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2.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): 494-500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the effects of acculturation on quality of life and emotional health, especially during pregnancy, we developed an intervention that would target these factors in order to improve maternal well-being during the prenatal period and potentially improve infant outcomes, particularly preterm birth for Mexican-American women (Latinas). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these pilot studies was to test the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the mastery lifestyle intervention (MLI) to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms and improve coping as implemented in prenatal clinics with culturally homogenous groups of Latinas. METHODS: The MLI was tested in three small pilot studies (n = 15), one in El Paso, Texas (an urban area), and two in Bastrop, Texas (a rural area outside Austin), for acceptability and feasibility. A pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used with pregnant self-identified Mexican-American Latinas at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative coping were used. RESULTS: Feasibility was a success in terms of implementation of the MLI in an active prenatal clinic setting and the use of electronic tablets for data collection and entry of data into REDcap. Satisfaction was high, with the location of the MLI being at their primary OB/GYN clinic. Participants reported that six intervention sessions appear to be ideal as was the class length of 1.5 to 2 hours. On Cohen's d, there were medium to large effect size decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms and small to medium effect size decreases in the use of negative coping strategies and small effect sizes for increases in positive coping strategies. DISCUSSION: Pilot testing of the MLI indicated that it was well accepted from the participants and feasible as a culturally tailored behavioral therapy administered in a group setting by nurse practitioners. Our initial pilot results also suggest preliminary efficacy as indicated by moderate to large Cohen's d effect sizes for depression and anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
3.
Psycholog Relig Spiritual ; 11(3): 319-325, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485287

RESUMO

Objective: There is widespread literature linking church attendance to physical health. However, little is known about the association of church attendance and the immune system, particularly during difficult life transitions. This study investigated the association between church attendance and CMV herpes-virus latency by assessing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody titers among bereaved and non-bereaved individuals. Methods: Participants included 44 bereaved individuals and 44 controls with a mean age of 68 (SD=12.84). CMV herpes-virus latency was measured using CMV IgG antibody titers. Church attendance was measured using three items from the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire. Results: After adjusting for participant's age, gender, education, minority status, weekly alcohol consumption, smoking, depression, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities, church attendance was associated with lower CMV IgG antibody titers among bereaved and control participants. Further, there was a significant moderating effect of church attendance in the association between bereavement status and CMV IgG antibody titers, so that bereaved individuals attending church were found to have less herpes-virus reactivation (lower CMV IgG antibody titers) when compared to their bereaved counterparts that do not attend church. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that church attendance is associated with less herpes-virus reactivation as indexed by lower levels of CMV IgG antibody titers, particularly among the bereaved. Future studies should focus on further understanding the pathways by which church attendance impacts CMV herpes-virus latency during stressful life events, such as bereavement.

4.
Nurs Res ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the effects of acculturation on quality of life and emotional health, especially during pregnancy, we developed an intervention that would target these factors in order to improve maternal well-being during the prenatal period and potentially improve infant outcomes-particularly preterm birth for Mexican-American women (Latinas). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these pilot studies was to test the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the mastery lifestyle intervention (MLI) to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms, and improve coping as implemented in prenatal clinics with culturally homogenous groups of Latinas. METHODS: The MLI was tested in three small pilot studies (n = 15), one in El Paso, Texas (an urban area) and two in Bastrop, Texas (a rural area outside Austin) for acceptability and feasibility. A pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used with pregnant self-identified Mexican-American Latinas at 14-20 weeks gestation. Measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative coping were used. RESULTS: Feasibility was a success in terms of implementation of the MLI in an active prenatal clinic setting, and the use of electronic tablets for data collection and entry of data into REDcap. Satisfaction was high with location of the MLI being at their primary OB/GYN clinic. Participants reported that six intervention sessions appear to be ideal as was the class length of 1.5 to 2 hours. On Cohen's d, there were medium to large effect size decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms; and small to medium effect size decreases in the use of negative coping strategies and small effect sizes for increases in positive coping strategies.Pilot testing of the MLI indicated that it was well accepted from the participants, and feasible as a culturally tailored behavioral therapy administered in a group setting by nurse practitioners. Our initial pilot results also suggest preliminary efficacy as indicated by moderate to large Cohen's d effect sizes for depression and anxiety.

