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1.
Int J Pharm ; 586: 119492, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505579

RESUMO

Poor aqueous solubility is currently a prevalent issue in the development of small molecule pharmaceuticals. Several methods are possible for improving the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II and class IV drugs. Two solid state approaches, which rely on reductions in order, and can theoretically be applied to all molecules without any specific chemical prerequisites (compared with e.g. ionizable or co-former groups, or sufficient lipophilicity), are the use of the amorphous form and nanocrystals. Research involving these two approaches is relatively extensive and commercial products are now available based on these technologies. Nevertheless, their formulation remains more challenging than with conventional dosage forms. This article describes these two technologies from both theoretical and practical perspectives by briefly discussing the physicochemical backgrounds behind these approaches, as well as the resulting practical implications, both positive and negative. Case studies demonstrating the benefits and challenges of these two techniques are presented.

2.
Anal Chem ; 92(14): 9730-9738, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544319

RESUMO

Salt formation is a well-established method to increase the solubility of ionizable drug candidates. However, possible conversion of salt to its original form of free acid or base-disproportionation-can have a drastic effect on the solubility and consequently the bioavailability of a drug. Therefore, during the salt selection process, the salt dissolution behavior should be well understood. Improved understanding could be achieved by a method that enables simultaneous screening of small sample amounts and detailed dissolution process analysis. Here, we use a machine-vision-based single-particle analysis (SPA) method to successfully determine the pH-solubility profile, intrinsic solubility, common-ion effect, pKa, pHmax, and Ksp values of three model compounds in a fast and low sample consumption (<1 mg) manner. Moreover, the SPA method enables, with a particle-scale resolution, in situ observation of the disproportionation process and its immediate effect on the morphology and solubility of dissolving species. In this study, a potentially higher energy thermodynamic solid-state form of diclofenac free acid and an intriguing conversion to liquid verapamil free base were observed upon disproportionation of the respective salts. As such, the SPA method offers a low sample consumption platform for fast yet elaborate characterization of the salt dissolution behavior.

3.
Mol Pharm ; 17(4): 1248-1260, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027513

RESUMO

The distinction between surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous pharmaceuticals, as well as the importance of surface crystallization for pharmaceutical performance, is becoming increasingly evident. An emerging strategy in stabilizing the amorphous drug form is to utilize thin coatings at the surface. While the physical stability of systems coated with pharmaceutical polymers has recently been studied, the effect on dissolution performance as a function of storage time, as a further necessary step toward the success of these formulations, has not been previously studied. Furthermore, the effect of coating thickness has not been elucidated. This study investigated the effect of these polymer-coating parameters on the interplay between amorphous surface crystallization and drug dissolution for the first time. The study utilized simple tablet-like coated dosage forms, comprising a continuous amorphous drug core and thin polymer coating (hundreds of nanometers to a micrometer thick). Monitoring included analysis of both the solid-state of the model drug (with SEM, XRD, and ATR FTIR spectroscopy) and dissolution performance (and associated morphology and solid-state changes) after different storage times. Stabilization of the amorphous form (dependent on the coating thickness) and maintenance of early-stage intrinsic dissolution rates characteristic for the unaged amorphous drug were achieved. However, dissolution in the latter stages was likely inhibited by the presence of a polymer at the surface. Overall, this study introduced a versatile coated system for studying the dissolution of thin-coated amorphous dosage forms suitable for different drugs and coating agents. It demonstrated the importance of multiple factors that need to be taken into consideration when aiming to achieve both physical stability and improved release during the shelf life of amorphous formulations.

4.
Anal Chem ; 91(11): 7411-7417, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050887

RESUMO

Amorphous materials exhibit distinct physicochemical properties compared to their respective crystalline counterparts. One of these properties, the increased solubility of amorphous materials, is exploited in the pharmaceutical industry as a way of increasing bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the increasing interest in drug amorphization, the analytical physicochemical toolbox is lacking a reliable method for direct amorphous solubility assessment. Here, we show, for the first time, a direct approach to measure the amorphous solubility of diverse drugs by combining optics with fluidics, the single particle analysis (SPA) method. Moreover, a comparison was made to a theoretical estimation based on thermal analysis and to a standardized supersaturation and precipitation method. We have found a good level of agreement between the three methods. Importantly, the SPA method allowed for the first experimental measurement of the amorphous solubility for griseofulvin, a fast crystallizing drug, without the use of a crystallization inhibitor. In conclusion, the SPA approach enables rapid and straightforward determination of the supersaturation potential for amorphous materials of less than 0.1 mg, which could prove highly beneficial in the fields of materials science, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, food science, pharmaceutical science, and others.

