergoing planned staged PCI from 2009 to 2017 at Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, were analyzed. Patients with cardiogenic shock, in-hospital staged PCI, staged cardiac surgery, and multiple staged PCIs were excluded. The primary end point was all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction and urgent premature non-target-vessel PCI. Of 8657 patients with ACS, staged revascularization was planned in 1764 patients, of whom 1432 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. At 1 year, there were no significant differences in the crude or adjusted rates of the primary end point (7.8% early versus 10.8% late, hazard ratio [HR], 0.72 [95% CI, 0.47-1.10], P=0.129; adjusted HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.50-1.28], P=0.346) and its individual components (all-cause death: 1.5% versus 2.9%, HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.20-1.33], P=0.170; adjusted HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.23-1.67], P=0.343; recurrent myocardial infarction: 4.2% versus 4.4%, HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.475-1.10], P=0.924; adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.53-2.01], P=0.935; non-target-vessel PCI, 3.9% versus 5.7%, HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.53-1.80], P=0.928; adjusted HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 0.61-2.34], P=0.609). Conclusions In this single-center cohort study of patients with ACS scheduled to undergo staged PCI after hospital discharge, early (<4 weeks) versus late (≥4 weeks) staged PCI was associated with a similar rate of major adverse cardiac events at 1 year follow-up. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02241291.

6.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymer-free drug-coated stents aim to avoid the inflammatory potential of durable polymers, thereby improving the long-term safety profile, and allowing a shorter duration of dual antiplatelet therapy. AIMS: The BIOVITESSE study was conducted to assess the safety and clinical performance of the BIOrapid polymer-free coronary stent system coated with a novel highly lipophilic sirolimus derivate. METHODS: BIOVITESSE was a prospective, multicentre, first-in-man study that enrolled subjects with de novo coronary lesions in two cohorts of 33 patients each. The primary endpoint of the first cohort was strut coverage at one month as assessed by optical coherence tomography. The primary endpoint of the second cohort was late lumen loss at nine-month follow-up. RESULTS: Patients were on average 63 years old (range: 42-87) and 12% had diabetes. The 66 patients had 70 lesions with an average lesion length of 12.5±5.4 mm. Predilatation was performed in 91.4% and post-dilatation in 87.1% lesions; device success was obtained in 97.4%. At one month, 95.2±5.6% (95% CI: 93.2-97.2) of struts were covered and at nine months, in-stent late lumen loss was 0.31±0.30 mm (95% CI: 0.20-0.42) and in-segment late lumen loss was 0.20±0.29 mm. Two target lesion failures occurred (3.1%), one at day 1 (to cover an asymptomatic stent edge dissection), and one at day 288 post procedure for restenosis. No stent thrombosis was reported during the 12-month study duration. CONCLUSIONS: The BIOrapid stent system exhibited an excellent safety profile, high strut coverage at one month, and moderate angiographic efficacy according to the late lumen loss at nine-month angiographic follow-up.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines favor transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) over surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with porcelain aorta (PAo). The clinical relevance of PAo in patients undergoing TAVI is however incompletely understood. The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcome of patients with PAo undergoing TAVI. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing TAVI were enrolled in a prospective single-center registry. Presence of PAo was evaluated by ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography prior to the intervention. The primary endpoint was disabling stroke. RESULTS: Among 2199 patients (mean age, 82.0 â€‹± â€‹6.3 years; 1135 females [51.6%]) undergoing TAVI between August 2007 and December 2019, 114 patients (5.2%) met VARC-2 criteria for PAo. Compared to individuals without PAo, patients with PAo were younger (79.4 â€‹± â€‹7.4 years vs. 82.1 â€‹± â€‹6.2 years; p â€‹< â€‹0.001), had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (51.8 â€‹± â€‹14.9% vs. 55.3 â€‹± â€‹14.2%; p â€‹= â€‹0.009) and higher STS-PROM Scores (6.5 â€‹± â€‹4.3% vs. 4.9 â€‹± â€‹3.4%; p â€‹< â€‹0.001). At 1 year, disabling stroke occurred more often in patients with PAo (7.2%) than in those without (3.0%) (HRadj, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.12-5.55). The risk difference emerged within 30 days after TAVI (HRadj, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.52-9.03), and was driven by a high PAo-associated risk of disabling stroke in patients with alternative access (HRadj, 5.79; 95% CI, 1.38-24.3), not in those with transfemoral (HRadj, 1.47; 95% CI 0.45-4.85). CONCLUSIONS: TAVI patients with PAo had a more than three-fold increased risk of periprocedural disabling stroke compared to patients with no PAo. The difference was driven by a higher risk of stroke in patients treated by alternative access.

