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1.
J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intervention studies have shown that long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA intake can prolong gestation but the dose-time-effect relations remain unresolved. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect on gestation duration of 2 doses of supplemental LC n-3 PUFAs. METHODS: We undertook a 3-group parallel randomized controlled trial in areas of China with low (median: 2.1 g/d) and higher (14.3 g/d) fish intake. Unselected women (median: age, 26.2 y; BMI, 20. kg/m2) were randomly assigned at midgestation to take four 0.72-g identical gelatin capsules per day until the last day of the preterm period (<259 days of gestation), when they were asked to stop. Capsules contained fish oil [high fish oil (HFO) group (60% w/w LC n-3 PUFAs)], a 1:3 mixture of fish oil to olive oil [low fish oil (LFO) group (20%)], or olive oil [control (CON) group (0%)], providing 2.0, 0.5, and 0 g/d of LC n-3 PUFAs, respectively. Habitual fish intake was recorded at baseline. Hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for spontaneous delivery <259 days of gestation and <273 days of gestation across groups were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: Among 5531 women randomly assigned, 92.5% were included in analyses (1706/1825, 1695/1851, and 1717/1855, respectively). The groups were similar with respect to hazard rates <259 days of gestation [HRR: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.53) for LFO compared with CON and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.35) for HFO compared with CON], hazard rates <273 days of gestation [HRR: 1.00 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.18) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.07), respectively], and mean gestation durations [differences: 0.2 d (95% CI: -0.5, 0.8) and 0.6 d (95% CI: -0.06, 1.2), respectively]. Inspection of pregnancy survival curves suggested that LC n-3 PUFAs delayed delivery in low fish consumers by 5-10 d and that this effect ceased rapidly after stopping taking the capsules. CONCLUSION: This trial could not substantiate that fish oil prevents preterm birth in Chinese women, possibly because statistical power was too low. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02770456.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e023134, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Breast feeding is associated with health benefits for both mother and child, but many studies focusing on neurodevelopment have lacked information on important confounders and few randomised trials exist. Our objective was to examine the influence of breast feeding on child IQ at 5 years of age while taking maternal IQ and other relevant factors into account. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Population-based birth cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: We used data from The Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study 1782 mother-child pairs sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort (n=101 042). OUTCOME MEASURES: Child IQ was assessed at age 5 years by the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence-Revised. On the same occasion maternal intelligence was assessed by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Exposure data on duration of breast feeding (n=1385) were extracted from telephone interviews conducted when the child was 6 and 18 months, and analyses were weighted by relevant sampling fractions. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders breast feeding was associated with child IQ at 5 years (categorical χ2 test for overall association p=0.03). Compared with children who were breast fed ≤1 month, children breast fed for 2-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10 or more months had 3.06 (95% CI 0.39 to 5.72), 2.03 (95% CI -0.38 to 4.44), 3.53 (95% CI 1.18 to 5.87) and 3.28 (95% CI 0.88 to 5.67) points higher IQ after adjustment for core confounders, respectively. There was no dose-response relation and further analyses indicated that the main difference in IQ was between breast feeding ≤1 month versus >1 month. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding duration of 1 month or shorter compared with longer periods was associated with approximately three points lower IQ, but there was no evidence of a dose-response relation in this prospective birth cohort, where we were able to adjust for some of the most critical confounders, including maternal intelligence.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845776

RESUMO

The growing interest in potential health effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) makes it important to evaluate the method used to assess the fatty acid intake in nutrition research studies. We aimed to validate the questionnaire-based dietary intake of selected PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA) within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), by comparing 345 women's reported intake with concentration of plasma biomarkers. The applied questionnaire- and biomarker data reflect dietary intake from around the same time point in mid-pregnancy and relationships were investigated by use of Pearson and Spearman correlation and linear regression statistics. We demonstrated moderate but consistent adjusted correlations between dietary intake estimates and the corresponding plasma biomarker concentrations (differences in plasma concentration per 100 mg/day greater intake of 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02; 0.08)) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01; 0.08) percentage of total plasma fatty acids for EPA and DHA, respectively). The associations strengthened when restricting the analyses to women with ALA intake below the median intake. We found a weak correlation between the dietary intake of ALA and its plasma biomarker with a difference in plasma concentration of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.03; 0.10) percent of total plasma fatty acids per 1 g/day greater intake, while the dietary intake of LA and AA did not correlate with their corresponding biomarkers.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Testes para Triagem do Soro Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dinamarca , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/sangue
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(6): e011615, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857459