5.
Anal Chem ; 91(6): 3997-4003, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784269

RESUMO

Solubility is a physicochemical property highly dependent on the solid-state form of a compound. Thus, alteration of a compound's solid-state form can be undertaken to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug compounds. In the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), drugs are classified on the basis of their aqueous solubility and permeability. However, aqueous solubility does not always correlate best with in vivo solubility and consequently bioavailability. Therefore, the use of biorelevant media is a more suitable approach for mimicking in vivo conditions. Here, assessed with a novel image-based single-particle-analysis (SPA) method, we report a constant ratio of solubility increase of 3.3 ± 0.5 between the α and γ solid-state forms of indomethacin in biorelevant media. The ratio was independent of pH, ionic strength, and surfactant concentration, which all change as the drug passes through the gastrointestinal tract. On the basis of the solubility ratio, a free-energy difference between the two polymorphic forms of 2.9 kJ/mol was estimated. Lastly, the use of the SPA approach to assess solubility has proven to be simple, fast, and both solvent- and sample-sparing, making it an attractive tool for drug development.

6.
New Phytol ; 222(4): 1816-1831, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724367

RESUMO

Tree bark is a highly specialized array of tissues that plays important roles in plant protection and development. Bark tissues develop from two lateral meristems; the phellogen (cork cambium) produces the outermost stem-environment barrier called the periderm, while the vascular cambium contributes with phloem tissues. Although bark is diverse in terms of tissues, functions and species, it remains understudied at higher resolution. We dissected the stem of silver birch (Betula pendula) into eight major tissue types, and characterized these by a combined transcriptomics and metabolomics approach. We further analyzed the varying bark types within the Betulaceae family. The two meristems had a distinct contribution to the stem transcriptomic landscape. Furthermore, inter- and intraspecies analyses illustrated the unique molecular profile of the phellem. We identified multiple tissue-specific metabolic pathways, such as the mevalonate/betulin biosynthesis pathway, that displayed differential evolution within the Betulaceae. A detailed analysis of suberin and betulin biosynthesis pathways identified a set of underlying regulators and highlighted the important role of local, small-scale gene duplication events in the evolution of metabolic pathways. This work reveals the transcriptome and metabolic diversity among bark tissues and provides insights to its development and evolution, as well as its biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Betula/genética , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Betula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Câmbio/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Lipídeos/química , Meristema/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Especificidade da Espécie , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Madeira/genética
7.
Biotechnol J ; 14(4): e1800413, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350922

RESUMO

A wide variety of nanoparticles are playing an increasingly important role in drug delivery. Label-free imaging techniques are especially desirable to follow the cellular uptake and intracellular fate of nanoparticles. The combined correlative use of different techniques, each with unique advantages, facilitates more detailed investigation about such interactions. The synergistic use of correlative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and electron microscopy (C-CARS-EM) imaging offers label-free, chemically-specific, and (sub)-nanometer spatial resolution for studying nanoparticle uptake into cells as demonstrated in the current study. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy offers chemically-specific (sub)micron spatial resolution imaging without fluorescent labels while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers (sub)-nanometer scale spatial resolution and thus visualization of precise nanoparticle localization at the sub-cellular level. This proof-of-concept imaging platform with unlabeled drug nanocrystals and macrophage cells revealed good colocalization between the CARS signal and electron dense nanocrystals in TEM images. The correlative TEM images revealed subcellular localization of nanocrystals inside membrane bound vesicles, showing multivesicular body (MVB)-like morphology typical for late endosomes (LEs), endolysosomes, and phagolysosomes. C-CARS-EM imaging has much potential to study the interactions between a wide range of nanoparticles and cells with high precision and confidence.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Análise Espectral Raman
8.
Mol Pharm ; 15(11): 5361-5373, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247922