5.
Stress Health ; 35(4): 396-406, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977590

RESUMO

The death of a spouse is a highly stressful event. Better executive functioning has been shown to benefit men to a greater degree than women during stress. We evaluated potential sex differences in stress and immune dysregulation among control and bereaved participants who completed a self-report measure of perceived stress, neuropsychological measures of inhibition and updating/monitoring of information in working memory, and a blood draw to measure Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titres. Moderation analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that better inhibition would be associated with less stress and immune dysregulation among male bereaved participants compared with female bereaved participants. Bereaved females demonstrated greater EBV antibody titres than bereaved males. Male bereaved participants benefited from better inhibition, as evidenced by fewer EBV antibody titres, whereas bereaved female participants did not. In the control group, males with high inhibition reported lower stress than males with low inhibition. Present study results are an important step towards identifying those at greatest risk of stress and poor health.

6.
Ann Behav Med ; 53(9): 827-838, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived neighborhood characteristics are linked to obesity, however, the mechanisms linking these two factors remain unknown. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine associations between perceived neighborhood characteristics and body mass index (BMI), establish whether indirect pathways through psychological distress and inflammation are important, and determine whether these associations vary by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Participants were 1,112 adults enrolled in the Texas City Stress and Health Study. Perceived neighborhood characteristics were measured using the Perceived Neighborhood Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and mental health subscale of the Short Form Health Survey-36. Markers of inflammation included C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-1. Associations were examined with Structural Equation Modeling. RESULTS: A model linking neighborhood characteristics with BMI through direct and indirect (i.e., psychological distress and inflammation) paths demonstrated good fit with the data. Less favorable perceived neighborhood characteristics were associated with greater psychological distress (B = -0.87, ß = -0.31, p < .001) and inflammation (B = -0.02, ß = -0.10, p = .035). Psychological distress and inflammation were also significantly associated with BMI (Bdistress = 0.06, ß = 0.08, p = .006; Binflammation = 4.65, ß = 0.41, p < .001). Indirect paths from neighborhood characteristics to BMI via psychological distress (B = -0.05, ß = -0.03, p = .004) and inflammation (B = -0.08, ß = -0.04, p = .045) were significant. In multiple group analysis, a model with parameters constrained equal across race/ethnicity showed adequate fit suggesting associations were comparable across groups. CONCLUSION: Our study extends the literature by demonstrating the importance of neighborhood perceptions as correlates of BMI across race/ethnicity, and highlights the role of psychological and physiological pathways.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199029, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949620

RESUMO

The current study examined micro RNA (miRNAs) clusters from the maternal plasma to determine their association with preterm birth (PTB) and infant birth outcomes. A subsample of 42 participants who spontaneously delivered either preterm (≤37 weeks) or term was selected from a parent sample of 515 pregnant Mexican American women. Plasma samples and prenatal data were collected at a single mid-gestation time point (22-24 weeks' gestation) and birth outcomes were obtained from medical records after delivery. Circulating miRNAs were analyzed by qPCR. When miRNAs were grouped according to chromosomal cluster rather than expression level, individual miRNAs correlated strongly with other individual miRNAs within their respective genomic locus. miRNAs from the c19mc cluster negatively correlated with c14mc miRNAs, and this relationship was more pronounced in PTB. Clusters c14mc was negatively associated with length of gestation; while the c19mc was positively associated with length of gestation and infant head circumference. Together, these findings suggest that groups of miRNAs from common chromosomal clusters, rather than individual miRNAs, operate as co-regulated groups of signaling molecules to coordinate length of gestation and infant outcomes. From this evidence, differences in cluster-wide expression of miRNAs are involved in spontaneous PTB.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Mães , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
Ann Behav Med ; 52(2): 130-145, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538627