RESUMO

Background Evidence linking individual-level maternal folic acid supplementation to offspring risk of congenital heart defects is lacking. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces offspring risk of heart defects in 2 large birth cohort studies. Methods and Results Women recruited in early pregnancy within the DNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort), 1996-2003, and MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study), 2000-2009, were followed until delivery. Information on periconceptional intake of folic acid and other supplements was linked with information on heart defects from national registers. Among 197 123 births, we identified 2247 individuals with heart defects (114/10 000). Periconceptional (4 weeks before through 8 weeks after conception) use of folic acid plus other supplements (54.8%), folic acid only (12.2%), and non-folic acid supplements (5.0%) were compared with no supplement use (28.0%); the adjusted relative risks of heart defects were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.80-1.22), 1.08 (95% CI , 0.93-1.25), and 1.07 (95% CI , 0.97-1.19), respectively. For initiation of folic acid in the preconception period weeks -4 to -1 (33.7%) and the postconception periods 0 to 4 weeks (15.5%), 5 to 8 weeks (17.8%), and 9 to 12 weeks (4.6%), compared with no or late folic acid intake (29.1%), relative risks of heart defect were 1.11 (95% CI , 1.00-1.25), 1.09 (95% CI , 0.95-1.25), 0.98 (95% CI , 0.86-1.12), and 0.97 (95% CI , 0.78-1.20), respectively. Relative risks of severe defects, conotruncal defects, and septal defects showed similar results. Conclusions Folic acid was not associated with offspring risk of heart defects, including severe defects, conotruncal defects, or septal defects.

5.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

6.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336645

RESUMO

Oily fish, an important source of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), has shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk in adults. Whether maternal fish intake affects offspring metabolic health is less established, especially among high-risk pregnancies. We aimed to examine the association of fish intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health who were either exposed or unexposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our study included 1234 mother-offspring dyads (608 with a GDM index pregnancy and 626 control dyads) nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort, which is a prebirth cohort. Maternal seafood and marine n-3 LCPUFA consumption was quantified by a food frequency questionnaire (gestational week 25) and a sub-sample with interview data (weeks 12 and 30). The offspring were clinically examined at 9⁻16 years, including a Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and a fasting blood sample. We calculated multivariable effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for anthropometric, adiposity, and metabolic parameters. The median (IQR) intake of total seafood was 23(24) g/day. We found largely no association for total seafood and marine n-3 LCPUFA with offspring metabolic parameters in either group. Using interview data, GDM-exposed women reporting no fish in week 12 and 30 (versus intake >2 times/week) had offspring with a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (ratio of geometric means (RGM): 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.55), waist circumference (RGM: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40), triglycerides (RGM: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.03), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance HOMA-IR (RGM: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.97). We found no associations of n-3 LCPUFA and seafood intake with offspring metabolic outcomes. However, GDM-exposed women who consistently reported eating no fish had offspring with a poorer metabolic profile. Fish intake in pregnancy may mitigate some adverse effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia, however, these findings need replication in better powered studies.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) as indicators of carbohydrate quality and quantity have been found to increase risk of metabolic outcomes in adults. Whether carbohydrate quality may influence metabolic programming already in early life is unknown. We examined the association of maternal GI and GL with offspring body mass index (BMI) in the first 7 years of life among 68,471 mother-offspring dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). In a sub-cohort of offspring with clinical data (n = 1234) that included 608 dyads exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we also examined the relation to metabolic health at 9-16 years. METHODS: Maternal GI and GL were quantified using a mid-pregnancy food frequency questionnaire. We used birth weight and length to calculate offspring's ponderal index. Age- and sex-specific BMI z scores at 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y were standardized against WHO reference data. In the clinical cohort, we quantified body composition, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B. We used multivariable mixed linear and Poisson regression to model the associations. RESULTS: Median (IQR) of GI and GL were 83 (63-111) and 241 (180-333) g/day, respectively. We found that GI (Q4 vs. Q1:1.09, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.15) and GL (Q4 vs. Q1:1.10, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.16) modestly increased the relative risk of large-for gestational age (LGA). In the clinical sub-cohort, we observed a potential increase in offspring HOMA-IR, adiposity, and metabolic syndrome z score with higher maternal GI and GI. These associations were stronger among the GDM-exposed offspring, but the CI included the null value. CONCLUSION: We found associations of GI and GL in pregnancy with offspring LGA. Potential long-term benefits to offspring exposed to GDM need to be confirmed in larger, well-powered studies.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 40(12): 1746-1755, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Offspring of pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which these dysmetabolic traits may be due to offspring and/or maternal adiposity is unknown. We examined body composition and associated cardiometabolic traits in 561 9- to 16-year-old offspring of mothers with GDM and 597 control offspring. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured anthropometric characteristics; puberty status; blood pressure; and fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and lipid levels; and conducted a DEXA scan in a subset of the cohort. Differences in the outcomes between offspring of mothers with GDM and control subjects were examined using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and sex, offspring of mothers with GDM displayed higher weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate and lower height. Offspring of mothers with GDM had higher total and abdominal fat percentages and lower muscle mass percentages, but these differences disappeared after correction for offspring BMI. The offspring of mothers with GDM displayed higher fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR), and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas fasting plasma HDL cholesterol levels were decreased. Female offspring of mothers with GDM had an earlier onset of puberty than control offspring. Offspring of mothers with GDM had significantly higher BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR levels after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy BMI, and glucose and HOMA-IR remained elevated in the offspring of mothers with GDM after correction for both maternal and offspring BMIs. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, adolescent offspring of women with GDM show increased adiposity, an adverse cardiometabolic profile, and earlier onset of puberty among girls. Increased fasting glucose and HOMA-IR levels among the offspring of mothers with GDM may be explained by the programming effects of hyperglycemia in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Dinamarca , Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Menarca , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
9.
PLoS Med ; 14(9): e1002392, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD), which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD), duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other affective episodes in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior psychiatric history. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Linking information from several Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort of 457,317 primiparous mothers with first birth (and subsequent births) from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2013 (a total of 789,068 births) and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome measures were risk of postpartum AD, duration of treatment, and recurrence risk. We observed 4,550 (0.6%) postpartum episodes of AD. The analyses of treatment duration showed that 1 year after the initiation of treatment for their first episode, 27.9% of women were still in treatment; after 4 years, 5.4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum AD was 1.2 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for year of birth and mother's age, women with PPD hospital contact after first birth had a 46.4 times higher rate (95% CI 31.5-68.4) and women with postpartum antidepressant medication after their first birth had a 26.9 times higher rate (95% CI 21.9-33.2) of a recurrent postpartum episode after their second birth compared to women with no postpartum AD history. Limitations include the use of registry data to identify cases and limited confounder control. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, an episode of postpartum AD was observed for 0.6% of childbirths among women with no prior psychiatric history. The observed episodes were characterized by a relatively short treatment duration, yet the women had a notably high rate of later AD and recurrent episodes of postpartum AD. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD was markedly higher among women with PPD hospital contact after first birth compared to women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth. Our results underline the necessity of measures targeted at specific vulnerable groups, such as women who experience PPD as a first psychiatric episode.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 106(2): 623-636, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679553