RESUMO

The tendency for crystallization during storage and administration is the most considerable hurdle for poorly water-soluble drugs formulated in the amorphous form. There is a need to better detect often subtle and complex surface crystallization phenomena and understand their influence on the critical quality attribute of dissolution. In this study, the interplay between surface crystallization of the amorphous form during storage and dissolution testing, and its influence on dissolution behavior, is analyzed for the first time with multimodal nonlinear optical imaging (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum frequency generation (SFG)). Complementary analyses are provided with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Amorphous indomethacin tablets were prepared and subjected to two different storage conditions (30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH) for various durations and then dissolution testing using a channel flow-through device. Trace levels of surface crystallinity previously imaged with nonlinear optics after 1 or 2 days of storage did not significantly decrease dissolution and supersaturation compared to the freshly prepared amorphous tablets while more extensive crystallization after longer storage times did. Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of the tablet surfaces after 15 min of dissolution revealed complex crystallization behavior that was affected by both storage condition and time, with up to four crystalline polymorphs simultaneously observed. In addition to the well-known α- and γ-forms, the less reported metastable ε- and η-forms were also observed, with the ε-form being widely observed in samples that had retained significant surface amorphousness during storage. This form was also prepared in the pure form and further characterized. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential value of nonlinear optical imaging, together with more established solid-state analysis methods, to understand complex surface crystallization behavior and its influence on drug dissolution during the development of amorphous drugs and dosage forms.


Assuntos
Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Indometacina/química , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Química Farmacêutica , Cristalização , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Comprimidos
9.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 132: 112-126, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248394

RESUMO

Co-amorphous mixtures have rarely been formulated as oral dosage forms, even though they have been shown to stabilize amorphous drugs in the solid state and enhance the dissolution properties of poorly soluble drugs. In the present study we formulated tablets consisting of either spray dried co-amorphous ibuprofen-arginine or indomethacin-arginine, mannitol or xylitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP). Experimental design was used for the selection of tablet compositions, and the effect of tablet composition on tablet characteristics was modelled. Multimodal non-linear imaging, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum frequency/second harmonic generation (SFG/SHG) microscopies, as well as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the tablets. The tablets possessed sufficient strength, but modelling produced no clear evidence about the compaction characteristics of co-amorphous salts. However, co-amorphous drug-arginine mixtures resulted in enhanced dissolution behaviour, and the PVP in the tableting mixture stabilized the supersaturation. The co-amorphous mixtures were physically stable during compaction, but the excipient selection affected the long term stability of the ibuprofen-arginine mixture. CARS and SFG/SHG proved feasible techniques in imaging the component distribution on the tablet surfaces, but possibly due to the limited imaging area, recrystallization detected with x-ray diffraction was not detected.


Assuntos
Arginina/administração & dosagem , Excipientes/química , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Indometacina/administração & dosagem , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Administração Oral , Arginina/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ibuprofeno/química , Indometacina/química , Manitol/química , Povidona/análogos & derivados , Povidona/química , Sais , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Comprimidos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Difração de Raios X , Xilitol/química
10.
Anal Chem ; 90(7): 4832-4839, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513001

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy is widely used for quantitative pharmaceutical analysis, but a common obstacle to its use is sample fluorescence masking the Raman signal. Time-gating provides an instrument-based method for rejecting fluorescence through temporal resolution of the spectral signal and allows Raman spectra of fluorescent materials to be obtained. An additional practical advantage is that analysis is possible in ambient lighting. This study assesses the efficacy of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for the quantitative measurement of fluorescent pharmaceuticals. Time-gated Raman spectroscopy with a 128 × (2) × 4 CMOS SPAD detector was applied for quantitative analysis of ternary mixtures of solid-state forms of the model drug, piroxicam (PRX). Partial least-squares (PLS) regression allowed quantification, with Raman-active time domain selection (based on visual inspection) improving performance. Model performance was further improved by using kernel-based regularized least-squares (RLS) regression with greedy feature selection in which the data use in both the Raman shift and time dimensions was statistically optimized. Overall, time-gated Raman spectroscopy, especially with optimized data analysis in both the spectral and time dimensions, shows potential for sensitive and relatively routine quantitative analysis of photoluminescent pharmaceuticals during drug development and manufacturing.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Espectral Raman , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Mol Pharm ; 15(5): 1964-1971, 2018 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584954