RESUMO

Background: Close relationships play an integral role in human development, and robust evidence links marital separation and divorce to poor health outcomes. Social integration may play a key role in this association. In many ways, the study of marital separation and divorce provides an ideal model system for a more complete understanding of the association between life stress and physical health. Purpose: The current study investigated associations among objectively measured social integration, psychological distress, and biomarkers of immune health in recently separated adults (N = 49). Methods: We collected four measures of immune functioning-interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and antibody titers to latent cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-that were combined to yield a viral-Immune Risk Profile. To assess how variability in social integration is associated with immunological correlates following the end of a marriage, we incorporated observational ecological momentary assessment data using a novel methodology (the Electronically Activated Recorder). Results: We found that objectively measured social behaviors are associated with concurrent viral-Immune Risk Profile scores over and above the effects of psychological distress and that psychological distress may be linked to biomarkers of immune health through social integration. Conclusions: This research expands current knowledge of biomarkers of immune health after divorce and separation and includes a new methodology for objective measures of social engagement.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Divórcio , Nível de Saúde , Interleucina-6/sangue , Comportamento Social , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Risco
9.
Psychosom Med ; 80(1): 49-54, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to major life stressors is associated with subsequent enhanced inflammation-related disease processes. Depressive symptoms exacerbate stress-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, those who report a high degree of perceived health risk before being exposed to a major life stressor such as a disaster are at risk for poor health outcomes. The present study examined whether perceived health risk and depressive symptoms before a disaster were associated with postdisaster inflammation markers. METHODS: The sample included 124 participants (mean [standard deviation] age = 55 [16] years; 69% women). At a baseline visit, participants completed self-report measures of perceived health risk and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) in addition to a blood draw for the assessment of inflammation markers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, and interleukin 6). All participants lived near a large petrochemical complex where an unexpected explosion occurred. A second blood sample was obtained 2 to 6 months after the explosion. RESULTS: No significant differences in inflammation markers were found between predisaster and postdisaster assessment (p > .21). An interaction between predisaster perceived health risk and depressive symptoms in predicting postdisaster circulating inflammation markers was identified (Cohen f = 0.051). Specifically, predisaster perceived health risk was associated with postdisaster circulating inflammation markers if predisaster depressive symptoms were greater than 8.10 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to our understanding of the complex interactions between stress, depression, and immune responses. Indeed, findings provide a potential mechanism (i.e., inflammation) explaining the association between exposure to major life stressors and negative mental and physical health outcomes.


Assuntos
Depressão/sangue , Desastres , Nível de Saúde , Inflamação/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
10.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 86: 128-133, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent females have a higher prevalence of depression in comparison to their male peers - a disparity that has been increasing over the past decade. Depression is of concern as it is associated with chronic disease and to immune dysregulation, which may be one mechanism linking depression to future pathology. This study examined the extent to which sex moderated the association between depressive symptoms and immune dysregulation during adolescence using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation, a biomarker of cellular immune response, as a model. METHODS: A representative community sample of 259 female and 279 male adolescents aged 11-17 years who were EBV IgG positive were examined. Trained interviewers collected the data during two home visits, one week apart. Depressive symptoms were measured at the first visit using the 9 item short-form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. EBV biomarkers were collected via saliva at the second visit and included a qualitative measure of EBV viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin G to assess prior EBV infection and a quantitative measure of EBV DNA to assess the number of viral copies shed in the saliva. RESULTS: In multivariable logistic regression analyses, increasing depressive symptoms were significantly associated with salivary shedding of EBV DNA for adolescent females only (logit=0.66, se=0.30, p<0.05), and the interaction between sex and depressive symptoms on salivary shedding of EBV DNA was statistically significant (logit=-1.19, se=0.42, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses were conducted in which sex was examined as a moderator in the relationship between depressive symptoms and salivary EBV DNA quantitative copies via Tobit regression; results were consistent with the presented findings. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are associated with EBV reactivation among EBV positive female adolescents, but not males. Future research is needed to examine EBV reactivation in female adolescents as a mechanism linking depression to future chronic disease and the role of sex hormones in explaining sex differences in the relationship between depressive symptoms and EBV reactivation.