8.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(20): 2246-2256, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to document the prevalence of concomitant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) before and after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), to quantify potential eligibility for transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI), and to report clinical outcomes as a function of the severity of TR and potential candidacy for TTVI. BACKGROUND: The importance of concomitant TR in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR remains unclear. METHODS: In a prospective TAVR registry, the severity of TR before and after TAVR was retrospectively evaluated in an echocardiography core laboratory. RESULTS: Among 2,008 eligible patients, 1,659 patients (82.6%) had mild or less TR, 242 (12.1%) had moderate TR, 57 (2.8%) had severe TR, and 50 (2.5%) had massive TR. More than one-half of patients with moderate or greater TR had a reduction in TR, while a small proportion of patients with severe or less of TR had worsening of TR after TAVR. In contrast to TR at baseline, severe TR (adjusted HR [HRadjusted]: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.03-3.49) and massive TR (HRadjusted: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.10-4.30) after TAVR conferred an increased risk for mortality compared with mild or less TR at 1 year after TAVR. After TAVR, 63 patients (3.1%) were deemed potential candidates for TTVI. They had a 2-fold increased risk for mortality between 30 days and 1 year (HRadjusted: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.15-3.25) and a higher risk for persistent heart failure symptoms (adjusted risk ratio: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.78-4.40). CONCLUSIONS: A non-negligible proportion of patients were considered potential candidates for TTVI after TAVR and had impaired prognosis and persistently impaired functional status at 1 year. (SwissTAVI Registry; NCT01368250).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia
10.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) has been extensively studied as causative microorganism of surgical prosthetic-valve infective endocarditis (IE). However, scarce evidence exists on S aureus IE after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Data was obtained from the Infectious Endocarditis after TAVR International Registry including patients with definite IE following TAVR from 59 centers in 11 countries. Patients were divided into two groups according to microbiological etiology (non-S aureus-IE, non-SA-IE vs. S aureus-IE, SA-IE). RESULTS: SA-IE was identified in 141 out of 573 (24.6%) patients, methicillin-sensitive S aureus in most cases (115/141, 81.6%). SEV were more common than BEV in patients with early SA-IE. Major bleeding and sepsis complicating TAVR, neurological symptoms or systemic embolism at admission and IE with cardiac device involvement other than the TAVR prosthesis were associated with SA-IE (p<0.05 for all). Among IE post-TAVR patients, the likelihood of SA-IE increased from 19% in the absence of those risk factors to 84.6% if ≥3 risk factors were present. In-hospital (47.8% vs. 26.9%, p<0.001) and 2-year mortality (71.5% vs. 49.6%, p<0.001) rates were higher among SA-IE (vs. non-SA-IE) patients. Surgery at the time of index SA-IE was associated with a lower mortality rate at follow-up (HRadj: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.96, p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: SA-IE represented ∼ 25% of IE cases after TAVR and was associated with a very high in-hospital and late mortality. The presence of some features determined a higher likelihood of SA-IE and could help to orientate early antibiotic regimen selection. Surgery at index SA-IE was associated with improved outcomes, and its role should be evaluated in future studies.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e020368, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581194

RESUMO

Background Data comparing the frequency and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) after transcatheter (TAVR) to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) are scarce. The objective of this study is to compare the incidence and outcomes of IE after TAVR using a supra-annular, self-expanding platform (CoreValve and Evolut) to SAVR. Methods and Results Data of 3 randomized clinical trials comparing TAVR to SAVR and a prospective continued TAVR access study were pooled. IE was defined on the basis of the modified Duke criteria. The cumulative incidence of IE was determined by modeling the cause-specific hazard. Estimates of all-cause mortality were calculated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method. Outcomes are reported for the valve-implant cohort. During a mean follow-up time of 2.17±1.51 years, 12 (0.5%) of 2249 patients undergoing TAVR and 21 (1.1%) of 1828 patients undergoing SAVR developed IE. Patients with IE more frequently had diabetes mellitus than those without (57.6% versus 34.2%; P=0.005). The cumulative incidence of IE was 1.01% (95% CI, 0.47%-1.96%) after TAVR and 1.58% (95% CI, 0.97%-2.46%) after SAVR (P=0.047) at 5 years. Among patients with IE, the rate of all-cause mortality was 27.3% (95% CI, 1.0%-53.6%) in the TAVR and 51.8% (95% CI, 28.2%-75.3%) in the SAVR group at 1 year (log-rank P=0.15). Conclusions Pooled prospectively collected data comparing TAVR with a supra-annular, self-expanding device to SAVR showed a low cumulative risk of IE irrespective of treatment modality, although the risk was lower in the TAVR implant group. Once IE occurred, mortality was high. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01240902, NCT01586910, NCT02701283.