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical scientists are increasingly interested in amorphous drug formulations especially because of their higher dissolution rates. Consequently, the thorough characterization and analysis of these formulations are becoming more and more important for the pharmaceutical industry. Here, fluorescence-lifetime-imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to monitor the crystallization of an amorphous pharmaceutical compound, indomethacin. Initially, we identified different solid indomethacin forms, amorphous and γ- and α-crystalline, on the basis of their time-resolved fluorescence. All of the studied indomethacin forms showed biexponential decays with characteristic fluorescence lifetimes and amplitudes. Using this information, the crystallization of amorphous indomethacin upon storage in 60 °C was monitored for 10 days with FLIM. The progress of crystallization was detected as lifetime changes both in the FLIM images and in the fluorescence-decay curves extracted from the images. The fluorescence-lifetime amplitudes were used for quantitative analysis of the crystallization process. We also demonstrated that the fluorescence-lifetime distribution of the sample changed during crystallization, and when the sample was not moved between measuring times, the lifetime distribution could also be used for the analysis of the reaction kinetics. Our results clearly show that FLIM is a sensitive and nondestructive method for monitoring solid-state transformations on the surfaces of fluorescent samples.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Fluorescência , Cinética , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
12.
Int J Pharm ; 541(1-2): 188-197, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481945

RESUMO

Solid dispersions (SDs) hold a proven potential in formulating poorly water-soluble drugs. The present paper investigates the interfacial phenomena associated with the bulk powder flow, water sorption, wetting and dissolution of the SDs prepared by a modified melt and quench-cooling (QC) method. Poorly water-soluble indomethacin (IND) was QC molten with solubilizing graft copolymer (Soluplus®) or polyol sugar alcohol (xylitol, XYL). The interfacial interactions of SDs with air/water were found to be reliant on the type (amorphous/crystalline) and amount of the carrier material used. The final SDs were composed of fused agglomerates (SOL) or large jagged particles (XYL) with good wetting and powder flow properties. The initial dissolution of IND was accelerated by both carrier materials studied. The QC molten SDs with amorphous Soluplus® significantly improved the dissolution rate of IND at pH 6.8 (79.9 ±â€¯0.2% at 30 min) compared to that of pure crystalline drug. The substantial improvement in the dissolution rate of IND was in connection with the amorphous state of the drug being stabilized by Soluplus® in the QC molten SDs. However, it is evident that a strong H-bond formation between the components in some regions of the QC molten SDs can limit the dissolution of IND. The QC molten two-phase SDs with a polyol carrier (XYL) showed rapid and continuous drug release without reaching a plateau.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Indometacina/farmacocinética , Química Farmacêutica , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Excipientes/química , Indometacina/química , Transição de Fase , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polivinil/química , Pós , Solubilidade , Xilitol/química
13.
Int J Pharm ; 538(1-2): 287-295, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341910

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to study isomalt as a protein-stabilizing excipient with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during freeze-drying and subsequent storage and compare it to sucrose, a standard freeze-drying excipient. Four different diastereomer mixtures of isomalt were studied. The stability of the protein was studied with a spectrophotometric enzyme activity test and circular dichroism after freeze-drying and after 21 days of storage at 16% RH. Physical stability was analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry and Karl Fischer titration. Statistical analysis was utilized in result analysis. LDH activity was almost completely retained after freeze-drying with sucrose; whereas samples stabilized with isomalt diastereomer mixtures had a considerably lower protein activity. During storage the sucrose-containing samples lost most of their enzymatic activity, while the isomalt mixtures retained the protein activity better. In all cases changes to protein secondary structure were observed. Isomalt diastereomer mixtures have some potential as protein-stabilizing excipients during freeze-drying and subsequent storage. Isomalt stabilized LDH moderately during freeze-drying; however it performed better during storage. Future studies with other proteins are required to evaluate more generally whether isomalt would be a suitable excipient for pharmaceutical freeze-dried protein formulations.