Assuntos
Depressão/fisiopatologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Criança , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Masculino , Saliva/química , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
NPJ Microgravity ; 3: 11, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649633

RESUMO

Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Saliva was analyzed for Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Urine was analyzed for cytomegalovirus. One astronaut did not shed any targeted virus in samples collected during the three mission phases. Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus was detected in 8 of the 23 astronauts. These viruses reactivated independently of each other. Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus increased in frequency, duration, and amplitude (viral copy numbers) when compared to short duration (10 to 16 days) space shuttle missions. No evidence of reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, or human herpes virus 6 was found. The mean diurnal trajectory of salivary cortisol changed significantly during flight as compared to before flight (P = 0.010). There was no statistically significant difference in levels of plasma cortisol or dehydoepiandosterone concentrations among time points before, during, and after flight for these international space station crew members, although observed cortisol levels were lower at the mid and late-flight time points. The data confirm that astronauts undertaking long-duration spaceflight experience both increased latent viral reactivation and changes in diurnal trajectory of salivary cortisol concentrations.

12.
JCI Insight ; 1(12): e88787, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27699228

RESUMO

Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted.


Assuntos
Astronautas , Linfopoese , Voo Espacial , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Glucocorticoides/sangue , Glucocorticoides/urina , Humanos
13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 72: 113-8, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27398881

RESUMO

Self-rated health (SRH) is a reliable predictor of health outcomes including morbidity and mortality. Immune dysregulation is one hypothesized mechanism underlying the association between SRH and health outcomes. Indeed, poorer SRH is associated with greater inflammation. The association between SRH and reactivation of latent herpesviruses is unknown, representing an important gap in the literature given that reactivation of latent herpesviruses leads to enhanced inflammation. The present study addressed this important gap in the literature by examining associations between SRH, inflammation (i.e., peripheral cytokines in the blood), and reactivation of latent herpesviruses among a sample of 1208 individuals participating in the Texas City Stress and Health Study. Participants completed a self-report measure of SRH and a blood draw. Results indicated that higher SRH was associated with lower reactivation of latent herpesviruses and inflammation. Moreover, reactivation of latent herpesviruses partially mediated the association between SRH and inflammation. Accordingly, findings add to our growing understanding of the association between SRH and immune dysfunction.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/sangue , Nível de Saúde , Herpes Simples/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Texas/etnologia
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 15: 204, 2015 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26334745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains a major obstetrical problem and identification of risk factors for preterm birth continues to be a priority in providing adequate care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate risk profiles for preterm birth using psychological, cultural and neuroendocrine measures. METHODS: From a cross sectional study of 515 Mexican American pregnant women at 22-24 weeks gestation, a latent profile analysis of risk for preterm birth using structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted. We determined accurate gestational age at delivery from the prenatal record and early ultrasounds. We also obtained demographic and prenatal data off of the chart, particularly for infections, obstetrical history, and medications. We measured depression (Beck Depression Inventory), mastery (Mastery scale), coping (The Brief Cope), and acculturation (Multidimensional Acculturation Scale) with reliable and valid instruments. We obtained maternal whole blood and separated it into plasma for radioimmunoassay of Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone (CRH). Delivery data was obtained from hospital medical records. RESULTS: Using a latent profile analysis, three psychological risk profiles were identified. The "low risk" profile had a 7.7% preterm birth rate. The "moderate risk" profile had a 12% preterm birth rate. The "highest risk" profile had a 15.85% preterm birth rate. The highest risk profile had double the percentage of total infections compared to the low risk profile. High CRH levels were present in the moderate and highest risk profiles. CONCLUSION: These risk profiles may provide a basis for screening for Mexican American women to predict risk of preterm birth, particularly after they are further validated in a prospective cohort study. Future research might include use of such an identified risk profile with targeted interventions tailored to the Hispanic culture.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Estriol/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
NPJ Microgravity ; 1: 15013, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28725716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown whether immune system alterations persist during long-duration spaceflight. In this study various adaptive immune parameters were assessed in astronauts at three intervals during 6-month spaceflight on board the International Space Station (ISS). AIMS: To assess phenotypic and functional immune system alterations in astronauts participating in 6-month orbital spaceflight. METHODS: Blood was collected before, during, and after flight from 23 astronauts participating in 6-month ISS expeditions. In-flight samples were returned to Earth within 48 h of collection for immediate analysis. Assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution, T-cell function, virus-specific immunity, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production profiles. RESULTS: Redistribution of leukocyte subsets occurred during flight, including an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and alterations in CD8+ T-cell maturation. A reduction in general T-cell function (both CD4+ and CD8+) persisted for the duration of the 6-month spaceflights, with differential responses between mitogens suggesting an activation threshold shift. The percentage of CD4+ T cells capable of producing IL-2 was depressed after landing. Significant reductions in mitogen-stimulated production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-5, TNFα, and IL-6 persisted during spaceflight. Following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, production of IL-10 was reduced, whereas IL-8 production was increased during flight. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicated that immune alterations persist during long-duration spaceflight. This phenomenon, in the absence of appropriate countermeasures, has the potential to increase specific clinical risks for crewmembers during exploration-class deep space missions.