12.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(13): 743-751, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583542

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a common, potentially life-threatening cardiovascular emergency, and represents the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality after myocardial infarction and stroke. Risk stratification is important to guide the management of APE, as an early reperfusion strategy is associated with improved clinical outcomes in specific high-risk conditions. Pulmonary artery reperfusion is commonly achieved by systemic intravenous administration of thrombolytic drugs, but catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDThr) and interventional techniques of catheter-based embolectomy provide novel therapeutic approaches with an improved risk-benefit ratio. Future trials will help to determine when to use these different devices in massive or sub-massive APE, and which patient population is likely to benefit from interventional treatment.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Terapia Trombolítica , Embolectomia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Reperfusão , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18754, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548574

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular events (CVE) are among the most feared complications of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). CVE appear difficult to predict due to their multifactorial origin incompletely explained by clinical predictors. We aimed to build a deep learning-based predictive tool for TAVR-related CVE. Integrated clinical and imaging characteristics from consecutive patients enrolled into a prospective TAVR registry were analysed. CVE comprised any strokes and transient ischemic attacks. Predictive variables were selected by recursive feature reduction to train an autoencoder predictive model. Area under the curve (AUC) represented the model's performance to predict 30-day CVE. Among 2279 patients included between 2007 and 2019, both clinical and imaging data were available in 1492 patients. Median age was 83 years and STS score was 4.6%. Acute (< 24 h) and subacute (day 2-30) CVE occurred in 19 (1.3%) and 36 (2.4%) patients, respectively. The occurrence of CVE was associated with an increased risk of death (HR [95% CI] 2.62 [1.82-3.78]). The constructed predictive model uses less than 107 clinical and imaging variables and has an AUC of 0.79 (0.65-0.93). TAVR-related CVE can be predicted using a deep learning-based predictive algorithm. The model is implemented online for broad usage.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Guidelines recommend intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess stent failure and guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) but OCT may be useful for other indications in routine clinical practice. METHODS/MATERIALS: We conducted an international registry of OCT cases at two large tertiary care centers to assess clinical indications and the potential impact on decision making of OCT in clinical routine. Clinical indications, OCT findings, and their impact on interventional or medical treatment strategy were retrospectively assessed. RESULTS: OCT was performed in 810 coronary angiography cases (1928 OCT-pullbacks). OCT was used for diagnostic purposes in 67% (N = 542) and OCT-guided percutaneous coronary intervention in 50% (N = 404, 136 cases with prior diagnostic indication). Most frequent indications for diagnostic OCT were culprit lesion identification in suspected ACS (29%) and stent failure assessment (28%). OCT findings in the diagnostic setting influenced patient management in 74%. OCT-guided PCIs concerned ACS patients in 45%. Among the 55% with chronic coronary syndrome, long lesions >28 mm (19%), left main PCI (16%), and bifurcation PCI with side-branch-stenting (5%) were the leading indications for PCI-guidance. Post-procedural OCT findings led to corrective measures in 52% (26% malapposition, 14% underexpansion, 6% edge dissection, 3% intrastent mass, 3% geographic plaque miss). CONCLUSIONS: OCT was most frequently performed to identify culprit lesions in suspected ACS, for stent failure assessment, and PCI-guidance. OCT may impact subsequent treatment strategies in two out of three patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463717