RESUMO

Background: Recent years have seen strong tendencies toward high-protein diets. However, the implications of higher protein intake, especially during developmentally sensitive periods, are poorly understood. Conversely, evidence on the long-term developmental consequences of low protein intake in free-living populations remains limited.Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Design: Six hundred eight women with an index pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes mellitus and 626 controls enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were used for the analysis. Protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire in gestational week 25. The offspring underwent a clinical examination including fasting blood samples and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (subset of 650) from which metabolic outcomes were derived. Multivariable analyses were conducted applying a 1:1 substitution of carbohydrates for protein.Results: The mean ± SD protein intake in pregnancy was 93 ± 15 g/d (16% ± 3% of energy) in GDM-exposed women and 90 ± 14 g/d (16% ± 2% of energy) in control women. There were overall no associations between maternal protein intake and offspring fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that maternal total protein intake was associated with a tendency for a higher abdominal fat mass percentage (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.40 SD; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.83 SD; P = 0.07) in GDM-exposed offspring and a tendency for a higher total fat mass percentage among male offspring (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.33 SD; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.66 SD; P = 0.06), but a small sample size may have compromised the precision of the effect estimates. GDM-exposed offspring of mothers with a protein intake in the lowest decile (≤12.5% of energy compared with >12.5% of energy) had lower fasting insulin (ratio of geometric means: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99; P = 0.04) and a tendency toward lower HOMA-IR (ratio of geometric means: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.02; P = 0.07), but there was no evidence of associations with body composition. Male offspring seemed to derive a similar benefit from a maternal low protein intake as did GDM-exposed offspring.Conclusions: Overall, our results provide little support for an association of maternal protein intake in pregnancy with measures of offspring metabolic health. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to determine whether low maternal protein intake in pregnancy may improve glucose homeostasis in GDM-exposed and male offspring.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Insulina/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Criança , Dinamarca , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1465-1477, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338907