16.
J Immunol Methods ; 408: 64-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24859346

RESUMO

Indirect fluorescence analysis (IFA), the gold standard for determining herpesvirus antibody titers, is labor-intensive and poorly suited for large population-based studies. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used widely for measuring antiviral antibodies but also suffers drawbacks such as reduced specificity and the qualitative nature of the results due to limited interpretation of the optical density (OD) units. This paper describes a method to titer herpesvirus antibodies using microplates coated with virally-infected cells in which a standard curve, derived from IFA-scored samples, allowed OD units to be converted into titers. A LOOKUP function was created in order to report the data as traditional IFA-based (i.e., 2-fold) titers. The modified ELISA correlated significantly with IFA and was subsequently used to compute endpoint antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-virus capsid antigen (VCA) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in blood samples taken from 398 pregnant Hispanic women. Four women were EBV negative (1%), while 58 women were CMV negative (14.6%). EBV VCA antibody titers were significantly higher than CMV antibody titers (p<0.001). This method allows titering of herpesvirus antibodies by ELISA suitable for large population-based studies. In addition, the LOOKUP table enables conversion from OD-derived titers into 2-fold titers for comparison of results with other studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ann Epidemiol ; 23(5): 275-80, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23621993

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine racial-ethnic differences in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels among U.S. children and adolescents. Elevated titers among seropositive youth can indicate viral reactivation-an indirect measure of impaired cell-mediated immunity. METHODS: Data from the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed using multivariable linear regression accounting for the complex survey design and potential confounders. The sample comprised 4663 black-African American, Mexican American, and white youth aged 6-17 years who were EBV seropositive. RESULTS: EBV antibody levels were significantly higher for black-African American youth compared with their white peers (b = 0.343, P < .0001). Gender-stratified models were consistent with the total sample except differences in EBV antibody levels were greater between black-African American and white males (b = 0.525, P < .0001) than between black-African American and white females (b = 0.169, P = .0185). Differences in EBV antibody levels between Mexican American and white youth were only marginally significant in the total and the gender-stratified samples. CONCLUSIONS: Black-white differences in EBV antibody levels were found suggesting EBV reactivation and potential disparities in immune function among minority youth. Research on multilevel factors contributing to the disparities is needed, including potential health implications over the life course for minority youth.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Vigilância da População , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
18.
Biol Res Nurs ; 15(1): 78-85, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21821641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among Hispanics living in the United States, acculturation is associated with an increased risk for preterm birth. Inflammatory pathways are also associated with preterm birth. As such, the current study sought to investigate the potential relationships among preterm birth, acculturation of Hispanic women, and inflammatory markers. STUDY DESIGN: The authors performed an observational study on pregnant Hispanic women in Texas at 22-24 weeks' gestation (n = 470). The authors obtained demographic data prenatally as well as birth outcome data from the medical chart after delivery. The authors obtained venous blood and used plasma to assay interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). The authors used logistic regression to understand whether the presence or the absence of IL-10 levels was related to acculturation and the risk of preterm birth. RESULTS: The authors observed interactions between undetectable IL-10 levels and years in the United States and undetectable IL-10 levels and being born in the United States in models predicting preterm birth. Follow-up probes of these interactions suggested that when IL-10 was undetectable, preterm birth became more likely as time living in the United States increased, χ(2) = 5.15 (1, 416), p = .020, odds ratio (OR) = 3.17, and was more likely in participants born in the United States than in those born elsewhere, χ(2) = 5.35 (1, 462), p = .020, OR = 16.78. The authors observed no interactions among acculturation, preterm birth, and IL-1RA and IL-6 levels. CONCLUSION: Acculturated Hispanics who lack the protective effects of IL-10 experience a markedly higher risk of preterm birth than nonacculturated Hispanics.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Hispano-Americanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Texas , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Cell Biochem ; 114(3): 616-24, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22991253