Assuntos
Dissacarídeos/química , Excipientes/química , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/química , Sacarose/química , Álcoois Açúcares/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Liofilização , Estereoisomerismo
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 149: 343-350, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136591

RESUMO

This study considers the potential of low-frequency (terahertz) Raman spectroscopy in the quantitative analysis of ternary mixtures of solid-state forms. Direct comparison between low-frequency and mid-frequency spectral regions for quantitative analysis of crystal form mixtures, without confounding sampling and instrumental variations, is reported for the first time. Piroxicam was used as a model drug, and the low-frequency spectra of piroxicam forms ß, α2 and monohydrate are presented for the first time. These forms show clear spectral differences in both the low- and mid-frequency regions. Both spectral regions provided quantitative models suitable for predicting the mixture compositions using partial least squares regression (PLSR), but the low-frequency data gave better models, based on lower errors of prediction (2.7, 3.1 and 3.2% root-mean-square errors of prediction [RMSEP] values for the ß, α2 and monohydrate forms, respectively) than the mid-frequency data (6.3, 5.4 and 4.8%, for the ß, α2 and monohydrate forms, respectively). The better performance of low-frequency Raman analysis was attributed to larger spectral differences between the solid-state forms, combined with a higher signal-to-noise ratio.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Química Farmacêutica/instrumentação , Cristalização , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Piroxicam/química , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação
15.
Mol Pharm ; 14(12): 4675-4684, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091447

RESUMO

This study uses a multimodal analytical approach to evaluate the rates of (co)amorphization of milled drug and excipient and the effectiveness of different analytical methods in detecting these changes. Indomethacin and tryptophan were the model substances, and the analytical methods included low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (785 nm excitation and capable of measuring both low- (10 to 250 cm-1) and midfrequency (450 to 1800 cm-1) regimes, and a 830 nm system (5 to 250 cm-1)), conventional (200-3000 cm-1) Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The kinetics of amorphization were found to be faster for the mixture, and indeed, for indomethacin, only partial amorphization occurred (after 360 min of milling). Each technique was capable of identifying the transformations, but some, such as low-frequency Raman spectroscopy and XRPD, provided less ambiguous signatures than the midvibrational frequency techniques (conventional Raman and FTIR). The low-frequency Raman spectra showed intense phonon mode bands for the crystalline and cocrystalline samples that could be used as a sensitive probe of order. Multivariate analysis has been used to further interpret the spectral changes. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, which has several practical advantages over XRPD, for probing (dis-)order during pharmaceutical processing, showcasing its potential for future development, and implementation as an in-line process monitoring method.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Cristalização , Indometacina/química , Cinética , Análise Multivariada , Pós , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X/métodos
16.
Anal Chem ; 89(21): 11460-11467, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28950703

RESUMO

Two nonlinear imaging modalities, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), were successfully combined for sensitive multimodal imaging of multiple solid-state forms and their changes on drug tablet surfaces. Two imaging approaches were used and compared: (i) hyperspectral CARS combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and SFG imaging and (ii) simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging. Three different solid-state forms of indomethacin-the crystalline gamma and alpha forms, as well as the amorphous form-were clearly distinguished using both approaches. Simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging was faster, but hyperspectral CARS and SFG imaging has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of more complex samples. These methodologies were further used to follow crystallization of indomethacin on tablet surfaces under two storage conditions: 30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH. Imaging with (sub)micron resolution showed that the approach allowed detection of very early stage surface crystallization. The surfaces progressively crystallized to predominantly (but not exclusively) the gamma form at lower humidity and the alpha form at higher humidity. Overall, this study suggests that multimodal nonlinear imaging is a highly sensitive, solid-state (and chemically) specific, rapid, and versatile imaging technique for understanding and hence controlling (surface) solid-state forms and their complex changes in pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Indometacina/química , Limite de Detecção , Imagem Multimodal , Imagem Óptica , Umidade , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Int J Pharm ; 532(1): 1-12, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28870764