RESUMO

Background: It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Results: The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Sons Respiratórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 104-111.e4, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27246522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can have immunologic effects on the developing fetus through several anti-inflammatory pathways. However, there is limited knowledge of the long-term programming effects. OBJECTIVE: In a randomized controlled trial from 1990 with 24 years of follow-up, our aim was to determine whether supplementation with 2.7 g of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy can reduce the risk of asthma in offspring and allergic respiratory disease. METHODS: The randomized controlled trial included 533 women who were randomly assigned to receive fish oil during the third trimester of pregnancy, olive oil, or no oil in the ratio 2:1:1. The offspring were followed in a mandatory national prescription register, with complete follow-up for prescriptions related to the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis as primary outcomes. Furthermore, the offspring were invited to complete a questionnaire (74% participated) and attend a clinical examination (47% participated) at age 18 to 19 years. RESULTS: In intention-to-treat analyses the probability of having had asthma medication prescribed was significantly reduced in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.32-0.90; P = .02). The probability of having had allergic rhinitis medication prescribed was also reduced in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.47-1.05; P = .09), but the difference was not statistically significant. Self-reported information collected at age 18 to 19 years supported these findings. No associations were detected with respect to lung function outcomes or allergic sensitization at 18 to 19 years of age. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with fish oil might have prophylactic potential for long-term prevention of asthma in offspring.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Crianças Adultas , Asma/sangue , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 24(10): 2133-9, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of gestational weight gain (GWG) and diet with low-grade inflammation in pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 671 pregnant women was performed, and diet was assessed in gestational week 30. GWG was recorded in weeks 30 and ∼37 (difference between the weight recorded at these time points and pre-pregnancy weight). Markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α were quantified in serum from week 30. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, smoking status, and education, each 1 kg increase in GWG was associated with 3% (95% CI: 1-5) higher hsCRP and 3% (95% CI: 1-4) higher SAA concentrations, which corresponded to ∼18% to 25% increase in these biomarkers among those with excessive weight gain. GWG was inversely associated with IL-8 while no associations were found for the other inflammatory markers. With respect to diet, women in the highest compared with lowest quintile of protein intake had 26% (95% CI: 3-54) higher hsCRP concentrations. This increase appeared to be driven by intake of animal protein. A similar pattern was observed for SAA. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive GWG, as well as high intake of animal protein, was associated with higher concentrations of inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Dieta , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Paridade , Gravidez , Fumar , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Nutr ; 146(9): 1756-61, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27511926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from experimental studies has demonstrated that higher than normal iron concentrations can lead to pancreatic ß cell dysfunction and impaired glucose metabolism. Studies on body iron stores in early pregnancy and subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk are sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether biomarkers of body iron stores measured in early pregnancy are associated with GDM risk. METHODS: A case-control study of 350 GDM cases and 349 non-GDM controls was conducted in participants from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Blood was collected at a mean ± SD gestational age of 9.4 ± 3.2 wk. Plasma biomarkers of iron stores, including ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), were measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate the OR of GDM associated with quintiles of plasma biomarkers of body iron stores, controlling for maternal age, family history of diabetes, exercise in pregnancy, parity, and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Cases were older (mean ± SD age: 32.2 ± 4.3 compared with 29.9 ± 4.2 y) and had a higher BMI (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 28.7 ± 6.0 compared with 24.1 ± 4.6) than controls. Plasma concentrations of both ferritin and sTfR in early pregnancy were significantly higher in GDM cases than in controls [means ± SDs: 80.6 ± 56.0 compared with 71.8 ± 50.1 µg/L (P = 0.03) and 1.5 ± 0.7 compared with 1.4 ± 0.6 mg/L (P = 0.002) for ferritin and sTfR, respectively]. Ferritin was positively and significantly associated with GDM risk even after adjustment for major risk factors of GDM, including prepregnancy BMI. ORs across increasing quintiles of ferritin were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.37), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.48), and 2.34 (95% CI: 1.30, 4.21) (P-linear trend = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that plasma ferritin measured in early pregnancy is significantly and positively associated with GDM risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Ferritinas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Hypertension ; 67(6): 1157-65, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091899