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of mononucleosis and is also associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, among others. EBV reactivates during spaceflight, with EBV shedding in saliva increasing to levels ten times those observed pre-and post-flight. Although stress has been shown to increase reactivation of EBV, other factors such as radiation and microgravity have been hypothesized to contribute to reactivation in space. We used a modeled spaceflight environment to evaluate the influence of radiation and microgravity on EBV reactivation. BJAB (EBV-negative) and Raji (EBV-positive) cell lines were assessed for viability/apoptosis, viral antigen and reactive oxygen species expression, and DNA damage and repair. EBV-infected cells did not experience decreased viability and increased apoptosis due to modeled spaceflight, whereas an EBV-negative cell line did, suggesting that EBV infection provided protection against apoptosis and cell death. Radiation was the major contributor to EBV ZEBRA upregulation. Combining modeled microgravity and radiation increased DNA damage and reactive oxygen species while modeled microgravity alone decreased DNA repair in Raji cells. Additionally, EBV-infected cells had increased DNA damage compared to EBV-negative cells. Since EBV-infected cells do not undergo apoptosis as readily as uninfected cells, it is possible that virus-infected cells in EBV seropositive individuals may have an increased risk to accumulate DNA damage during spaceflight. More studies are warranted to investigate this possibility.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Voo Espacial , Ativação Viral , Simulação de Ausência de Peso , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Apoptose , Linfoma de Burkitt/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Ativação Viral/efeitos da radiação , Latência Viral
20.
J Med Virol ; 84(11): 1797-802, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22997083

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be an emerging marker of immunosenescence. CMV can affect the immune system by directly infecting leukocytes and hematopoietic cells or by eliciting an expansion of oligoclonal CD8+ T cells/contraction of the naïve T cell compartment that may reduce the host's ability to fight other pathogens. To investigate further CMV-associated changes in immunity, a study was conducted with 1,454 adults (ages 25-91) to determine the association between CMV and reactivation of another latent herpesvirus, Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as indexed by antibody titers. Elevated antibody titers to latent HSV-1 were significantly associated with both CMV seropositivity and high CMV antibody levels. Evaluation by specific age groups (<45, 45-64, and 65+ years old) revealed that this association was detectable early in life (<45 years of age). Increases in HSV-1 antibodies by age occurred in CMV seropositive individuals but not CMV seronegative subjects. Within CMV seropositive subjects, increases in HSV-1 antibodies by age were only found in individuals with low CMV antibody levels as those with high CMV antibodies already exhibited elevated HSV-1 antibodies. These associations remained significant after accounting for body mass index, gender, and socioeconomic status. These results suggest that CMV can influence the immune response to another pathogen and support the concept that CMV may accelerate immunosenescence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Ativação Viral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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