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Eur J Neurosci ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064695


Alcohol use is highly prevalent in modern society and ramifications of alcohol abuse pose a large public health concern. Previous work investigating the effects of alcohol exposure on the brain has implicated microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), as critical participants in the brain's response to chronic and developmental ethanol (EtOH) exposure. As rapid sensors of their environment, microglia also have the capacity to rapidly respond to alcohol administration and to contribute to acute effects of alcohol on the brain; however, their acute responses have not been assessed. Here, for the first time, we have examined the acute response of microglia to alcohol intoxication in vivo utilizing two-photon microscopy to assess the dynamics of these motile cells in both visual cortex and the cerebellum of mice. We found that microglia respond rapidly to EtOH exposure with fast changes in morphology, motility, parenchyma surveillance, and injury response. However, regional differences between the responses of cerebellar and cortical microglial populations indicate that subtle differences in microglial physiology may alter their vulnerability to acute alcohol intoxication. Our findings suggest that the longer-term effects of repeated EtOH exposure on microglia may result from repeat acute alterations in microglial physiology by single exposure to alcohol which rapidly alter behavior in specific microglial populations.

Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1782-1792, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636451


Microglia are the brain's resident innate immune cells and also have a role in synaptic plasticity. Microglial processes continuously survey the brain parenchyma, interact with synaptic elements and maintain tissue homeostasis. However, the mechanisms that control surveillance and its role in synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. Microglial dynamics in vivo have been primarily studied in anesthetized animals. Here we report that microglial surveillance and injury response are reduced in awake mice as compared to anesthetized mice, suggesting that arousal state modulates microglial function. Pharmacologic stimulation of ß2-adrenergic receptors recapitulated these observations and disrupted experience-dependent plasticity, and these effects required the presence of ß2-adrenergic receptors in microglia. These results indicate that microglial roles in surveillance and synaptic plasticity in the mouse brain are modulated by noradrenergic tone fluctuations between arousal states and emphasize the need to understand the effect of disruptions of adrenergic signaling in neurodevelopment and neuropathology.

Microglia/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Benzilaminas/farmacologia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/genética , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Clembuterol/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Dominância Ocular , Feminino , Fentanila/farmacologia , Locus Cerúleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nadolol/farmacologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Terbutalina/farmacologia , Vigília , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
Dev Neurobiol ; 78(6): 627-644, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285893


Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system and are also important participants in normal development and synaptic plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that the microglia of the mouse cerebellum represent a unique population compared to cortical microglia. Microglia are more sparsely distributed within the cerebellum and have a markedly less ramified morphology compared to their cortical counterparts. Using time-lapse in vivo imaging, we found that these differences in distribution and morphology ultimately lead to decreased parenchymal surveillance by cerebellar microglia. We also observed a novel form of somal motility in cerebellar microglia in vivo, which has not been described in cortical populations. We captured microglial interactions with Purkinje neurons in vivo. Cerebellar microglia interact dynamically with both the dendritic arbors and somas of Purkinje neurons. These findings suggest that cerebellar microglia are physiologically distinct from cortical populations and that these differences may ultimately alter how they could contribute to plasticity and disease processes in the cerebellum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 627-644, 2018.

Cerebelo/citologia , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Contagem de Células , Movimento Celular , Cerebelo/lesões , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Córtex Visual/citologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674490


Alcohol exposure during gestation can lead to severe defects in brain development and lifelong physical, behavioral and learning deficits that are classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Sadly, FASD is diagnosed at an alarmingly high rate, affecting 2%-5% of live births in the United States, making it the most common non-heritable cause of mental disability. Currently, no standard therapies exist that are effective at battling FASD symptoms, highlighting a pressing need to better understand the underlying mechanisms by which alcohol affects the developing brain. While it is clear that sensory and cognitive deficits are driven by inappropriate development and remodeling of the neural circuits that mediate these processes, alcohol's actions acutely and long-term on the brain milieu are diverse and complex. Microglia, the brain's immune cells, have been thought to be a target for alcohol during development because of their exquisite ability to rapidly detect and respond to perturbations affecting the brain. Additionally, our view of these immune cells is rapidly changing, and recent studies have revealed a myriad of microglial physiological functions critical for normal brain development and long-term function. A clear and complete understanding of how microglial roles on this end of the spectrum may be altered in FASD is currently lacking. Such information could provide important insights toward novel therapeutic targets for FASD treatment. Here we review the literature that links microglia to neural circuit remodeling and provide a discussion of the current understanding of how developmental alcohol exposure affects microglial behavior in the context of developing brain circuits.