RESUMO

Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading to high dosage volumes and thereby challenges in the formulation of the final dosage form. As a response to the shortcomings of the ASDs, the so-called co-amorphous formulations, which are amorphous combinations of two or more low molecular weight components, have emerged as an alternative formulation strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition is needed. The current status of this research is reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the potential of novel preparation methods for co-amorphous systems with respect to the current preparation methods are discussed.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos
18.
Int J Pharm ; 523(1): 270-280, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300629

RESUMO

We have used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy as a novel and rapid, label-free and non-destructive imaging method to gain structural insights into live intestinal epithelial cell cultures used for drug permeability testing. Specifically we have imaged live Caco-2 cells in (bio)pharmaceutically relevant conditions grown on membrane inserts. Imaging conditions were optimized, including evaluation of suitable membrane materials and media solutions, as well as tolerable laser powers for non-destructive imaging of the live cells. Lipid structures, in particular lipid droplets, were imaged within the cells on the insert membranes. The size of the individual lipid droplets increased substantially over the 21-day culturing period up to approximately 10% of the volume of the cross section of individual cells. Variation in lipid content has important implications for intestinal drug permeation testing during drug development but has received limited attention to date due to a lack of suitable analytical techniques. CARS microscopy was shown to be well suited for such analysis with the potential for in situ imaging of the same individual cell-cultures that are used for permeation studies. Overall, the method may be used to provide important information about cell monolayer structure to better understand drug permeation results.


Assuntos
Células CACO-2/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Lipídeos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
19.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 97: 237-246, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890595

RESUMO

Amorphous solid dispersions (SDs) are a promising approach to improve the dissolution rate of and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. In some cases multi-phase, instead of single-phase, SD systems with amorphous drug are obtained. While it is widely assumed that one-phase amorphous systems are desirable, two-phase systems may still potentially exhibit enhanced stability and dissolution advantages over undispersed systems. The objective of the present study was to understand the solid-state properties of two-phase SDs with amorphous drug and their relation to physical stability. Two different types of excipients for SD formation were used, one being a polymer and the other a small molecule excipient. The supercooled molten SDs of a poorly water-soluble indomethacin (IND) with a graft copolymer, Soluplus® (SOL) and sugar alcohol, xylitol (XYL) were prepared. Supercooled molten SDs of IND with SOL were two-phase glassy suspension in which the amorphous drug was dispersed in an amorphous polymer matrix. A short-term aging of the SDs led to the formation of glassy suspensions where the crystalline drug was dispersed in an amorphous polymer matrix. These were physically stable at room temperature for the time period studied (RT, 23±2°C), but aging at high-humidity conditions (75% RH) recrystallization to metastable α-IND occurred. Interestingly, the SDs with XYL were two-phase amorphous precipitation systems in which the drug was in an amorphous form in the crystalline sugar alcohol matrix. The SDs of IND and XYL exhibited fast drug recrystallization. In conclusion, the preparation method of two-phase systems via co-melting in association with the rapid quench cooling is a feasible method for the formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs. The physical stability of these two-phase systems, however, is dependent on the carrier material and storage conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Indometacina/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Difração de Raios X
20.
Pharm Res ; 34(5): 957-970, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738954

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of compression on the crystallization behavior in amorphous tablets using sum frequency generation (SFG) microscopy imaging and more established analytical methods. METHOD: Tablets containing neat amorphous griseofulvin with/without excipients (silica, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were prepared. They were analyzed upon preparation and storage using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SFG microscopy. RESULTS: Compression-induced crystallization occurred predominantly on the surface of the neat amorphous griseofulvin tablets, with minimal crystallinity being detected in the core of the tablets. The presence of various types of excipients was not able to mitigate the compression-induced surface crystallization of the amorphous griseofulvin tablets. However, the excipients affected the crystallization rate of amorphous griseofulvin in the core of the tablet upon compression and storage. CONCLUSIONS: SFG microscopy can be used in combination with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SEM to understand the crystallization behaviour of amorphous tablets upon compression and storage. When selecting excipients for amorphous formulations, it is important to consider the effect of the excipients on the physical stability of the amorphous formulations.


Assuntos
Comprimidos/química , Celulose/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização/métodos , Excipientes/química , Griseofulvina/química , Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Metilcelulose/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pressão , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
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