RESUMO

AIMS: Incidental detection of left atrial appendage (LAA) filling defects is a common finding on multi-detector computed tomography in aortic stenosis patients under evaluation for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We aimed to investigate the incidence of LAA filling defects before TAVI and its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective registry, LAA filling defects were retrospectively evaluated and categorized into one of four sub-types: thrombus-like, heterogeneous, horizontal, and Hounsfield Unit (HU)-run-off. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or disabling stroke up to 1-year follow-up. Among 1621 patients undergoing TAVI between August 2007 and June 2018, LAA filling defects were present in 177 patients (11%), and categorized as thrombus-like in 22 (1.4%), heterogeneous in 37 (2.3%), horizontal in 80 (4.9%), and HU-run-off in 38 (2.4%). Compared to patients with normal LAA filling, patients with LAA filling defects had greater prevalence of atrial fibrillation (84.7% vs. 26.4%, P < 0.001) and history of cerebrovascular events (16.4% vs. 10.9%, P = 0.045). The primary endpoint occurred in 131 patients (9.2%) with normal LAA filling and in 36 patients (21.2%) with LAA filling defects (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis suggested that the risk of disabling stroke was greatest in the thrombus-like pattern (23.0%), followed by the HU-run-off (8.0%), the heterogeneous (6.2%), and the horizontal pattern (1.2%). CONCLUSION: LAA filling defects were observed in 11% of aortic stenosis patients undergoing TAVI and associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and disabling stroke up to 1 year following TAVI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. NCT01368250.

16.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(12): 2033-2039, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impairment of atrioventricular (AV) conduction may occur late after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and progression to complete AV block is a matter of concern. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation late after TAVI. METHODS: In a prospective TAVI registry, we retrospectively identified patients with PPM implantation after hospital discharge for TAVI and analyzed serial electrocardiograms for AV conduction impairment before PPM implantation. RESULTS: Among 1059 patients discharged after TAVI without PPM between January 2012 and December 2017, 62 patients (5.9%) underwent PPM implantation at a median of 305 days after discharge for TAVI. Indications for PPM implantation late after TAVI were AV conduction impairment in 46 patients (74.2%); sick sinus syndrome in 10 (16.1%); cardiac resynchronization or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indication in 2 (3.2%); and a pace and ablate strategy in 4 (6.5%). Clinical symptoms leading to PPM implantation late after TAVI included syncope in 19 patients (30.7%), presyncope in 7 (11.3%), and dyspnea in 8 (12.9%). First-degree AV block and new left bundle branch block (LBBB) after TAVI as well as valve-in-valve procedure during follow-up were independent predictors of PPM implantation late after TAVI due to AV conduction impairment. CONCLUSION: PPM implantation late after TAVI is infrequent and is associated with clinical symptoms in half of patients. Impairment of AV conduction was the indication in three-quarters of patients. First-degree AV block and new LBBB after TAVI as well as valve-in-valve procedure during follow-up emerged as independent predictors.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrioventricular conduction delays (AVCD) are common after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and frequently require implantation of a permanent pacemaker (PPM). Autopsy studies demonstrated the role of ischemia, inflammation, and oedema in the pathogenesis of AVCD. Corticosteroids (CS) reduce inflammation and oedema and hence might lead to a lower rate of AVCD. METHODS: Based on a prospective single-center registry, we performed a propensity score (PS) matched analysis of subjects treated with or without systemic CS (>2.5 mg prednisolone-equivalent per day) at the time of TAVI. The primary endpoint was a composite of PPM-implantation and new-onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) within 30 days after TAVI. RESULTS: Among 2213 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI (51.5% female, mean age 82.1 ± 6.1 years) 89 patients were treated with systemic CS, of which 87 were included in the PS matched analysis. At 30 days, rates of the composite of PPM and LBBB were comparable between patients with versus without CS both in the overall cohort (33.7% versus 33.0%, p = 0.89) and the PS matched cohort (34.5% versus 40.2%, p = 0.443). There were no differences in a composite of major or minor vascular complications and major or life-threatening bleeding events between patients with versus without CS in the overall cohort (34.8% versus 26.6%, p = 0.088) or the PS matched cohort (33.3% versus 33.3%, p ≥ 0.999). CONCLUSION: In this exploratory study, intake of systemic CS among patients undergoing TAVI was not associated with differences in rates of AVCD, vascular complications, or bleeding events after TAVI.