RESUMO

Women who developed gestational diabetes mellitus represent a high-risk population for hypertension later in life. The role of diet in the progression of hypertension among this susceptible population is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3818 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Nurses' Health Study II as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study. These women were followed-up from 1989 to 2011. Incident hypertension was identified through self-administered questionnaires that were validated previously by medical record review. Adherence scores for the alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternative Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension were computed for each participant. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary scores and hypertension while adjusting for major risk factors for hypertension. We documented 1069 incident hypertension cases during a median of 18.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for major risk factors for hypertension, including body mass index, alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, alternative Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores were significantly inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles (highest versus lowest) were 0.76 (0.61-0.94; P for linear trend =0.03) for AHEI score, 0.72 (0.58-0.90; P for trend =0.01) for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension score, and 0.70 (0.56-0.88; P for trend =0.002) for alternative Mediterranean diet score. Adherence to a healthful dietary pattern was related to a lower subsequent risk of developing hypertension among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Nutr ; 114(11): 1900-8, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26431383

RESUMO

In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on characteristics, dietary factors and lifestyle factors were collected on several occasions during pregnancy. We analysed the association between predicted vitamin D status, based on a subsample with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) biomarker measurements (n 1497) from gestation week 25, and first-time forearm fractures among offspring between birth and end of follow-up. Diagnoses were extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between predicted vitamin D status (based on smoking, season, dietary and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake of vitamin D from dietary supplements. Offspring of women who took >10 µg/d in mid-pregnancy had a significantly increased risk for fractures compared with the reference level of zero intake (hazard ratios (HR) 1·31; 95% CI 1·06, 1·62), but this was solely among girls (HR 1·48; 95% CI 1·10, 2·00). Supplement use in the peri-conceptional period exhibited similar pattern, although not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data indicated no protective effect of maternal vitamin D status with respect to offspring forearm fractures.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Calcifediol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Antebraço , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
17.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 29(4): 335-45, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25989709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA), the Danish National Birth Cohort (Denmark), the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (Israel), the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (Norway), and the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (Australia)]. Birthweight metrics included a continuous measure, deciles, and categories (≥ 4.0 vs. < 4.0 kilogram). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort. RESULTS: A linear relationship was noted for each kilogram increment in birthweight adjusted for gender and gestational age for all cancers [HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.02, 1.54]. Similar trends were observed for leukaemia. There were no significant interactions with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or pregnancy weight gain. Birthweight ≥ 4.0 kg was associated with non-leukaemia cancer among children diagnosed at age ≥ 3 years [HR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.06, 2.46], but not at younger ages [HR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.45, 1.24, P for difference = 0.02]. CONCLUSION: Childhood cancer incidence rises with increasing birthweight. In older children, cancers other than leukaemia are particularly related to high birthweight. Maternal adiposity, currently widespread, was not demonstrated to substantially modify these associations. Common factors underlying foetal growth and carcinogenesis need to be further explored.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 7(4): 2382-400, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849947

RESUMO

Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996-2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (< 16 year) (n = 53,922). In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01-1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.


Assuntos
Dieta , Antebraço/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Mães , Atividade Motora , Análise Multivariada , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Análise de Componente Principal , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(1): 169-176.e2, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25649083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High prenatal vitamin D status has been linked to decreased risk of atopic diseases in early childhood, but whether such relations persist until adulthood has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association between maternal 25-hydryxovitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and outcomes of allergic airway disease and lung function in offspring with 20 to 25 years of follow-up. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort with 965 pregnant women enrolled in 1988-1989, maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were quantified in serum from gestational week 30 (n = 850 [88%]). Offspring were followed in nationwide registries with complete follow-up to the age of 25 years (n = 850 [100%]). Additionally, at age 20 years, outcomes of allergic airway disease and lung function were assessed in a subset of offspring by using blood samples and spirometry (n = 410 [45%]) and a questionnaire (n = 641 [70%]). RESULTS: Exposure to a high maternal 25(OH)D concentration (≥125 nmol/L) was associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations in offspring (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.16) during 25 years of follow-up compared with the reference group (75-<125 nmol/L). Furthermore, there were lower risks of asthma hospitalizations (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.08-1.02) and asthma medication use (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.95) in those exposed to a low maternal 25(OH)D concentration (<50 nmol/L). In a reduced set of participants, we found no associations between maternal 25(OH)D concentrations and offspring allergen-specific IgE, total IgE, and eosinophil cationic protein levels; self-reported doctor's diagnosis of asthma or hay fever; or lung function at 20 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not provide support for a protective effect of a high maternal 25(OH)D concentration on outcomes of allergic airway disease and lung function at 20 to 25 years of age. In contrast, a high maternal 25(OH)D concentration might be associated with an increased risk of allergic diseases in offspring.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Proteína Catiônica de Eosinófilo/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espirometria , Fatores de Tempo , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 9(12): e114334, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25474409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th-95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12-2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P = 0.054). CONCLUSION: Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/patologia
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