18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(10): 1171-1176, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259826

RESUMO

Importance: Left ventricular remodeling following acute myocardial infarction results in progressive myocardial dysfunction and adversely affects prognosis. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of paroxetine-mediated G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 inhibition to mitigate adverse left ventricular remodeling in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted at Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland. Patients with acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 45% or less were randomly allocated to 2 study arms between October 26, 2017, and September 21, 2020. Interventions: Patients in the experimental arm received 20 mg of paroxetine daily; patients in the control group received a placebo daily. Both treatments were provided for 12 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the difference in patient-level improvement of LVEF between baseline and 12 weeks as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance tomography. Secondary end points were changes in left ventricular dimensions and late gadolinium enhancement between baseline and follow-up. Results: Fifty patients (mean [SD] age, 62 [13] years; 41 men [82%]) with acute anterior myocardial infarction were randomly allocated to paroxetine or placebo, of whom 38 patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging both at baseline and 12 weeks. There was no difference in recovery of LVEF between the experimental group (mean [SD] change, 4.0% [7.0%]) and the control group (mean [SD] change, 6.3% [6.3%]; mean difference, -2.4% [95% CI, -6.8% to 2.1%]; P = .29) or changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (mean difference, 13.4 [95% CI, -12.3 to 39.0] mL; P = .30) and end-systolic volume (mean difference, 11.4 [95% CI, -3.6 to 26.4] mL; P = .13). Late gadolinium enhancement as a percentage of the total left ventricular mass decreased to a larger extent in the experimental group (mean [SD], -13.6% [12.9%]) compared with the control group (mean [SD], -4.5% [9.5%]; mean difference, -9.1% [95% CI, -16.6% to -1.6%]; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, treatment with paroxetine did not improve LVEF after myocardial infarction compared with placebo. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03274752.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e021965, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098740

RESUMO

Background Female sex was not included among the high bleeding risk (HBR) criteria by the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) as it remains unclear whether it constitutes an HBR condition after percutaneous coronary intervention. We investigated whether female sex associates with HBR and assessed the performance of ARC HBR criteria separately in women and men. Methods and Results Among all consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between 2009 and 2018, bleeding occurrences up to 1 year were prospectively collected and centrally adjudicated. All but one of the originally defined ARC HBR criteria were assessed, and the ARC HBR score generated accordingly. Among 16 821 patients, 25.6% were women. Compared with men, women were older and had lower creatinine clearance and hemoglobin values. After adjustment, female sex was independently associated with access-site (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.22-3.74; P=0.008) but not with overall or non-access-site 1-year Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5 bleeding. This association remained consistent when the femoral but not the radial approach was chosen. The ARC HBR score discrimination, using the original criteria, was lower among women than men (c-index 0.644 versus 0.688; P=0.048), whereas a revised ARC HBR score, in which age, creatinine clearance, and hemoglobin were modeled as continuous rather than dichotomized variables, performed similarly in both sexes. Conclusions Female sex is an independent predictor for access-site bleeding but not for overall bleeding events at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention. The ARC HBR framework shows an overall good performance in both sexes, yet is lower in women than men, attributable to dichotomization of age, creatinine clearance, and hemoglobin values, which are differently distributed between sexes. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02241291.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(6): 532-541, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086888

RESUMO

AIMS : A new staging classification of aortic stenosis (AS) characterizing the extent of cardiac damage was established and validated in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We aimed to validate an updated classification system in patients undergoing TAVI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective TAVI registry, AS patients were categorized into the following stages: no cardiac damage (Stage 0), left ventricular damage (Stage 1), left atrial or mitral valve damage (Stage 2), pulmonary vasculature or tricuspid valve damage (Stage 3), or right ventricular (RV) damage or low-flow state (Stage 4). Stage 3 was sub-divided into Stage 3a (≤moderate pulmonary hypertension) and Stage 3b (severe pulmonary hypertension). Stage 4 was sub-divided into Stage 4a (low-flow without RV dysfunction), Stage 4b (RV dysfunction without low-flow), and Stage 4c (RV dysfunction with low-flow). The primary endpoint was all-cause death at 1 year. Among 1156 eligible patients, 14 were classified as Stage 0, 38 as Stage 1, 105 as Stage 2278 as Stage 3, and 721 as Stage 4. There was a stepwise increase in mortality according to advancing stages of cardiac damage: 3.9% (Stage 0-1), 9.6% (Stage 2), 14.1% (Stage 3), and 17.4% (Stage 4) (P = 0.002). After multivariable adjustment, only Stage 3b, Stage 4b, and Stage 4c conferred a significantly increased risk of mortality compared to Stage 0-1. CONCLUSION : More than one-third of patients had advanced cardiac damage (severe pulmonary hypertension or RV dysfunction) before TAVI, associating with a five- to seven-fold increased risk of mortality at 1 year. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. NCT01368250.

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